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1.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(2): 483-492, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476341

RESUMO

To evaluate the applicability of AHC (agro-hydrological chemical and crop systems simulator) model and explore the suitable irrigation amount for peanut (Arachis hypogaea) under mulched drip irrigation in the semi-arid areas of northwestern Liaoning Province, based on the two-year field experimental data of peanut in 2016 and 2017, the model parameters were firstly chosen for global sensitivity analysis. Then, module parameters of soil moisture and crop growth were calibrated and validated. Finally, AHC model was used to analyze the responses of peanut yield and water use efficiency (WUE) to different irrigation amounts. The results showed that the two extremely sensitive parameters of the model were saturated hydraulic conductivity in the first and second layers of soil. Root mean square error (RMSE) and mean relative error (MRE) between simulated and measured values of soil water content ranged from 0.02 to 0.03 cm3·cm-3 and 1.5% to 2.3%, respectively. The RMSE and MRE of leaf area index and plant height were 0.3-0.6, 4.2-4.5 cm, and 5.0%-8.9%, 5.2%-6.8%, respectively. The MRE of peanut yield and water consumption were both within 5%, indicating that the model was suitable for simulating soil moisture and peanut growth in the northwest Liaoning Province. With the increases of irrigation amounts, peanut yield increased and water use efficiency decreased. Considering both peanut yield and WUE, we recommend that the optimal mulched drip irrigation amounts for peanut in the semi-arid areas of Northwestern Liaoning in test year (normal year) was 80-97 mm.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola , Arachis , Biomassa , China , Solo , Água
2.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(4): 1305-1313, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530206

RESUMO

A pot experiment with Huayu 25 as experimental material was conducted, with treatments of drought and salt stresses. The effects of drought and salt stresses at the flowering stage on the plant morphology, pod yield, and soil bacterial community structure in the rhizosphere were examined. The results showed that Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Saccharibacteria, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, and Acidobacteria were the dominant phyla in the rhizosphere soil of peanut. Compared with that under normal conditions, the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria dramatically decreased, while that of Cyanobacteria evidently increased in drought-treated and salt-treated soil. Moreover, the variation of Cyanobacteria abundance caused by combined drought and salt stresses was stronger than that caused by single drought or salt stress. Functional meta-genomic profiling indicated that a series of sequences related to signaling transduction, defense mechanism and post-translational modification, protein turnover, chaperones were enriched in rhizosphere soil under stressed conditions, which might have implications for plant survival and stress tolerance. Drought and salt stress affectedpeanut growth and reduced pod yield. Results from this study would present reference on the future improvement of stress tolerance of peanuts via modifying soil microbial community.


Assuntos
Arachis , Rizosfera , Secas , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
3.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 328: 108666, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454365

RESUMO

Although Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus are the main microorganisms of concern in peanuts, due to aflatoxin contamination, several Salmonella outbreaks from this product have been reported over the last ten decades. Thus, it is important to understand the relationship between microorganisms to predict, manage and estimate the diversity in the peanut supply chain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate aflatoxin production during the co-cultivation of Aspergillus section Flavi and Salmonella both isolated from peanuts. Three strains of A. section Flavi: A. flavus producing aflatoxin B, A. flavus non-producing aflatoxin and A. parasiticus producing aflatoxin B and G were co-cultivated with seven serotypes of Salmonella of which six were isolated from the peanut supply chain (S. Muenster, S. Miami, S. Glostrup, S. Javiana, S. Oranienburg and S. Yoruba) and one was S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028. First of all, each Salmonella strain was inoculated by pour plate (ca. 5 log cfu/mL) in PDA (potato dextrose agar). Then, each pre-cultured fungus was inoculated in the center of the petri dish. The plates were incubated at 30 °C and the fungal colony diameter was measured once a day for 7 days. As a control each Aspergillus strain was cultivated in the absence of Salmonella culture. All three strains of Aspergillus with absence of Salmonella (control) reached the maximum colony diameter and their growth rate was influenced when co-cultivated (p < 0.05) with all Salmonella serotypes tested. The maximum inhibition in the colony diameter was 20% for A. flavus aflatoxin B producer and A. parasiticus, and 18% for A. flavus non- aflatoxin producer when cultivated with Salmonella. However, no significant difference (p < 0.05) in reduction of colony diameter was observed among the Salmonella serotypes. Aflatoxin production was determined previously, by using the agar plug technique on thin layer chromatography (TLC). The production of aflatoxin G by A. parasiticus in co-cultivation with Salmonella was not observed. On the other hand, A. flavus preserved their characteristics of aflatoxin B production. The quantification of aflatoxin reduction by Salmonella interaction was evaluated using HPLC method. There was a maximum reduction of aflatoxin production of 88.7% and 72.9% in A. flavus and A. parasiticus, respectively, when cultivated with Salmonella. These results indicate that some serotypes of Salmonella may interfere with aflatoxin production and fungal growth of A. flavus and A. parasiticus in the peanut supply chain.


Assuntos
Antibiose/fisiologia , Arachis/microbiologia , Aspergillus flavus/metabolismo , Salmonella/metabolismo , Aflatoxina B1/análise , Aflatoxinas/análise , Aspergillus flavus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação
4.
Waste Manag ; 106: 203-212, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240937

RESUMO

This study focuses on the thermo-kinetic analysis of solid peanut shell waste, through dependence of the activation energy with the conversion degree. Three model-free kinetics, Kissinger (K), Friedman (Fr) and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS), were applied to thermogravimetric (TGA) data to calculate the effective activation energy Eα during a pyrolysis process. The results obtained by Kissinger's method showed that the pyrolytic breakdown pathway of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin in a ligno-cellulosic biomass is independent of the heating rate and can be described through a simple first-order kinetic reaction (f(α) = 1 - α). The thermo-kinetic behavior obtained by isoconversional methods (Fr and KAS) of the hemicellulose degradation shows a progressive and monotonic increase in Eα with the conversion, between ~140 and ~195 kJ mol-1 with an average value of 172 kJ mol-1, which reveals the competitive character of the process (multi-step process). Conversely, in the cellulose degradation, the dependence of Eα on α, shows the typical behavior of a reaction controlled by a single rate-determining step, with constant average Eα values of ~209 kJ mol-1. Meanwhile, the lignin pyrolytic degradation shows an increase in Eα from ~220 up to ~300 kJ mol-1 with the conversion, indicating that this stage is kinetically controlled by an energy barrier that comprises multiple and simultaneous processes. Finally, the kinetic analysis confirmed the absence of autocatalytic reactions (thermally auto-catalyzed process) during the pyrolysis, although the global process is highly exothermic.


Assuntos
Arachis , Pirólise , Biomassa , Cinética , Termogravimetria
5.
Plant Dis ; 104(5): 1390-1399, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223639

RESUMO

Late and early leaf spot, respectively caused by Nothopassalora personata and Passalora arachidicola, are damaging diseases of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) capable of defoliating canopies and reducing yield. Although one of these diseases may be more predominant in a given area, both are important on a global scale. To assist informed management decisions and quantify relationships between end-of-season defoliation and yield loss, meta-analyses were conducted over 140 datasets meeting established criteria. Slopes of proportion yield loss with increasing defoliation were estimated separately for Virginia and runner market type cultivars. Yield loss for Virginia types was described by an exponential function over the range of defoliation levels, with a loss increase of 1.2 to 2.2% relative to current loss levels per additional percent defoliation. Results for runner market type cultivars showed yield loss to linearly increase 2.2 to 2.8% per 10% increase in defoliation for levels up to approximately 95% defoliation, after which the rate of yield loss was exponential. Defoliation thresholds to prevent economic yield loss for Virginia and runner types were estimated at 40 and 50%, respectively. Although numerous factors remain important in mitigating overall yield losses, the integration of these findings should aid recommendations about digging under varying defoliation intensities and peanut maturities to assist in minimizing yield losses.


Assuntos
Arachis , Ascomicetos , Virginia
6.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 295(4): 1063-1078, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333171

RESUMO

Root-knot nematodes (RKNs, genus Meloidogyne) affect a large number of crops causing severe yield losses worldwide, more specifically in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Several plant species display high resistance levels to Meloidogyne, but a general view of the plant immune molecular responses underlying resistance to RKNs is still lacking. Combining comparative genomics with differential gene expression analysis may allow the identification of widely conserved plant genes involved in RKN resistance. To identify genes that are evolutionary conserved across plant species, we used OrthoFinder to compared the predicted proteome of 22 plant species, including important crops, spanning 214 Myr of plant evolution. Overall, we identified 35,238 protein orthogroups, of which 6,132 were evolutionarily conserved and universal to all the 22 plant species (PLAnts Common Orthogroups-PLACO). To identify host genes responsive to RKN infection, we analyzed the RNA-seq transcriptome data from RKN-resistant genotypes of a peanut wild relative (Arachis stenosperma), coffee (Coffea arabica L.), soybean (Glycine max L.), and African rice (Oryza glaberrima Steud.) challenged by Meloidogyne spp. using EdgeR and DESeq tools, and we found 2,597 (O. glaberrima), 743 (C. arabica), 665 (A. stenosperma), and 653 (G. max) differentially expressed genes (DEGs) during the resistance response to the nematode. DEGs' classification into the previously characterized 35,238 protein orthogroups allowed identifying 17 orthogroups containing at least one DEG of each resistant Arachis, coffee, soybean, and rice genotype analyzed. Orthogroups contain 364 DEGs related to signaling, secondary metabolite production, cell wall-related functions, peptide transport, transcription regulation, and plant defense, thus revealing evolutionarily conserved RKN-responsive genes. Interestingly, the 17 DEGs-containing orthogroups (belonging to the PLACO) were also universal to the 22 plant species studied, suggesting that these core genes may be involved in ancestrally conserved immune responses triggered by RKN infection. The comparative genomic approach that we used here represents a promising predictive tool for the identification of other core plant defense-related genes of broad interest that are involved in different plant-pathogen interactions.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Tylenchoidea/patogenicidade , Animais , Arachis/genética , Arachis/parasitologia , Café/genética , Café/parasitologia , Produtos Agrícolas/parasitologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genômica , Genótipo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Oryza/genética , Oryza/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Soja/genética , Soja/parasitologia , Tylenchoidea/genética
7.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 322: 108576, 2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240921

RESUMO

Aflatoxin contamination in food and feed products has been brought into sharp focus over the last few decades in the world. However, there is no effective strategy for solving the problem thus far. Therefore, basic research on the aflatoxin-producer Aspergillus flavus is an urgent need. The vital role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in signal transduction has been documented in various pathogenic fungi, but their functions in A. flavus have rarely been investigated. Herein, we characterized the detailed function of one of these MAPKs, AflSlt2. Targeted deletion of AflSlt2 gene indicates that this kinase is required for vegetative growth, conidia generation, and sclerotium formation. The analysis of AflSlt2 deletion mutant revealed hypersensitivity to cell wall-damaging chemicals and resistance against hydrogen peroxide. Interestingly, the ability of the ΔAflSlt2 mutant to generate aflatoxins in medium was significantly increased compared to wild type. However, a pathogenicity assay indicated that the ΔAflSlt2 mutant was deficient in peanut infection. Site-directed mutation study uncovered that the function of AflSlt2 was dependent on the phosphorylated residues (Thr-186 and Tyr-188) within the activation loop and the phosphotransfer residue (Lys-52) within the subdomain II. Interestingly, an autophosphorylation mutant of AflSlt2 (AflSlt2R66S) displayed wild type-like phenotypes. Bringing these observations together, we propose that Slt2-MAPK pathway is involved in development, stress response, aflatoxin biosynthesis, and pathogenicity in A. flavus. This study may be useful to unveil the regulation mechanism of aflatoxin biosynthesis and provide strategy to control A. flavus contamination.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/biossíntese , Arachis/microbiologia , Aspergillus flavus/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Aspergillus flavus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aspergillus flavus/patogenicidade , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Mutação , Transdução de Sinais , Estresse Fisiológico
8.
Bioresour Technol ; 304: 123026, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32127244

RESUMO

The potential of low-cost bioenergy recovery from peanut shell was limited for its complex cellulose structure. In order to enhance the total reducing sugar (TRS) yield for bio-H2 production, peanut shell with heat (HT, 50-100 °C) or freezing pretreatment (FT, -80 to 0 °C) under different duration (0.5-12 h) was investigated. For uncovering the enhancement mechanisms, morphological feature and crystalline structure were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The optimal pretreatment of 50 °C for 12 h was obtained with TRS yield increased 73.6%, while the H2 yield of 1.25 ml/mg-TRS was peaked with pretreatment at -80 °C. The SEM and XRD further demonstrated that mechanisms of HT and FT were realized through different ways, which were cracking and collapsing in HT, and delamination and peeling in FT, respectively.


Assuntos
Arachis , Celulose , Hidrólise , Temperatura , Difração de Raios X
10.
Phytopathology ; 110(6): 1199-1207, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32133919

RESUMO

Management of disease affecting peanut in the southeastern United States has benefited from extensive field research identifying disease-associated risk factors since the 1990s. An assessment of risk factors associated with tomato spotted wilt (TSW), caused by tomato spotted wilt virus and spread exclusively by thrips, is available to growers through Peanut Rx, a tool developed to inform peanut management decisions. Peanut Rx provides an assessment of relative TSW risk as an index. The assessment provides information about the relative degree to which a field characterized by a specified suite of practices is at risk of crop loss caused by TSW. Loss results when infection occurs, and infection rates are determined, in part, by factors outside a grower's control, primarily the abundance of dispersing, viruliferous thrips. In this study, we incorporated meteorological variables useful for predicting thrips dispersal, increasing the robustness of the Peanut Rx framework in relation to variation in the weather. We used data from field experiments and a large grower survey to estimate the relationships between weather and TSW risk mediated by thrips vectors, and developed an addition to Peanut Rx that proved informative and easy to implement. The expected temporal occurrence of major thrips flights, as a function of heat and precipitation, was translated into the existing risk-point system of Peanut Rx. Results from the grower survey further demonstrated the validity of Peanut Rx for guiding growers' decisions to minimize risk of TSW.


Assuntos
Arachis , Tospovirus , Animais , Doenças das Plantas , Medição de Risco , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos
12.
Food Chem ; 319: 126529, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199146

RESUMO

Claims in the lay literature suggest soaking nuts enhances mineral bioavailability. Research on legumes and grains indicate soaking reduces phytate levels, however, there is no evidence to support or refute these claims for nuts. We assessed the effects of different soaking regimes on phytate and mineral concentrations of whole and chopped almonds, hazelnuts, peanuts, and walnuts. The treatments were: 1. Raw; 2. soaked for 12 h in salt solution; 3. soaked for 4 h in salt solution; 4. soaked for 12 h in water. Phytate concentrations were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and minerals by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Differences in phytate concentrations between treated and untreated nuts were small, ranging from -12% to +10%. Overall, soaking resulted in lower mineral concentrations, especially for chopped nuts, and did not improve phytate:mineral molar ratios. This research does not support claims that 'activating' nuts results in greater nutrient bioavailability.


Assuntos
Arachis/química , Nozes/química , Rosanae/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Nutrientes/química , Valor Nutritivo , Ácido Fítico/química
13.
Plant Dis ; 104(4): 1096-1104, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031909

RESUMO

Tomato spotted wilt (TSW) is a common and serious disease of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV; family Tospoviridae, genus Orthotospovirus). Management frequently uses an integrated approach, with cultivar resistance and application of in-furrow insecticide as two critical components. In-furrow insecticides help suppress thrips, which can injure and stunt young growing plants and transmit TSWV, with postemergent application of acephate capable of providing additional thrips control. To examine effects of systemic insecticides (imidacloprid, imidacloprid plus fluopyram, phorate, and acephate) on TSW management, yield, and economic return across cultivar susceptibilities (susceptible, moderately susceptible, and resistant) in South Carolina, a meta-analysis was used to synthesize results from 32 studies conducted between 2009 and 2018. Although efficacy and magnitude of individual treatments varied with susceptibility, imidacloprid increased, whereas phorate generally decreased TSW incidence relative to nontreated controls. In-furrow treatments followed by acephate further reduced TSW incidence and increased profitability. All examined treatments improved yield compared with untreated peanuts except for susceptible cultivars treated with imidacloprid. Imidacloprid plus fluopyram increased yield more than imidacloprid alone for the susceptible group, although there was little difference between these treatments in association with moderately susceptible cultivars. When comparing individual applications, phorate was overall the most profitable option across susceptibilities, although imidacloprid plus fluopyram exhibited analogous profitability for susceptible cultivars. Results from this study can be used to assist producer selection of management options for TSW in peanut.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Lycopersicon esculentum , Animais , Arachis , Doenças das Plantas , South Carolina
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1091, 2020 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107388

RESUMO

IgE-mediated peanut allergic is common, often serious, and usually lifelong. Not all individuals who produce peanut-specific IgE will react upon consumption of peanut and can eat the food without adverse reactions, known as sensitized tolerance. Here, we employ high-dimensional mass cytometry to define the circulating immune cell signatures associated with sensitized tolerance and clinical allergy to peanut in the first year of life. Key features of clinical peanut allergic are increased frequency of activated B cells (CD19hiHLADRhi), overproduction of TNFα and increased frequency of peanut-specific memory CD4 T cells. Infants with sensitized tolerance display reduced frequency but hyper-responsive naive CD4 T cells and an increased frequency of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. This work demonstrates the utility and power of high-dimensional mass cytometry analysis to interrogate the cellular interactions that are associated with allergic sensitization and clinical food allergy in the first year of life.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Arachis/imunologia , Tolerância Imunológica/imunologia , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/metabolismo , Memória Imunológica , Lactente , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim/diagnóstico , Cultura Primária de Células , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
15.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 104(4): 484-488, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100059

RESUMO

Biochar is an important material for remediation of contaminated soils, however, different biochars have variable effects on bioavailability of heavy metals. This experiment revealed that peanut shell biochar (PSB) has highest reduction of 78% concentration of Pb in plant roots. The maize straw biochar (MSB) has significantly decreased Zn and Cd concentration (mg/kg dry weight) in Chinese cabbage than other treatments of biochars. The plants of Chinese cabbage have exhibited an efficient transport capability for Zn and Cd. The biochars have reduced exchangeable form of Cd/Zn, enhanced residual heavy metals, and consequently diminished accumulation of heavy metals in plants. The straw block biochar (SBB), PSB and MSB have efficiently relieved the stresses of heavy metals in plants.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Oryza/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Arachis/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Nozes/química , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Zea mays/química
16.
Food Chem ; 316: 126269, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044701

RESUMO

This study investigated the comparative effects of boiling, roasting, deep-frying methods on the content of nutritional and potentially harmful components in peanuts. After cooking, the contents of total reducing sugar, sucrose, unsaturated fatty acids and almost all individual amino acids were reduced. Free methionine disappeared after heating processing, whereas fructose, starch, cis-palmitoleic acid and saturated fatty acids were increased in processed samples. Micronutrients including flavonoids and phenolic reduced significantly after boiling process but increased after roasting process. Both of frying and roasting promoted the formation of potentially harmful components including HMF, acrylamide and furan. The overall compositional difference between samples were further displayed and identified by a combination application of HCA and PCA, which showed that the roasting and frying process had a significant impact on the nutritional composition of peanuts.


Assuntos
Arachis/química , Culinária/métodos , Carboidratos/química , Temperatura Alta , Lipídeos/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química
17.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 124(5): 459-465, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001367

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Peanut allergy has historically been difficult to manage, with most cases persisting into adulthood. Novel therapies for peanut allergy treatment are on the horizon, yet allergists must maintain a robust understanding of the risks and benefits of the current standard of therapy, avoidance diet. DATA SOURCES: A comprehensive literature search using PubMed of reviews and clinical articles was performed. STUDY SELECTIONS: Articles discussing peanut or other food-related allergic reactions, accidental exposures or anaphylaxis pertinent to avoidance diet or comparative to oral immunotherapy trials were selected. RESULTS: Peanut remains a leading allergen associated with accidental ingestions responsible for food-related reactions, both mild and severe. Fatal reactions, however, are rare and measures such as anaphylaxis plans can significantly decrease the risk of accidental anaphylaxis. Patients may over estimate situations thought to increase risk for reactions to peanut, such as inhalation or contact through skin. In oral immunotherapy trials, the rate of anaphylaxis secondary to treatment was significantly higher than avoidance practices. CONCLUSION: Clinicians should continue to discuss avoidance as a viable option for long-term peanut allergy management and empower patients to differentiate relevant situations in which accidental reactions might occur.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia/prevenção & controle , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim/dietoterapia , Alérgenos/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Plantas/imunologia , Arachis/imunologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Dietoterapia , Epinefrina/administração & dosagem , Humanos
19.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0219413, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899920

RESUMO

Seed dormancy and germination are the two important traits related to plant survival, reproduction and crop yield. To understand the regulatory mechanisms of these traits, it is crucial to clarify which genes or pathways participate in the regulation of these processes. However, little information is available on seed dormancy and germination in peanut. In this study, seeds of the variety Luhua No.14, which undergoes nondeep dormancy, were selected, and their transcriptional changes at three different developmental stages, the freshly harvested seed (FS), the after-ripening seed (DS) and the newly germinated seed (GS) stages, were investigated by comparative transcriptomic analysis. The results showed that genes with increased transcription in the DS vs FS comparison were overrepresented for oxidative phosphorylation, the glycolysis pathway and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, suggesting that after a period of dry storage, the intermediates stored in the dry seeds were rapidly mobilized by glycolysis, the TCA cycle, the glyoxylate cycle, etc.; the electron transport chain accompanied by respiration was reactivated to provide ATP for the mobilization of other reserves and for seed germination. In the GS vs DS pairwise comparison, dozens of the upregulated genes were related to plant hormone biosynthesis and signal transduction, including the majority of components involved in the auxin signal pathway, brassinosteroid biosynthesis and signal transduction as well as some GA and ABA signal transduction genes. During seed germination, the expression of some EXPANSIN and XYLOGLUCAN ENDOTRANSGLYCOSYLASE genes was also significantly enhanced. To investigate the effects of different hormones during seed germination, the contents and differential distribution of ABA, GAs, BRs and IAA in the cotyledons, hypocotyls and radicles, and plumules of three seed sections at different developmental stages were also investigated. Combined with previous data in other species, it was suggested that the coordination of multiple hormone signal transduction nets plays a key role in radicle protrusion and seed germination.


Assuntos
Arachis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Germinação/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sementes/genética , Transcriptoma , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/biossíntese , Arachis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arachis/metabolismo , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico/genética , Ontologia Genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Glicólise/genética , Glicosiltransferases/genética , Glicosiltransferases/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Dormência de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 707: 136024, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972909

RESUMO

Biochars have drawn wide attention as adsorbents, carbon sequesters and soil re-mediators. However, these substances are ambiguous regarding their effects on the motility, phenotypic changes and potential adaptative mechanisms of soil organisms. This study investigated how peanut shell biochar (PBC) affects the C. elegans model via a one-choice selection test and RNA-seq analysis. The results showed that C. elegans were able to select either PBC or a water control, and a clear preference for PBC was observed after 48 h of exposure, with the chemotaxis index (CI) reaching approximately 1.0. The nematode preferences for PBC vs sterile PBC/graphite were not significant, which demonstrated that initial microorganisms and appearances were not the reasons for the worms' selection, but the selection behaviour was instead determined by volatile odours. The treatments also showed that biochar amendment significantly decreased the body length, brood size and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of C. elegans to 960.20 ± 15.23 µm, 173.22 ± 4.56, 165.81 ± 3.82 U/mL SOD, respectively. Then, a possible molecular mechanism of PBC-induced developmental and reproductive effects on C. elegans was explored. Differential gene expression analysis was performed, and 1625 genes (1425 up- and 225 downregulated genes) were regulated in response to PBC treatment. The top 20 regulated genes were col genes (col-129; col-81; col-139; col-71), bli-6, perm-4 and his-24, which indicated that cuticle collagen synthesis, eggshell formation and/or heterochromatin in postembryonic growth may be disrupted following exposure to PBC. Therefore, our study suggested that quality standards be used to test nematode preferences and responses to biochar amendment, with the aim of safe application in soils, seedling substrates or fertilizers.


Assuntos
Arachis , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Carvão Vegetal , Transcriptoma , Animais , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental
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