Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 523
Filtrar
1.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(9): 1833-1847, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33201847

RESUMO

Increasing agricultural irrigation to counteract a soil moisture deficit has resulted in the production of hazardous agricultural wastewater with high turbidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD). An innovative, sustainable, and effective solution is needed to overcome the pollution and water scarcity issues caused by the agricultural anthropogenic processes. This research focused on a sustainable solution that utilized a waste (broken lentil) as natural coagulant for turbidity and COD removal in agricultural wastewater treatment. The efficiency of the lentil extract (LE), grafted lentil extract (LE-g-DMC) and aluminium sulphate (alum) coagulants was optimized through the response surface methodology. Three-level Box-Behnken design was used to statistically visualize the complex interactions of pH, concentration of coagulants and settling time. LE achieved a significant 99.55% and 79.87% removal of turbidity and COD at pH 4, 88.46 mg/L of LE and 6.9 minutes of settling time, whereas LE-g-DMC achieved 99.83% and 80.32% removal of turbidity and COD at pH 6.7, 63.08 mg/L of LE-g-DMC and 5 minutes of settling time. As compared to alum, LE-g-DMC required approximately 30% less concentration. Moreover, LE and LE-g-DMC also required 75% and 65% less settling time as compared to the alum. Both LE and LE-g-DMC produced flocs with excellent settling ability (5.77 mg/L and 4.48 mL/g) and produced a significant less volume of sludge (10.60 mL/L and 8.23 mL/L) as compared with the alum. The economic analysis and assessments have proven the feasibility of both lentil-based coagulants in agricultural wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Lens (Planta) , Purificação da Água , Compostos de Alúmen , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias
2.
Plant Genome ; 13(1): e20002, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016638

RESUMO

Genomic selection (GS) is a marker-based selection initially suggested for livestock breeding and is being encouraged for crop breeding. Several statistical models are used to implement GS; however, none have been tested for use in lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) breeding. This study was conducted to compare the accuracy of different GS models and prediction scenarios based on empirical data and to make recommendations for designing genomic selection strategies for lentil breeding. We evaluated nine single-trait (ST) models, two multiple-trait (MT) models, and a model that incorporates genotype × environment interaction (GEI) using populations from a lentil diversity panel and two recombinant inbred lines (RILs). The lines in all populations were phenotyped for five phenological traits and genotyped using a custom exome capture assay. Within-population, across-population, and across-environment genomic predictions were made. Prediction accuracy varied among the evaluated models, populations, prediction scenarios, and traits. Single-trait models showed similar accuracy in the absence of large effect quantitative trait loci (QTL) but BayesB outperformed all models when there were QTL with relatively large effects. Models that accounted for GEI and MT-GS models increased prediction accuracy for a low heritability trait by up to 66 and 14%, respectively. Moderate to high accuracies were obtained for within-population (range of .36-.85) and across-environment (range of .19-.89) predictions but across-population prediction accuracy was very low. Results suggest that GS can be implemented in lentil breeding to make predictions within populations and across environments, but across-population prediction should not be considered when the population size is small.


Assuntos
Lens (Planta) , Cruzamento , Genômica , Lens (Planta)/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Seleção Genética
3.
J Anim Sci ; 98(8)2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770217

RESUMO

This study adapted the established glycemic index (GI) methodology used in human research to perform two studies in sled dogs in order to assess the blood glucose-raising potential of pulse-based dog foods. The first was a pilot study (n = 6 dogs) to determine the GI of single starch sources (white bread, cooked white rice, and cooked green lentils) using a glucose solution as control. Next, the effect on glycemic and insulinemic meal responses and GI of commercial extruded dog foods containing different categories of starch sources (traditional grain, whole grain, grain-free, and vegan) were investigated on 11 dogs using a glucose control. Results were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Consumption of 10 g of available carbohydrate (Av CHO) was insufficient to elicit a measurable response in blood glucose for GI determination, and as such, the amount was increased to 25 g for the second study. The GI (±SE) of the single starch sources and dog foods was: white bread: 47 ± 11, cooked white rice: 71 ± 14, cooked green lentils: 60 ± 20 (P = 0.569), traditional grain: 83 ± 17, whole grain: 56 ± 8, grain-free: 41 ± 6, and vegan: 65 ± 15 (P = 0.154). No statistical differences in glycemic response over time were observed between the single starch sources or the extruded diets tested (P = 0.1412; P = 0.2651). The insulinemic response elicited by the extruded diets was also not different (P = 0.079); however, the traditional grain diet did have the slowest time to peak for insulin (P = 0.0078). Among single starch sources and extruded dog foods, there were no differences in the glycemic indices measured in this study. The GI methodology has not been validated for use in canine species, and it is likely that our results were due to higher interindividual variation or inadequate study power. Regardless, this study will serve to better define future studies to investigate the potential physiological benefits of low GI foods for dogs.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Cães/fisiologia , Insulina/sangue , Amido/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Grão Comestível , Feminino , Índice Glicêmico , Humanos , Lens (Planta) , Masculino , Oryza , Projetos Piloto , Triticum
4.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232425, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365065

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of incorporating different legume flours (faba bean, lentil or split pea flours) on the pasta protein network and its repercussion on in vitro protein digestibility, in comparison with reference dairy proteins. Kinetics and yields of protein hydrolysis in legume enriched pasta and, for the first time, the peptidomes generated by the pasta at the end of the in vitro gastric and intestinal phases of digestion are presented. Three isoproteic (21%) legume enriched pasta with balanced essential amino acids, were made from wheat semolina and 62% to 79% of legume flours (faba bean or F-pasta; lentil or L-pasta and split pea or P-pasta). Pasta were prepared following the conventional pastification steps (hydration, mixing, extrusion, drying, cooking). Amino acid composition and protein network structure of the pasta were determined along with their culinary and rheological properties and residual trypsin inhibitor activity (3-5% of the activity initially present in raw legume flour). F- and L-pasta had contrasted firmness and proportion of covalently linked proteins. F-pasta had a generally weaker protein network and matrix structure, however far from the weakly linked soluble milk proteins (SMP) and casein proteins, which in addition contained no antitrypsin inhibitors and more theoretical cleavage sites for digestive enzymes. The differences in protein network reticulation between the different pasta and between pasta and dairy proteins were in agreement in each kinetic phase with the yield of the in vitro protein hydrolysis, which reached 84% for SMP, and 66% for casein at the end of intestinal phase, versus 50% for L- and P-pasta and 58% for F-pasta. The peptidome of legume enriched pasta is described for the first time and compared with the peptidome of dairy proteins for each phase of digestion. The gastric and intestinal phases were important stages of peptide differentiation between legumes and wheat. However, peptidome analysis revealed no difference in wheat-derived peptides in the three pasta diets regardless of the digestion phase, indicating that there was a low covalent interaction between wheat gluten and legume proteins.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/química , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacocinética , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacocinética , Animais , Culinária , Digestão/fisiologia , Fabaceae/química , Farinha/análise , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Humanos , Hidrólise , Técnicas In Vitro , Cinética , Lens (Planta)/química , Proteínas do Leite/química , Proteínas do Leite/farmacocinética , Valor Nutritivo , Ervilhas/química , Agregados Proteicos , Triticum/química , Vicia faba/química
5.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231377, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298316

RESUMO

Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) is a cool-season pulse grown in winter cropping cycle in South Asia and provides a major source of nutrition for many low-income households. Lentil productivity is perceived to be sensitive to high rainfall, but few studies document spatial and temporal patterns of yield variation across climate, soil, and agronomic gradients. Using farm survey data from Nepal, this study characterizes patterns of lentil productivity and efficiency for two cropping seasons. Additional insights were derived from on-farm trials conducted over a 5-year period that assess agronomic, drainage, and cultivar interventions. To contextualize the inferences derived from farm surveys and trials, the Stempedia model was used to simulate the severity of Stemphylium blight (Stemphylium botryosum) risk-the principal fungal disease in lentil-with 30 years of historical climate data. Although development efforts in Nepal have prioritized pulse intensification, results confirm that lentil remains a risky enterprise highlighting the prevalence of crop failures (16%), modest yields (353 kg ha-1), and low levels of profitability (US$ 33 ha-1) in wet winters. Nevertheless, site factors such as drainage class influence responses with upland sites performing well in wet winters and lowland sites performing well in dry winters. In wet winters, a phenomena perceived to be increasing, 76% of surveyed farmers reported significant disease pressure and simulations with Stempedia predict that conditions favoring Stemphylium occur in >60% of all years. Nevertheless, simulation results also suggest that these risks can be addressed through earlier planting. Based on the combined results, gains in yield, yield stability, and technical efficiency can be enhanced in western Nepal by: 1) ensuring timely lentil planting to mitigate climate-mediated disease risk, 2) evaluating new lentil lines that may provide enhanced resistance to diseases and waterlogging, and 3) encouraging the emergence of mechanization solutions to overcome labor bottlenecks.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Clima , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lens (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Simulação por Computador , Produção Agrícola/normas , Nepal
6.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229554, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126106

RESUMO

Domesticated lentil has a relatively narrow genetic base globally and most released varieties are susceptible to severe biotic and abiotic stresses. The crop wild relatives could provide new traits of interest for tailoring novel germplasm and cultivated lentil improvement. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate wild lentil accessions for identification of economically viable agro-morphological traits and resistance against major biotic stresses. The study has revealed substantial variations in seed yield and its important component characters. Further, the diversity analysis of wild accessions showed two major clusters which were bifurcated into sub-clusters, thereby suggesting their wider genetic divergence. However, principal component analysis exhibited that seed yield plant-1, number of seeds plant-1, number of pods plant-1, harvest index and biological yield plant-1 contributed significantly to the total genetic variation assessed in wild lentil taxa. Moreover, some of the wild accessions collected from Syria and Turkey regions showed resistance against more than one disease indicating rich diversity of lentil genetic resources. The identification of most promising genotypes carrying resistance against major biotic stresses could be utilized in the cultivated or susceptible varieties of lentil for enhancing genetic gains. The study has also identified some trait specific accessions, which could also be taken into the consideration while planning distant hybridization in lentil.


Assuntos
Lens (Planta)/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Variação Genética , Genoma de Planta , Lens (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lens (Planta)/microbiologia , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Análise de Componente Principal , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Síria , Turquia
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3959, 2020 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32127558

RESUMO

The importance of graft copolymerization in the field of polymer science is analogous to the importance of alloying in the field of metals. This is attribute to the ability of the grafting method to regulate the properties of polymer 'tailor-made' according to specific needs. This paper described a novel plant-based coagulant, LE-g-DMC that synthesized through grafting of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (DMC) onto the backbone of the lentil extract. The grafting process was optimized through the response surface methodology (RSM) using three-level Box-Behnken Design (BBD). Under optimum conditions, a promising grafting percentage of 120% was achieved. Besides, characterization study including SEM, zeta potential, TGA, FTIR and EDX were used to confirm the grafting of the DMC monomer chain onto the backbone of lentil extract. The grafted coagulant, LE-g-DMC outperformed lentil extract and alum in turbidity reduction and effective across a wide range of pH from pH 4 to pH 10. Besides, the use of LE-g-DMC as coagulant produced flocs with excellent settling ability (5.09 mL/g) and produced the least amount of sludge. Therefore, from an application and economic point of views, LE-g-DMC was superior to native lentil extract coagulant and commercial chemical coagulant, alum.


Assuntos
Lens (Planta)/química , Micro-Ondas , Extratos Vegetais/química , Compostos de Trimetil Amônio/química , Modelos Teóricos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
8.
Mutat Res ; 849: 503142, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087856

RESUMO

E171 (titanium dioxide, TiO2), an authorized foods and beverage additive, is also used in food packaging and in pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations. E171 is considered to be an inert and non-digestible material, not storable in animal tissues, but the possible presence of TiO2 nanoparticles (NP) may present a risk to human health and the environment. We determined the presence of 15% TiO2 NP in a commercial E171 food additive product, by electron microscopy. The biological effects of E171 were assessed in Lens culinaris and Allium cepa for the following endpoints: percentage of germination, root elongation, mitotic index, presence of chromosomal abnormalities, and micronuclei. The results indicated low phytotoxicity but dose-dependent genotoxicity. We also observed internalization of TiO2 NP and ultrastructural alterations in the root systems.


Assuntos
Aditivos Alimentares/toxicidade , Lens (Planta)/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Cebolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Titânio/toxicidade , Animais , Aberrações Cromossômicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lens (Planta)/metabolismo , Lens (Planta)/ultraestrutura , Micronúcleos com Defeito Cromossômico , Microscopia Eletrônica , Índice Mitótico/estatística & dados numéricos , Cebolas/metabolismo , Cebolas/ultraestrutura , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/ultraestrutura
9.
Chemosphere ; 249: 126193, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086064

RESUMO

Propanil can produce methemoglobinemia, hemolytic anemia, hepatotoxicity, metabolic disorder and nephrotoxicity. It also has a genotoxic effect, although it is not listed as a carcinogen and it continues to be applied excessively throughout the world. Consequently, in this study the cytogenotoxic effect of propanil was evaluated, using apical root cells of Allium cepa and Lens culinaris. In which, L. culinaris seeds and A. cepa bulbs were subjected to 6 treatments with propanil (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 mg L-1) and to distilled water as control treatment. Subsequently, the root growth was measured every 24 h for 3 days. Next, the mitotic index and cellular anomalies were determined. Whereby, decreased root development was observed in all treatments. Likewise, greater inhibition of mitosis was evidenced in L. culinaris compared to A. cepa. In addition, chromosomal abnormalities, such as nucleus absence, sticky chromosomes in metaphase and binucleated cells, were present in most of the treatments. Thus, the presence of micronuclei and the results of L. culinaris, indicate the high cytogenotoxicity of propanil and the feasibility of this species as bioindicator.


Assuntos
Herbicidas/toxicidade , Lens (Planta)/efeitos dos fármacos , Cebolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Propanil/toxicidade , Allium , Núcleo Celular , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Dano ao DNA , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Mitose , Índice Mitótico , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade
10.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 96(3)2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020182

RESUMO

In total 196 bacterial isolates were obtained from root nodules of lentil (Lens culinaris) and faba bean (Vicia faba) grown on soil samples collected from 10 different sites in central and southern parts of Ethiopia. All isolates were identified as members of the genus Rhizobium by using recA gene sequence analysis. In the recA phylogenetic tree 195 rhizobial strains were classified into nine genospecies. The phylogeny of symbiotic genes nodC and nifH revealed five and six distinct groups respectively, largely dominated by symbiovar viciae. A multivariate analysis showed that environmental variables of the sampling sites considered in this study had more effect on the distribution and composition of the genospecies than the host legumes of the strains. Twenty representative strains, selected based on their isolation site, host plant and nodC group, were able to nodulate all lentil, faba bean, field pea (Pisum abyssinicum) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) plants in a greenhouse test in axenic conditions. The majority of the rhizobial strains were effective nitrogen-fixing symbionts for all tested legumes, indicating their potential to serve as broad host-range inoculants in agriculture. The present work suggests the presence of taxonomically and symbiotically diverse rhizobial species for legumes in the Viciae tribe in Ethiopia.


Assuntos
Lens (Planta) , Rhizobium , Vicia faba , DNA Bacteriano , Etiópia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rhizobium/genética , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Solo , Simbiose
11.
Food Chem ; 315: 126202, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028197

RESUMO

The identification and quantification of soluble- and insoluble-bound phenolics in lentil hulls were studied using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn and their antioxidant potential determined using DPPH radical scavenging ability (DRSA), reducing power (RP), and hydroxyl radical scavenging ability (HRSA) assays to test their electron and hydrogen donating abilities. A number of soluble phenolics such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins were found, which lead to the remarkable antioxidant potential as reflected in DRSA, RP, and HRSA. Meanwhile, insoluble-bound phenolics displayed a relatively lower number of peaks and contents than their corresponding soluble phenolics, leading to a lower antioxidant potential than that of soluble phenolics. Moreover, dihydrokaempferol dimer and carboxylated kaempferol diglucoside were identified for the first time in the insoluble-bound form in lentils. This study offers important data for the identification of phenolic compounds derived from lentils and their antioxidant potential.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Lens (Planta)/química , Fenóis/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Antioxidantes/química , Flavonoides/análise , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/análise , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Radical Hidroxila/química , Proantocianidinas/análise , Sementes/química , Solubilidade , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
12.
J Food Sci ; 85(2): 316-323, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968398

RESUMO

This work proposes a novel approach based on the real-time monitoring of the fining process of apple juices by static multiple light scattering. The change in transmission was used to determine the fining effectiveness of three vegetable proteins, respectively, red lentil, green lentil, and green pea proteins. Further treatment with gelatin-bentonite was used as a control. The modified Gompertz function was applied to fit the transmission signals. According to (1) the rate of flocculation and (2) the rate of sedimentation, the best fining efficiency was achieved by red lentil, which was similar to that of gelatin-bentonite and higher than green lentil and green pea proteins. This ranking was obtained at any dose from 60 to 900 mg per liter of juice. The results suggest the use of red lentil as a potential fining agent for apple juices and highlight the advantages of using static multiple light scattering technique as a quality control tool for studying the kinetics of the fining process. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The study proposed the use of vegetable proteins as fining agents for apple juices. Their efficiency was ably monitored in real time by static multiple light scattering.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Malus/química , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Lens (Planta)/química , Ervilhas/química
13.
Food Chem ; 315: 126175, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991254

RESUMO

The food industry is increasingly innovating and applying new processing technologies and ingredients to develop novel food products that meet the consumers' demand. In this study, the effect of extrusion (at 140 °C and 160 °C) was evaluated in different lentil flours formulations enriched with nutritional yeast, in terms of α-galactosides (raffinose, stachyose, verbascose), inositol phosphates (IPs), trypsin inhibitors and lectins content. The content of α-galactosides and IPs was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) was evaluated using a small-scale quantitative assay. The lectin content was analyzed using a haemagglutination assay and a Competitive Indirect Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Extrusion promoted a significant increase, up to 85% in total α-galactosides content. After extrusion, IPs content was significantly decreased and TIA as well as lectins content had a reduction higher than 90%. Extrusion demonstrated to have a beneficial effect by increasing desirable prebiotic compounds and decreasing non-nutritional factors.


Assuntos
Farinha/análise , Alimentos Formulados/análise , Lens (Planta)/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Fermento Seco/química , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Galactosídeos/análise , Testes de Hemaglutinação , Fosfatos de Inositol/análise , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Ratos , Inibidores da Tripsina/análise
14.
Food Chem ; 314: 126184, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954939

RESUMO

In this study, pulse protein isolates (PPIs) were extracted from 0, 1, 3, and 5 days germinated chickpea, lentil, and yellow pea flours by alkaline extraction-isoelectric precipitation method. The germination time had negligible impact on the proximate composition of PPIs. In total, 67 volatiles in PPIs were identified via HS-SPME-GC-MS/O. Among all the identified volatile components, seven of them, including hexanal (11), (E)-2-octen-1-ol (7), (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal (17), 3-octen-2-one (33), 3,5-octadien-2-one (34), 2-methoxy-3-isopropylpyrazine (56), and 2-methoxy-3-(1-methylpropyl)pyrazine (57), contributed to the beany-related odor of PPIs but much less than that in raw flours. However, the overall beany-related odor of PPIs increased when the germination time exceeded 1 day. Both the activity of lipoxygenase and the free radical populations in PPIs were positively related to the overall beany-related odor. Our findings are crucial for the preparation of germinated pulse proteins with improved functionality but without increasing undesirable odor.


Assuntos
Cicer/química , Lens (Planta)/química , Odorantes/análise , Ervilhas/química , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/isolamento & purificação , Cicer/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Farinha/análise , Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Germinação , Humanos , Lens (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Ervilhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(1): 106-116, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841325

RESUMO

In vitro colonic fermentation of saponin-rich extracts from quinoa, lentil, and fenugreek was performed. Production of sapogenins by human fecal microbiota and the impact of extracts on representative intestinal bacterial groups were evaluated. The main sapogenins were found after fermentation (soyasapogenol B for lentil; oleanolic acid, hederagenin, phytolaccagenic acid, and serjanic acid for quinoa; and sarsasapogenin, diosgenin, and neotigogenin acetate for fenugreek). Interindividual differences were observed, but the highest production of sapogenins corresponded to quinoa (90 µg/mL) and fenugreek (70 µg/mL) extracts, being minor for lentil (4 µg/mL). Lentil and quinoa extracts showed a general antimicrobial effect, mainly on lactic acid bacteria and Lactobacillus spp. Significant increases of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. were observed for fenugreek in one volunteer. Thus, the transformation of saponin-rich extracts of quinoa, lentil, and fenugreek to sapogenins by human gut microbiota is demonstrated, exhibiting a modulatory effect on the growth of selected intestinal bacteria.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Chenopodium quinoa/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Sapogeninas/metabolismo , Saponinas/metabolismo , Trigonella/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Colo/metabolismo , Fermentação , Humanos , Lens (Planta)/metabolismo
16.
Environ Pollut ; 258: 113544, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859126

RESUMO

Gradual contamination of agricultural land with copper (Cu), due to the indiscriminate uses of fungicides and pesticides, and the discharge of industrial waste to the environment, poses a high threat for soil degradation and consequently food crop production. In this study, we combined morphological, physiological and biochemical assays to investigate the mechanisms underlying acetate-mediated Cu toxicity tolerance in lentil. Results demonstrated that high dose of Cu (3.0 mM CuSO4. 5H2O) reduced seedling growth and chlorophyll content, while augmenting Cu contents in both roots and shoots, and increasing oxidative damage in lentil plants through disruption of the antioxidant defense. Principle component analysis clearly indicated that Cu accumulation and increased oxidative damage were the key factors for Cu toxicity in lentil seedlings. However, acetate pretreatment reduced Cu accumulation in roots and shoots, increased proline content and improved the responses of antioxidant defense (e.g. increased catalase and glutathione-S-transferase activities, and improved action of glutathione-ascorbate metabolic pathway). As a result, excess Cu-induced oxidative damage was reduced, and seedling growth was improved under Cu stress conditions, indicating the role of acetate in alleviating Cu toxicity in lentil seedlings. Taken together, exogenous acetate application reduced Cu accumulation in lentil roots and shoots and mitigated oxidative damage by activating the antioxidant defense, which were the major determinants for alleviating Cu toxicity in lentil seedlings. Our findings provide mechanistic insights into the protective roles of acetate in mitigating Cu toxicity in lentil, and suggest that application of acetate could be a novel and economical strategy for the management of heavy metal toxicity and accumulation in crops.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Cobre/metabolismo , Cobre/farmacologia , Homeostase/fisiologia , Lens (Planta)/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetatos , Clorofila/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Lens (Planta)/efeitos dos fármacos , Lens (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Oxidativo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal
17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 144: 770-780, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730953

RESUMO

In the present study, Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) decorated with two different nanoparticles namely tungsten disulfide (WS2) and tin oxide (SnO2), nanocomposites (NCs) were synthesized via hydrothermal method. Spectroscopic studies showed that both synthesized NCs possess nearly same functional groups but MWCNT-SnO2 NCs are rich in O-functional group. Microscopic studies revealed that both NCs have different morphological microstructure. Lens culinaris ß-galactosidase (Lcß-gal) was immobilized using glutaraldehyde cross-linker resulted in immobilization efficiency of 91.5% and 88% with MWCNT-WS2 and MWCNT-SnO2 NCs, respectively. Remarkable increase in rate of hydrolysis of whey lactose has been observed with both NCs i.e. Lcß-gal immobilized MWCNT-WS2 hydrolyzes the 97% whey lactose in 1.5 h while MWCNT-SnO2 showed maximum 92% of whey hydrolysis in 2 h at optimum conditions. Both nanobiocatalyst could serve as a promising candidates for dairy industries and would offer a potential platform for enzyme based biosensor fabrication.


Assuntos
Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Galactosidases/química , Lactose/análise , Lens (Planta)/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanocompostos/química , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Animais , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Catálise , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/química , Dissulfetos/química , Glutaral/química , Hidrólise , Cinética , Camundongos , Propriedades de Superfície , Compostos de Estanho/química , Compostos de Tungstênio/química , Soro do Leite/química
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 701: 134992, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715484

RESUMO

The present investigation was designed to monitor the cytotoxic potential of Sodium Hypochlorite using lentil (Lens culinaris) as a bioindicator of toxicity. Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), is a chemical compound that is used mainly for its disinfectant properties, its effect is widely toxic, which is why it is marketed in low concentrations and it is also a component in various products such as agrochemicals. In the present study the L. culinaris seeds were exposed to different NaClO dose 0, 0.2, 1, 3, 5 and 7 mg L-1 during 24, 48 and 72 h; timeslots in which the root growth was also studied. The cytotoxic potential of NaClO was determined by calculating the mitotic index (MI), calculating cellular anomalies (CA) and observing the longitudinal growth of the roots during the various time periods. The radicular growth was prolonged and it was observed that there was a greater growth at the dose of 1 and 7 mg L-1 in the time of 72 h. The cytotoxic effects could be analyzed in the mitotic index, since the higher the concentration, the lower the mitotic index, as observed in the dose of 7 mg L-1 where a reduction of the mitotic index of the meristematic cells is observed. The results indicate that NaClO has a cytotoxic effect that induces various types of chromosomal abnormalities. This indicates that Sodium Hypochlorite has a cytotoxic effect according to the increase in its dose. Therefore, Lens culinaris turned out to be a kind of appropriate bioindicator to study the cytotoxic effects of various potentially toxic substances.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Lens (Planta)/efeitos dos fármacos , Meristema/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoclorito de Sódio/toxicidade
19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 144: 760-769, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760001

RESUMO

The ability of high-pressure homogenization (HPH) to modify the functional, structural and rheological properties of lentil protein isolate (LPI) suspensions were investigated. Protein patterns remained unchanged with HPH treatment. Particle size significantly decreased up to 100 MPa treatment and size distribution was mono-modal after 50 MPa. Microstructural images revealed that increasing pressure from 50 to 150 MPa caused further unfolding of protein particles, which well supported to water solubility, emulsifying, foaming and particle size results. LPI suspensions had shear thinning behavior and results were well fitted to Ostwald de-Waele model (R2 ≥ 0.989). Apparent viscosity and homogenization pressure were modeled with exponential and sigmoidal functions (R2 ≥ 0.983). However, weak gel-like structure was observed from all samples due to G' > G″, and higher homogenization pressures than 50 MPa caused more pronounced gelation after 51.78 °C. These results stated that HPH treatment has a good potential to modify the functional, structural and rheological properties of LPI suspensions.


Assuntos
Lens (Planta)/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Emulsões/química , Hidrogéis/química , Modelos Químicos , Tamanho da Partícula , Pressão , Conformação Proteica , Desdobramento de Proteína , Reologia , Resistência ao Cisalhamento , Solubilidade , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Suspensões/química , Fatores de Tempo , Viscosidade , Água
20.
Anal Sci ; 36(3): 317-322, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631101

RESUMO

In this study, amino groups were directly coated on reduced graphene oxide sheets and applied for the extraction of cadmium(II) ions from well water, aqueduct (water coming from mountain), lentils and rice prior to measurements by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The properties of the adsorbent were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and a vibrating sample magnetometer. Some parameters related to the adsorption and desorption stages were optimized. After preconcentration, the linear determination range of cadmium(II) was 0.5 - 40 µg L-1. The limit of quantification, relative standard deviation and preconcentration factor were obtained as 0.5 µg L-1, 0.39 - 2.18% and 100, respectively.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Grafite/química , Lens (Planta) , Limite de Detecção , Oryza
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...