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1.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 135: 110949, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751643

RESUMO

In 2015, the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) initiated a program for the re-evaluation of the safety of over 250 natural flavor complexes (NFCs) used as flavor ingredients. This publication, third in the series, considers NFCs composed primarily of constituents with the 3-phenyl-2-propenyl or a cinnamyl functional group, using the procedure outlined in 2005 and updated in 2018 to evaluate the safety of naturally-occurring mixtures for their intended use as flavor ingredients. The procedure relies on a complete chemical characterization of the NFC intended for commerce and organization of each NFC's chemical constituents into well-defined congeneric groups. The safety of the NFC is evaluated using the well-established and conservative threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) concept in addition to data on absorption, metabolism and toxicology of members of the congeneric groups and the NFC under evaluation. Six NFCs from the Myroxylon and Cinnamomum genera, Balsam Oil, Peru (FEMA 2117), Tolu Balsam Extract (FEMA 3069), Cassia Bark Extract (FEMA 2257), Cassia Bark Oil (FEMA 2258), Cinnamon Bark Extract (FEMA 2290) and Cinnamon Bark Oil (FEMA 2291) were evaluated and affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) under their conditions of intended use as flavor ingredients.


Assuntos
Cinnamomum/química , Aromatizantes/toxicidade , Myroxylon/química , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Aromatizantes/química , Humanos , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado , Óleos Voláteis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Medição de Risco
2.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(2): e20180204, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038534

RESUMO

This study evaluated the antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant effect of 7-hydroxy-4',6-dimethoxy-isoflavone and essential oil of Myroxylon peruiferum. The compound was isolated and its structure elucidated by NMR. The chemical composition of essential oil determined by GC-MS analysis. To evaluation of antimicrobial activity, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) were performed. In addition to analysis of antioxidant activity, DPPH radical scavenging tests, iron chelating assay (FIC), antioxidant reducing power assay (FRAP) and ß-carotene bleaching assay (BCB) were performed. For the essential oil were identified 24 organized compounds having as main constituents; Germacrene D (17.2%), α-pinene (14.8%) and E-caryophyllene (10.8%). The results showed that isoflavone (2000 to 156 µg/mL) and essential oil (5.0 to 1.25%) present antibacterial and antifungal activity against Gram-positive bacteria and filamentous fungi. The isoflavone and the essential oil also presented antioxidant activity in all the tests, mainly on inhibition of the oxidation of ß-carotene test concentrations ranging from 60 to 100%. In conclusion, isoflavone and essential oil from M. peruiferum present an antimicrobial alternative against Gram-positive bacteria, especially of the genus Staphylococcus and dermatophyte fungi of the genus Trichophyton, as well as a natural compound antioxidant.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Myroxylon/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Quelantes de Ferro , Isoflavonas/análise , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Contact Dermatitis ; 80(2): 77-85, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30370565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis are frequent conditions in the general population. OBJECTIVES: To provide an updated estimate of the prevalence of contact allergy in the general population based on data from our previous review combined with new data from an updated search for relevant studies published between 2007 and 2017. METHODS: Two authors independently searched PubMed for studies reporting on the prevalence of contact allergy in samples of the general population. Proportion meta-analyses were performed to calculate the pooled prevalence estimates of contact allergy. RESULTS: A total of 28 studies were included in the analysis, covering 20 107 patch tested individuals from the general population. Overall, the pooled prevalence of contact allergy was 20.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 16.8%-23.7%). In children and adolescents (<18 years), the prevalence was 16.5% (95%CI: 13.6%-19.7%). The prevalence was significantly higher in women (27.9% [95%CI: 21.7%-34.5%]) than in men (13.2% [95%CI: 9.3%-17.6%]). The most common allergen was nickel (11.4% [95%CI: 9.4%-13.5%]), followed by fragrance mix I (3.5% [95%CI: 2.1%-5.4%]), cobalt (2.7% [95%CI: 2.1%-3.4%]), Myroxylon pereirae (1.8% [95%CI: 1.0%-2.7%]), chromium (1.8% [95%CI: 1.3%-2.6%]), p-phenylenediamine (1.5% [95%CI: 1.0%-2.1%]), methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (1.5% [95%CI: 0.8%-2.5%]), and colophonium (1.3% [95%CI: 1.0%-1.6%]). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis confirmed that at least 20% of the general population are contact-allergic to common environmental allergens. It highlights the need for more effective preventive strategies for common allergens in consumer goods, cosmetics, and the workplace.


Assuntos
Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Anti-Infecciosos/efeitos adversos , Cromo/efeitos adversos , Cobalto/efeitos adversos , Corantes/efeitos adversos , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/etiologia , Humanos , Metais/efeitos adversos , Myroxylon/efeitos adversos , Níquel/efeitos adversos , Perfumes/efeitos adversos , Fenilenodiaminas/efeitos adversos , Prevalência , Resinas Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Distribuição por Sexo , Tiazóis/efeitos adversos
4.
Contact Dermatitis ; 80(2): 94-100, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30430587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fragrance chemicals constitute the second most frequent cause of contact allergy in Spain. There are no data available concerning the individual fragrances that are most frequently involved. OBJECTIVES: To describe the diagnostic contribution provided by specific fragrance series to the results obtained with baseline series fragrance markers by correlating the results of both series. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a 5-year retrospective study of fragrance marker-positive patients tested with specific fragrance series in 23 Spanish centres. We collected the demographic and clinical characteristics, and compared the results of patch tests obtained from different suppliers. RESULTS: Of 19 588 patients patch tested with the Spanish baseline series, 1590 (8.1%) reacted positively to a fragrance marker. Of these, 1013 (63.7%) were patch tested with a fragrance series, and 664 patients reacted positively to at least one individual fragrance other than hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde. Geraniol was the most frequent allergen. Positive reactions to substances not included in fragrance mix (FM) I or FM II were found in 230 patients. Of the 436 FM I-positive patients and the 419 FM II-positive patients, 184 (42%) and 64 (39.1%), respectively, had no positive reactions to fragrance series. In the case of FM I, negative results were more common when individual fragrances were patch tested at low concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend patch testing all patients positive for any fragrance marker with a specific fragrance series. The correlation between the results of baseline series and fragrance series could be improved by increasing the concentrations of individual fragrances.


Assuntos
Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/epidemiologia , Dermatite Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Dermatoses Faciais/epidemiologia , Dermatoses da Mão/epidemiologia , Dermatoses da Perna/epidemiologia , Perfumes/efeitos adversos , Monoterpenos Acíclicos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aldeídos/efeitos adversos , Anti-Infecciosos/efeitos adversos , Cumarínicos/efeitos adversos , Cicloexenos/efeitos adversos , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/etiologia , Dermatite Ocupacional/etiologia , Eugenol/efeitos adversos , Eugenol/análogos & derivados , Dermatoses Faciais/etiologia , Farneseno Álcool/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Dermatoses da Mão/etiologia , Humanos , Dermatoses da Perna/etiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monoterpenos/efeitos adversos , Myroxylon/efeitos adversos , Testes do Emplastro , Propanóis/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Terpenos/efeitos adversos
5.
J Hered ; 109(3): 264-271, 2018 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29136171

RESUMO

The reproductive system of a tree species has substantial impact on genetic diversity and structure within and among natural populations. Such information, should be considered when planning tree planting for forest restoration. Here, we describe the mating system and genetic diversity of an overexploited Neotropical tree, Myroxylon peruiferum L.f. (Fabaceae) sampled from a forest remnant (10 seed trees and 200 seeds) and assess whether the effective population size of nursery-grown seedlings (148 seedlings) is sufficient to prevent inbreeding depression in reintroduced populations. Genetic analyses were performed based on 8 microsatellite loci. M. peruiferum presented a mixed mating system with evidence of biparental inbreeding (t^m-t/ = 0.118). We found low levels of genetic diversity for M. peruiferum species (allelic richness: 1.40 to 4.82; expected heterozygosity: 0.29 to 0.52). Based on Ne(v) within progeny, we suggest a sample size of 47 seed trees to achieve an effective population size of 100. The effective population sizes for the nursery-grown seedlings were much smaller Ne = 27.54-34.86) than that recommended for short term Ne ≥ 100) population conservation. Therefore, to obtain a reasonable genetic representation of native tree species and prevent problems associated with inbreeding depression, seedling production for restoration purposes may require a much larger sampling effort than is currently used, a problem that is further complicated by species with a mixed mating system. This study emphasizes the need to integrate species reproductive biology into seedling production programs and connect conservation genetics with ecological restoration.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Myroxylon/fisiologia , Brasil , Florestas , Endogamia , Repetições de Microssatélites , Myroxylon/genética , Plântula/genética , Sementes/genética
6.
Br J Dermatol ; 178(3): 776-780, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28960261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fragrance contact allergy is common and is currently screened for using the following European baseline series fragrance markers: fragrance mix (FM)I, FMII, Myroxylon pereirae and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the validity of patch testing using these fragrance markers in detecting fragrance allergy to 26 individual fragrance substances for which cosmetic ingredient labelling is mandatory within the European Union. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of the patch test records of all patients with eczema who underwent testing using the European baseline series, extended with the individual fragrance substances during the period from 2015 to 2016. RESULTS: Overall, 359 patients (17·2%) reacted to one or more allergens from the labelled fragrance substance series and/or a fragrance marker from the European baseline series. The allergens that were positive with the greatest frequencies were oxidized linalool [n = 154; 7·4%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 6·3-8·6], oxidized limonene (n = 89; 4·3%, 95% CI 3·4-5·2) and Evernia furfuracea (n = 44; 2·1%, 95% CI 1·5-2·8). Of the 319 patients who reacted to any of the labelled fragrance substances, only 130 (40·8%) also reacted to a baseline series fragrance marker. The sensitivity of our history-taking for detecting fragrance allergy was 25·7%. CONCLUSIONS: Given the evolving trends in fragrance allergy, patch testing with FMI, FMII, M. pereirae and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde is no longer sufficient for screening for fragrance allergy.


Assuntos
Cosméticos/efeitos adversos , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/diagnóstico , Odorantes , Perfumes/efeitos adversos , Monoterpenos Acíclicos , Aldeídos , Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Cicloexanóis/efeitos adversos , Cicloexenos , Humanos , Monoterpenos/efeitos adversos , Myroxylon , Testes do Emplastro/métodos , Testes do Emplastro/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Compostos de Tritil/efeitos adversos
7.
Contact Dermatitis ; 77(3): 151-158, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28194803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with lower leg dermatitis, chronic venous insufficiency or chronic leg ulcers have a high prevalence of contact sensitization. OBJECTIVES: To identify the current spectrum of contact allergens in these patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology on 5264 patients with the above diagnoses from the years 2003 to 2014 (study group) were compared with data on 4881 corresponding patients from 1994 to 2003 (historical control group) and with a current control group without these diagnoses (n = 55 510). RESULTS: Allergic contact dermatitis was diagnosed less frequently in the study group than in the historical control group (25.9% versus 16.9%; p < 0.001), and contact sensitization to most allergens had declined. The allergen spectrum, however, was largely unchanged. Important allergens are Myroxylon pereirae (balsam of Peru) (14.8% positive reactions), fragrance mix I (11.4%), lanolin alcohol (7.8%), colophonium (6.6%), neomycin sulfate (5.0%), cetearyl alcohol (4.4%), oil of turpentine (3.1%), and paraben mix (2.6%). Patch testing with additional series showed sensitization to Amerchol L-101 (9.7%), tert-butyl hydroquinone (8.7%), framycetin sulfate (5.0%), and gentamicin sulfate (3.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Topical preparations for treating the above-mentioned conditions should not contain fragrances, Myroxylon pereirae, and colophonium. The special allergen spectrum has to be considered in patch testing.


Assuntos
Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Bálsamos/efeitos adversos , Dermatologia , Eczema/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lanolina/efeitos adversos , Dermatoses da Perna/epidemiologia , Úlcera da Perna/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Myroxylon/efeitos adversos , Testes do Emplastro/métodos , Perfumes/efeitos adversos , Resinas Vegetais/efeitos adversos
8.
Contact Dermatitis ; 76(6): 350-356, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27917496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monitoring trends of positive patch test reactions is useful for epidemiological surveillance and contact allergy prevention, and has not previously been reported in Lithuania. OBJECTIVES: To examine and compare changes in the prevalence of contact allergy to European baseline series allergens in adults with suspected contact dermatitis during a 9-year period. METHODS: In this retrospective study, patch test results of 297 consecutive patients, tested with the European baseline series in 2014-2015, were analysed and compared with the data published earlier in Lithuania. RESULTS: The most common allergens were nickel sulfate (30.6%), methylisothiazolinone (MI) (13.5%), methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI)/MI (7.4%), potassium dichromate (6.1%), cobalt chloride (6.1%), Myroxylon pereirae resin (5.4%), p-phenylenediamine (5.4%), fragrance mix I (4.7%), formaldehyde (4.4%), and methyldibromo glutaronitrile (3.7%). Increases in the prevalence of sensitization to MCI/MI (2.3% in 2006-2008 and 7.4% in 2014-2015; p < 0.0001) and nickel sulfate (16.4% in 2006-2008 and 30.6% in 2014-2015; p < 0.0001) and decreases in the prevalence of sensitization to paraben mix (3.2% in 2006-2008 and 0.3% in 2014-2015; p = 0.006) were observed. Prevalences for the other allergens remained stable or showed a decreasing trend (Myroxylon pereirae resin; p = 0.06). CONCLUSION: This study provides current information on the prevalence of contact allergy in Lithuania. Changing trends in sensitivity to some allergens probably reflect changes in exposure.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Fatores Etários , Cobalto/efeitos adversos , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/diagnóstico , Dermatoses Faciais/epidemiologia , Feminino , Formaldeído/efeitos adversos , Dermatoses da Mão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Dermatoses da Perna/epidemiologia , Lituânia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Myroxylon , Níquel/efeitos adversos , Nitrilos/efeitos adversos , Testes do Emplastro/tendências , Perfumes/efeitos adversos , Fenilenodiaminas/efeitos adversos , Dicromato de Potássio/efeitos adversos , Prevalência , Resinas Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Tiazóis/efeitos adversos
10.
Contact Dermatitis ; 74(4): 230-5, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26948414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2003, the EU Cosmetics Directive stated that 26 fragrance substances must be listed on the cosmetic product ingredient labels. Not all of these 26 fragrance substances are detected by the usual screening markers comprising fragrance mix I, fragrance mix II, and Myroxylon pereirae. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the usefulness of testing with the 26 individual fragrance substances in addition to the standard fragrance screening markers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three hundred and twelve consecutive patients were patch tested with our baseline series and the 26 specific fragrance substances required to be declared on cosmetic product ingredient labels in accordance with the EU Cosmetics Directive. RESULTS: Positive reactions to at least either one of the 26 individual fragrance substances or the usual fragrance screening markers were seen in 84 of 312 patients (26.9%). Fifteen of these 84 patients (17.8%) reacted negatively to the fragrance screening markers. The most common individual fragrance allergens were cinnamyl alcohol (11.2%), cinnamal (9%), and hydroxycitronellal (3.8%). Sixty-two of 312 patients (19.8%) had at least one positive reaction to the fragrance screening markers. CONCLUSION: Additional patch testing with the 26 individual fragrance allergens, or with the commonest fragrance allergens identified within these 26, should be performed to optimize the detection of fragrance allergy. Cinnamyl alcohol and cinnamal are important fragrance allergens in Thailand.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/etiologia , Perfumes/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Alérgenos/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Myroxylon/efeitos adversos , Testes do Emplastro/métodos , Perfumes/análise , Perfumes/química , Propanóis/efeitos adversos , Propanóis/análise , Estudos Prospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Terpenos/efeitos adversos , Terpenos/análise , Tailândia/epidemiologia
11.
Contact Dermatitis ; 74(4): 236-41, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26806578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Essential oils are fragrance substances that are labelled on cosmetic products by their INCI names, potentially confusing consumers. OBJECTIVES: To establish whether contact allergy to essential oils might be missed if not specifically tested for. METHODS: We tested 471 patients with 14 essential oils and 2104 patients with Melaleuca alternifolia oil between January 2008 and June 2014. All patients were tested with fragrance mix I, fragrance mix II, hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde, and Myroxylon pereirae. Three hundred and twenty-six patients were tested with hydroperoxides of limonene and linalool. RESULTS: Thirty-four patients had a +/++/+++ reaction to at least one essential oil. Eleven had no reaction to any of the six marker fragrance substances. Thus, 4 of 11 positive reactions to M. alternifolia oil, 2 of 7 reactions to Cymbopogon flexuosus oil, 1 of 5 reactions to Cananga odorata oil, 3 of 4 reactions to Santalum album oil and 2 of 3 reactions to Mentha piperita oil would have been missed without individual testing. CONCLUSION: A small number of patients who are allergic to essential oils could be missed if these are not specifically tested. Labelling by INCI names means that exposure may not be obvious. Careful inspection of so-called 'natural' products and targeted testing is recommended.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/etiologia , Óleos Voláteis/efeitos adversos , Perfumes/efeitos adversos , Monoterpenos Acíclicos , Aldeídos/efeitos adversos , Cananga/efeitos adversos , Cosméticos/efeitos adversos , Cosméticos/química , Cicloexenos/efeitos adversos , Cymbopogon/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Limoneno , Monoterpenos/efeitos adversos , Myroxylon/efeitos adversos , Testes do Emplastro , Óleos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Rotulagem de Produtos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Santalum/efeitos adversos , Óleo de Melaleuca/efeitos adversos , Terpenos/efeitos adversos
12.
Dermatitis ; 26(5): 230-4, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26367206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Contact allergy to phenol-formaldehyde resins (PFRs) based on phenol and formaldehyde is not detected by a p-tertiary-butylphenol-formaldehyde resin included in most baseline patch test series. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to investigate the contact allergy rate to PFR-2 in an international population and to investigate associated simultaneous allergic reactions. METHODS: Thirteen centers representing the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group included PFR-2 into their patch test baseline series during a period of 6 months in 2012. RESULTS: Of 2259 patients tested, 28 (1.2%) reacted to PFR-2. Of those 28 individuals, one had a positive reaction to formaldehyde and 2 to p-tertiary-butylphenol-formaldehyde resin. Simultaneous allergic reactions were noted to colophonium in 3, to Myroxylon pereirae in 5, and to fragrance mix I in 8. CONCLUSIONS: The contact allergy frequency in the tested population (1.2%) merits its inclusion into the international baseline series and possibly also into other baseline series after appropriate investigations. Significantly, overrepresented simultaneous allergic reactions were noted for M. pereirae and fragrance mix I.


Assuntos
Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/etiologia , Formaldeído/efeitos adversos , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Polímeros/efeitos adversos , Resinas Sintéticas/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Myroxylon/efeitos adversos , Testes do Emplastro , Perfumes/efeitos adversos , Fenol , Resinas Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Dermatitis ; 25(5): 232-45, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25207685

RESUMO

Fragrances are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in Europe and in North America. They can affect individuals at any age and elicit a spectrum of reactions from contact urticaria to systemic contact dermatitis. Growing recognition of the widespread use of fragrances in modern society has fueled attempts to prevent sensitization through improved allergen identification, labeling, and consumer education. This review provides an overview and update on fragrance allergy. Part 1 discusses the epidemiology and evaluation of suspected fragrance allergy. Part 2 reviews screening methods, emerging fragrance allergens, and management of patients with fragrance contact allergy. This review concludes by examining recent legislation on fragrances and suggesting potential additions to screening series to help prevent and detect fragrance allergy.


Assuntos
Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/etiologia , Perfumes/efeitos adversos , Bálsamos/efeitos adversos , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/diagnóstico , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/epidemiologia , Humanos , Myroxylon/efeitos adversos , Óleos Voláteis/efeitos adversos , Testes do Emplastro
14.
Genet Mol Res ; 13(3): 6920-5, 2014 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24737514

RESUMO

The Cabreúva tree, Myroxylon peruiferum, is an endangered tropical species from Brazil used in forest restoration projects. It is known for its medicinal properties. Eleven microsatellite markers were developed for this species, from a microsatellite-enriched library. Nine of these markers, characterized in 30 individuals from a semideciduous forest remnant population in southeast Brazil, were polymorphic, with allele numbers ranging from 2 to 8 per locus; expected and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.103 to 0.757 and 0.107 to 0.704, respectively. One locus (Mpe-C04) showed significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, probably due to null alleles. Two other loci (Mpe-E09 and Mpe-H07) were monomorphic in this population. These microsatellite loci should be useful for future population genetic studies of this species.


Assuntos
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Myroxylon/genética , Plantas Medicinais/genética , Alelos , Brasil , DNA de Plantas/química , DNA de Plantas/genética , Florestas , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Polimorfismo Genético , Análise de Sequência de DNA
15.
Contact Dermatitis ; 68(5): 307-13, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23601065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The frequency of fragrance contact allergy has shown a fluctuating trend over the years. OBJECTIVES: To describe the frequency of positive reactions to the baseline screening agents and fragrance mix (FM) 1 and 2 components, to determine trends of the latter over the years, and to evaluate simultaneous reactions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study on patch test results of 13 332 patients from January 1990 to December 2011. RESULTS: Of the total population, 9.6% reacted positively to FM 1, and 6% of 3416 tested with FM 2 reacted positively. Of those tested with both, 30.4% of 349 FM 1-positive patients reacted to FM 2, and 51.7% of 205 FM 2-positive patients reacted to FM 1. Hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (HICC) and FM 2 were tested simultaneously in 3401 patients: 6 reacted to HICC alone. Nine hundred and forty patients were tested with FM 1 ingredients and 205 with FM 2 ingredients; Evernia prunastri was the most frequent FM 1 allergen, and HICC was the most frequent FM 2 allergen. Simultaneous reactions were frequently observed. CONCLUSIONS: Fragrance-allergic subjects often show multiple positive reactions, some of which are highly significantly associated. Recently, there has been a decreasing trend in positivity for both Evernia prunastri and HICC, whereas a slight increase for cinnamyl alcohol has been observed.


Assuntos
Cosméticos/efeitos adversos , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/diagnóstico , Perfumes , Adulto , Aldeídos/efeitos adversos , Alérgenos , Estudos Transversais , Cicloexenos/efeitos adversos , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Myroxylon/efeitos adversos , Testes do Emplastro/métodos , Perfumes/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Pediatr Dermatol ; 30(3): e32-3, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22299798

RESUMO

Systemic manifestations of allergic contact dermatitis due to consumption of foods containing balsam of Peru (Myroxylon pereirae)-associated chemicals have recently been reported in children. We present seven children with widespread, recalcitrant dermatitis who experienced 60-80% clearance after initiating a diet low in balsam of Peru, specifically the tomato product ketchup. Furthermore, because we have observed a high prevalence of ketchup in our pediatric patients' diets, we recommend consideration of moderate consumption of this product in patients with recalcitrant widespread dermatitis.


Assuntos
Bálsamos/efeitos adversos , Dermatite de Contato/etiologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/etiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos adversos , Myroxylon/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dermatite de Contato/dietoterapia , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/dietoterapia , Humanos , Masculino
17.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 66(2): 229-40, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21596455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relatively little is known about the epidemiology of allergic contact dermatitis in older individuals. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the frequency of positive and clinically relevant patch test reactions in older individuals (≥ 65 years old) referred for patch testing, and to compare these results with those of adults (≤ 64-19 years) and children (<18 years). DESIGN: This was a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of North American Contact Dermatitis Group data from 1994 to 2008. RESULTS: A total of 31,942 patients (older n = 5306; adults n = 25,028; children n = 1608) were patch tested. The overall frequency of at least one allergic reaction in older individuals was 67.3% as compared with 66.9% for adults (P = .5938) and 47% for children (P = .0011). Reaction rates that were statistically higher in older individuals as compared with both adults and children included: Myroxylon pereirae, fragrance mix I, quaternium-15, formaldehyde, imidazolidinyl urea, diazolidinyl urea, neomycin, bacitracin, methyldibromo glutaronitrile, methyldibromo glutaronitrile/phenoxyethanol, ethyleneurea melamine formaldehyde mix, and carba mix (P values < .0004). Patch test reaction rates that were significantly lower in older individuals than both comparison groups included: nickel, thimerosal, and cobalt (P values < .0001). LIMITATIONS: Referral population was a limitation. CONCLUSIONS: Older individuals were more likely to have at least one positive patch test reaction as compared with children, but had similar rates to adults. The frequency of positive reactions to specific allergens differed by age group, most likely as a result of exposures.


Assuntos
Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/epidemiologia , Testes do Emplastro , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Alérgenos/imunologia , Antibacterianos/imunologia , Cobalto/imunologia , Estudos Transversais , Ditiocarb , Guanidinas/imunologia , Humanos , Metenamina/análogos & derivados , Metenamina/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Myroxylon/imunologia , Níquel/imunologia , Testes do Emplastro/métodos , Conservantes Farmacêuticos/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tiram/imunologia
18.
Coll Antropol ; 35(1): 83-7, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21661358

RESUMO

Because of their widespread use, fragrances are among the most common causes of contact allergic dermatitis, second only to nickel. During a five-year period 3,065 patients with contact dermatitis were patch tested using a specific mix of fragrances. 509 (16.6%) patients were allergic to the fragrance mix, while 258 (8.4%) patients exhibited an allergic reaction to Myroxylon pereirae (balsam of Peru). Between those 509 patients, 157 were patch tested with eight individual substances contained in the fragrance mix: cinnamal, cinnamyl alcohol, eugenol, isoeugenol, geraniol, hydroxycitronellal, alpha-amyl cinnamal and Evernia prunastri (oak moss). The most frequent allergens were isoeugenol 57.9% (91/157), eugenol 55.4% (87/157), cinnamyl alcohol 34.4% (54/157) and Evernia prunastri (oak moss) 24.2% (38/157). There were 62 patients (39.5%) who exhibited an allergic reaction to both the fragrance mix and Myroxylon pereirae (balsam of Peru). The results prove the importance of avoiding allergens in daily life, especially in industrial and cosmetic products. In order to prevent ACD, better cooperation between industry and dermatologists is needed.


Assuntos
Bálsamos/efeitos adversos , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/etiologia , Myroxylon/química , Perfumes/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bálsamos/química , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Perfumes/química , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testes Cutâneos
19.
Contact Dermatitis ; 65(1): 34-7, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21595700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Contact allergy to phenol-formaldehyde resins (PFRs) based on phenol and formaldehyde is not detected by a p-tertiary-butylphenol-formaldehyde resin (PTBP-FR) included in most baseline patch test series. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the rate of contact allergy to PFR-2 (a mixture of monomers and dimers from a resol resin based on phenol and formaldehyde) in a Swedish population, and to investigate associated simultaneous allergic reactions. METHODS: Five centres representing the Swedish Contact Dermatitis Research Group included PFR-2 in their patch test baseline series for a period of 1.5 years. RESULTS: Of 2504 patients tested, 27 (1.1%) reacted to PFR-2. Of those 27 individuals, 2 had a positive reaction to formaldehyde and 2 to PTBP-FR. Simultaneous allergic reactions were noted to colophonium in 6, to Myroxylon pereirae in 14, and to fragrance mix I in 15. CONCLUSIONS: The contact allergy frequency in the tested population (1.1%) merits its inclusion in the Swedish baseline series and possibly also in other baseline series. Simultaneous allergic reactions were noted to colophonium, M. pereirae, and fragrance mix I.


Assuntos
Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/diagnóstico , Formaldeído/efeitos adversos , Testes do Emplastro/métodos , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Polímeros/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alérgenos/toxicidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Formaldeído/toxicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Myroxylon/toxicidade , Perfumes/efeitos adversos , Resinas Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Suécia/epidemiologia
20.
Contact Dermatitis ; 63(5): 270-6, 2010 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20946455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fragrance mix II (FM II) is a relatively new screening marker for fragrance contact allergy. It was introduced in the patch test baseline series in Denmark in 2005 and contains six different fragrance chemicals commonly present in cosmetic products and which are known allergens. AIM: To investigate the diagnostic contribution of including FM II in the baseline series by comparing it with other screening markers of fragrance allergy: fragrance mix I (FM I), Myroxylon pereirae and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (HICC). METHOD: Retrospective study of 12 302 patients consecutively patch tested with FM II by members of the Danish Contact Dermatitis Group 2005-2008. RESULTS: FM II gave a positive patch test in 553 patients (4.5%), and in 72.2% of these patients the reaction was judged to be clinically relevant. FM II ranked second in detecting fragrance allergy, after FM I. If FM II had not been included as a screening marker in the baseline series, 15.6% (n = 202) of individuals with fragrance allergy would not have been identified by the other fragrance screening markers (FM I, M. pereirae or HICC). CONCLUSION: FM II contributes substantially to detecting fragrance allergy. It ranked second among the fragrance screening markers tested in the baseline series and detects individuals with an allergy who otherwise would not have been identified.


Assuntos
Alérgenos , Cosméticos/efeitos adversos , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/diagnóstico , Testes do Emplastro/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aldeídos/efeitos adversos , Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cicloexenos/efeitos adversos , Dinamarca , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Myroxylon/efeitos adversos , Testes do Emplastro/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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