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1.
Arch Virol ; 165(6): 1463-1467, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306146

RESUMO

Senna rizzinii is a flowering shrub found mainly in the northeast region of Brazil. Here, we report the coding-complete genome sequence, particle morphology, mode of transmission, and the indicator host responses of an isolate of the putative allexivirus cassia mild mosaic virus (CaMMV) found in S. rizzinii. The virus was transmitted mechanically to Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa, Gomphrena globosa, which showed local lesions, and S. rizzinii, and S. occidentalis, which were infected systemically. It was also efficiently transmitted to S. rizzinii by grafting. Seed transmission was not observed. The near-complete genome sequence of the virus is 7829 nucleotides in length, containing six open reading frames (ORF), like other allexiviruses.


Assuntos
Flexiviridae/genética , Flexiviridae/isolamento & purificação , Genoma Viral , Senna (Planta)/virologia , Brasil , Flexiviridae/classificação , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
2.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(6): 5981-5992, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863371

RESUMO

Senna alexandrina is traditionally used for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, but little information is available concerning its potential protective effects against cadmium, which is a widespread environmental toxicant that causes hepatotoxicity. Here, we explored the effects of S. alexandrina extract (SAE) on cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-induced liver toxicity over 4 weeks in rats. Rats were allocated into four groups: control, SAE (100 mg/kg), CdCl2 (0.6 mg/kg), and SAE + CdCl2, respectively. Cadmium level in hepatic tissue, blood transaminases, and total bilirubin as indicators of liver function were assessed. Oxidative stress indices [malondialdehyde (MDA), nitrate/nitrite (NO), and glutathione (GSH)], antioxidant molecules [superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT), glutathione-derived enzymes, and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)], pro-inflammatory mediators [interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)], apoptosis proteins (Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3), and histological alterations to the liver were examined. SAE administration before CdCl2 exposure decreased cadmium deposition in liver tissue and the blood liver function indicators. SAE pre-treatment prevented oxidative, inflammatory, and apoptotic reactions and decreased histological alterations to the liver caused by CdCl2 exposure. SAE can be used as a promising protective agent against CdCl2-induced hepatotoxicity by increasing Nrf2 expression. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Cádmio/toxicidade , Substâncias Perigosas/toxicidade , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Extrato de Senna/farmacologia , Senna (Planta) , Animais , Antioxidantes , Apoptose , Cádmio , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fígado , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Senosídeos , Superóxido Dismutase
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(19): 4203-4206, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872699

RESUMO

A new flavone( 1) has been isolated from the whole plant of Cassia nomame by using various chromatographic techniques,including silica gel,Sephadex,MCI-gel resin,and RP-HPLC,and its structure was determined as 8,4'-dimethoxy-7-( 2-oxopropyl)-flavone based on spectroscopic data. The biological activity test showed that this compound displayed potent cytotoxicity against NB4,SH-SY5 Y,PC3,A549 and MCF-7 cell lines with IC50 values 2. 2,1. 8,3. 4,4. 5 and 1. 6 µmol·L-1,respectively.


Assuntos
Cassia , Flavonas , Senna (Planta) , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos , Células MCF-7
4.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 360, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Paramphistomosis is a pathogenic disease of domesticated ruminants, causing great economic loss in dairy industry and meat production. It is considered as a neglected tropical disease with highest prevalence throughout tropical and subtropical regions, particularly in Africa, Asia, Europe, and Australia. There are few trematocidal drugs available in the market. Most are resistant and have elevated side effects. Therefore, alternative trematocidal drugs need to discover. This study was conducted to evaluate three plants leaf extracts (from Senna alata, S. alexandrina, and S. occidentalis) as effective remedies against gastrointestinal trematode parasite (Paramphistomum gracile) of ruminants. Live adult parasites were collected in 0.1 M phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) from fresh autopsied goat's rumen. Parasites were incubated in leaf extracts of S. alata, S. alexandrina and, S. occidentalis individually and in combination (1:1) ratio at 37 ± 1°C. Treatment media contain extracts at different concentrations (10, 20 and 40 mg/mL) in 10 mL of 0.1 M PBS with 1% dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO). Parasites in control group were incubated in PBS without extract. The efficacy of three Senna extracts was evaluated on the basis of dose-dependent motility and mortality of the trematode. Immediately after paralysis, all treated parasites were collected for histology, SEM and biochemical study. RESULTS: Dose-dependent efficacy was observed in terms of motility and time of mortality in all treated parasites after exposure in various concentrations of the Senna plant extracts. S. occidentalis and S. alexandrina showed better efficacy in combination than comparing with individual treatment groups. Histological study and scanning electron microscopic observations revealed conspicuous deformity of surface architecture in all treated parasites. Scanning electron micrographs also revealed shrinkage, vacuolization, infoldings and blebbings on the body surface of treated worms. Activities of tegumental enzymes were inhibited in all treatment groups compared to control. CONCLUSION: The overall findings from this study revealed that all three Senna leaf extracts individually and in combination showed potential antitrematocidal activity against Paramphistomum gracile by damaging body tegument and neural propagation. Thus, this study confirmed that all three Senna extracts can be considered as a potential drug-like candidate in indigenous system of traditional medicine against trematode infections in livestock.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Paramphistomatidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Senna (Planta)/química , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/isolamento & purificação , Etnofarmacologia , Cabras , Paramphistomatidae/isolamento & purificação , Paramphistomatidae/ultraestrutura , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Rúmen/parasitologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária
5.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 42(9): 1581-1589, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474718

RESUMO

As a bacterium used in industry for production of several amino acids, an endotoxin-free Corynebacterium (C.) glutamicum is well known. However, it is also true that the endotoxin-producing other Corynebacterium species is present. An aim of this study is to obtain a lactic acid bacterium (LAB) that produces ornithine and citrulline at high levels. We successfully isolated a strain, designated K-28, and identified it as Weissella (W.) confusa. The production of ornithine and citrulline by K-28 was 18 ± 1 and 10 ± 2 g/L, respectively, with a 100 ± 9% conversion rate when arginine was continuously fed into a jar fermenter. Although the ornithine high production using C. glutamicum is industrially present, the strains have been genetically modified. In that connection, the wild-type of C. glutamicum produces only 0.5 g/L ornithine, indicating that W. confusa K-28 is superior to C. glutamicum to use a probiotic microorganism. We confirmed that W. confusa K-28 harbors an arginine deiminase (ADI) gene cluster, wkaABDCR. The production of ornithine and the expression of these genes significantly decreased under the aerobic condition rather than anaerobic one. The expression level of the five genes did not differ with or without arginine, suggesting that the production of amino acids in the K-28 strain was not induced by exogenous arginine.


Assuntos
Citrulina/biossíntese , Flores/microbiologia , Ornitina/biossíntese , Senna (Planta)/microbiologia , Weissella/metabolismo , Animais , Citrulina/toxicidade , Masculino , Ornitina/toxicidade , Probióticos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ratos Wistar , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Weissella/isolamento & purificação
6.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 5719483, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285786

RESUMO

Cutaneous melanoma is among the most aggressive types of cancer, and its rate of occurrence increases every year. Current pharmacological treatments for melanoma are not completely effective, requiring the identification of new drugs. As an alternative, plant-derived natural compounds are described as promising sources of new anticancer drugs. In this context, the objectives of this study were to identify the chemical composition of the ethanolic extract of Senna velutina roots (ESVR), to assess its in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects on melanoma cells, and to characterize its mechanisms of action. For these purposes, the chemical constituents were identified by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. The in vitro activity of the extract was assessed in the B16F10-Nex2 melanoma cell line using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and based on the apoptotic cell count; DNA fragmentation; necrostatin-1 inhibition; intracellular calcium, pan-caspase, and caspase-3 activation; reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels; and cell cycle arrest. The in vivo activity of the extract was assessed in models of tumor volume progression and pulmonary nodule formation in C57Bl/6 mice. The chemical composition results showed that ESVR contains flavonoid derivatives of the catechin, anthraquinone, and piceatannol groups. The extract reduced B16F10-Nex2 cell viability and promoted apoptotic cell death as well as caspase-3 activation, with increased intracellular calcium and ROS levels as well as cell cycle arrest at the sub-G0/G1 phase. In vivo, the tumor volume progression and pulmonary metastasis of ESVR-treated mice decreased over 50%. Combined, these results show that ESVR had in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects, predominantly by apoptosis, thus demonstrating its potential as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of melanoma and other types of cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Etanol/química , Melanoma Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Senna (Planta)/química , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fragmentação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma Experimental/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Extratos Vegetais/química , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo
7.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(3): 933-936, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278702

RESUMO

The main objective of this study was to evaluate the hydroethanolic extract of Senna alata for the possible free radical scavenging and cytotoxic properties. Using such hydroethanolic extract, various in vitro antioxidant assays at different concentrations were performed and analyzed. In all the assays, plant extract has good inhibitory effect. Ethanolic extract of Senna alata was further subjected into cytotoxicity against HepG2 cell line. Accordingly, it was also found that the plant extract has appreciable potency against cancer cell lines.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Extrato de Senna/farmacologia , Senna (Planta)/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Etanol/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Radical Hidroxila/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Picratos/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Extrato de Senna/química , Superóxidos/metabolismo
8.
Microsc Res Tech ; 82(10): 1660-1667, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of quality control tool for adulteration of Senna (Cassia aungustifolia) a pharmaceutically very important. They were used for multiple health disorders such as constipation, indigestion, epilepsy, asthma, piles, migraine, and heart problems. Two different species of same family or same genus used commercially in Indo-Pak using the same medicine name Senna. One named as Senna (C. aungustifolia) and its adulterant named as Sickle Senna (Cassia obtusifolia). METHODOLOGY: These two plants were analyzed using classical microscopic techniques light microscopy and the modern chemotaxonomic traits scanning electron microscopy, fluorescence studies and phytochemical studies. RESULTS: The C. aungustifolia L. had found to be a perennial herb with trilobed pollen, diacytic, paracytic, and anisocytic stomata having smooth walled epidermal cells, whereas the C. obtusifolia stands out as a perennial shrub with spheroidal and circular pollen and paracytic type of stomata having irregular shaped epidermal cells. The powdered drug of C. aungustifolia is dark grayish green, whereas the powdered drug of C. obtusifolia is light green in color. Investigation and other techniques used in this project provided the basis for the authentication of this species.


Assuntos
Botânica/métodos , Classificação/métodos , Microscopia/métodos , Plantas Medicinais/anatomia & histologia , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , Senna (Planta)/anatomia & histologia , Senna (Planta)/classificação , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Plantas Medicinais/química , Senna (Planta)/química
9.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 51(8): 2269-2278, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152335

RESUMO

Natural compounds from medicinal plants provide safe and sustainable alternatives to synthetic anthelmintics. In this study, we assessed in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of Cassia occidentalis (NH-A) and Euphorbia hirta (NH-B) and compared it with levamisole-HCl. The shoots of NH-A and whole plant of NH-B were used to prepare extracts using 70% methanol which were used in the in vitro and in vivo assays. In vitro assays of crude methanolic extracts (CMEs) of NH-A and NH-B on larvae of mixed gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) of goats revealed mortalities of 95.7% (at 100 mg ml-1) and 98.1% (at 50 mgml-1) 24 h postexposure. In vivo assays of NH-A administered orally at doses of 100, 300, 900, and 2700 mg kg-1 bwt revealed dose- and time-dependent anthelmintic effects in goats experimentally infected with mixed species of GINs. NH-B exhibited similar properties when administered at doses of 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg kg-1 bwt. Both NH-A (900 mg kg-1 bwt) and levamisole (7.5 mg kg-1 bwt) achieved a 100% reduction in fecal egg count per gram (EPG) on day 21 and day 14 respectively posttreatment. NH-B (400 mg kg-1 bwt) achieved 93.1% and 86.1% reduction in fecal EPG 7 and 14 days postexposure respectively compared with 88.2% and 82.3% reduction with levamisole-HCl 7 and 14 days postexposure. Our results show that extracts of both plants can disrupt helminth lifecycles by suppressing the egg-laying capacity in adult worms but also kill their infective larvae. Future studies should aim at establishing synergies or antagonisms between the two plant extracts and further development for control of helminths in goats.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Euphorbia/química , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Senna (Planta)/química , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Levamisol , Nematoides , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Uganda/epidemiologia
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(4): 712-716, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989883

RESUMO

A total of ten compounds were isolated from the 90% Et OH extract of Cassia siamea by using various chormatographic techniques,and their structures were established as( 2' S)-2-( propan-2'-ol)-5,7-dihydroxy-benzopyran-4-one( 1),chrobisiamone( 2), 2-( 2'-hydroxypropyl)-5-methyl-7-hydroxychromone( 3), 2,5-dimethyl-7-hydroxychromone( 4), 2-methyl-5-acetonyl-7-hydroxychromone( 5),3-O-methylquercetin( 6),3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavonone( 7),luteolin-5,3'-dimethylether( 8),4-( trans)-acetul-3,6,8-trihydroxy-3-methyl-dihydronapht halenone( 9) and 6-hydroxymellein( 10) based on the spectroscopic data.Compound 1 was a new compound,and 3,4,6,8 were isolated from this plant for the first time.


Assuntos
Cassia , Senna (Planta) , Luteolina , Análise Espectral
11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 239: 111923, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034951

RESUMO

Ethnopharmacological relevance Senna septemtrionalis (Viv.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby (Fabaceae) is a shrub empirically used as diuretic, and for the treatment of neurological disorders. These pharmacological effects have not been previously evaluated. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the diuretic and CNS effects of a standardized ethanol extract of Senna septemtrionalis aerial parts (SSE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gas chromatography mass spectrometry was used to perform a chemical analysis with SSE. In all tests, SSE was evaluated from 10 to 100 mg/kg p.o. The diuretic activity of SSE was assessed in mice individually placed in metabolic cages. After 6 h, the urine volume and the electrolyte excretion (Na and K) were measured. The role of prostaglandins and nitric oxide was assessed administrating mice with indomethacin and N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), prior the administration of 100 mg/kg SSE. The sedative effects of SSE were analyzed with the pentobarbital-induced sleeping time test. The effects of SSE on motor coordination in mice were evaluated with the rotarod test. The antidepressant-like activity of SSE was analyzed with the forced swimming test (FST) and the tail suspension test (TST). The role of 5-HT2 receptor, α1-and α2-adrenoceptors, or muscarinic receptors was assessed administrating mice with cyproheptadine, prazosin, yohimbine, and atropine, respectively, prior the administration of 100 mg/kg SSE in the FST. The anxiolytic-like activity of SSE (10-100 mg/kg p.o.) was assessed using the light-dark test (LDB), the elevated plus maze test (EPM), the cylinder exploratory test, and the open field test (OFT). The anticonvulsant effect of SSE (1-100 mg/kg) was evaluated in mice administered with different convulsant agents: strychnine, pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), isoniazid (INH) or yohimbine. RESULTS: The main compound found in SSE was D-pinitol (42.2%). SSE (100 mg/kg) increased the urinary volume (2.67-fold), as well as the excretion of Na (5.60-fold) and K (7.2-fold). The co-administration of SSE with L-NAME or indomethacin reverted the diuretic activity shown by SSE alone. SSE lacked sedative effects and did not affect motor coordination in mice. SSE (100 mg/kg) showed higher and similar antidepressant-like effect, compared to 20 mg/kg fluoxetine, in the FST and TST, respectively. The co-administration of SSE with yohimbine reverted the antidepressant-like activity shown by SSE alone. SSE (100 mg/kg) showed anxiolytic-like activity in the four models of anxiety, with similar activity with 1.5 mg/kg clonazepam. The seizure-protective effect of SSE was ED50 = 73.9 ±â€¯8.4 mg/kg (INH) and 40.4 ±â€¯5.2 mg/kg (yohimbine). CONCLUSION: The diuretic effects of SSE involve the possible contribution of prostaglandins and nitric oxide. SSE showed moderate anxiolytic and anticonvulsant effects, whereas the participation of α2-adrenoceptors is probably associated in the antidepressant-like effects of SSE.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos/farmacologia , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Diuréticos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Senna (Planta) , Animais , Ansiolíticos/química , Anticonvulsivantes/química , Antidepressivos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Diuréticos/química , Etanol/química , Dose Letal Mediana , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Componentes Aéreos da Planta , Extratos Vegetais/química , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Solventes/química
12.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215664, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002692

RESUMO

Senna species and anthraquinone derivatives generated by these organisms, rhein and aloe-emodin, exert anti-inflammatory effects. These species present a similar morphology but produce different ingredients when they are used as medicinal products. In this study, a DNA barcoding- (Bar-) high-resolution melting (HRM) technique was developed using internal transcribed sequence 2 (ITS2) to differentiate between Senna alata and Senna tora as a result of significant differences in their melting profiles. We used this approach for confirmation of S. alata and S. tora raw materials, and we examined the chondroprotective properties of the ethanolic extracts of S. alata and S. tora using a porcine model of cartilage degradation induced by a combination of interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and IL-1ß. We found that both Senna ethanolic extracts, at a concentration of 25 µg/mL, effectively prevented cartilage degradation. Rhein and aloe-emodin were present in the extract of S. alata but not in that of S. tora. We observed a reduction in the release of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (S-GAGs) and hyaluronic acid (HA) into media in both treatments of Senna extracts, which indicated proteoglycan preservation in explant tissues. These results suggest that neither rhein nor aloe-emodin are the main factors responsible for cartilage-protecting properties. Taken together, results show that both S. alata and S. tora are promising for further development as anti-osteoarthritic agents and that Bar-HRM using ITS2 could be applied for species confirmation with Senna products.


Assuntos
Cartilagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoartrite/prevenção & controle , Extrato de Senna/farmacologia , Senna (Planta)/química , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Cartilagem/metabolismo , Cartilagem/patologia , Colágeno Tipo II/metabolismo , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Etanol/química , Osteoartrite/metabolismo , Fitoterapia/métodos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Proteoglicanas/metabolismo , Extrato de Senna/química , Senna (Planta)/classificação , Senna (Planta)/genética , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Especificidade da Espécie , Suínos
13.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 139: 33-43, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878836

RESUMO

Senna obtusifolia is a widely used medicinal herb in Asian countries. To select elite cultivars, S. obtusifolia seeds were carried by "ShenZhou Ⅷ" recoverable satellite to space. Three spaceflight-subjected lines (SP-lines), namely QC10, QC29, QC46, and their ground control line (GC-line) were cultivated on the ground. Previous studies demonstrated that biological traits and secondary metabolites are different between SP-lines and GC-line. Here, we combined physiological, transcriptional, and metabolic studies to compare the differences between SP-lines and GC-line. The results showed that activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) were dramatically increased in SP-lines as compared to that of GC-line. Transcript levels of SOD, POD, CAT, APX, and MDHAR were significantly up-regulated in SP-lines. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) contents decreased in SP-lines. Seed yields of QC29 and QC46 were considerably higher than that of GC-line. Besides, QC29 had significantly higher aurantio-obtusin content. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis revealed positive relationships between POD and aurantio-obtusin, as well as APX and aurantio-obtusin. In conclusion, SP-lines have higher antioxidant gene expression level and antioxidant enzyme activity as compared to that of GC-line. With higher seed yield and aurantio-obtusin content, QC29 can be used to breed elite S. obtusifolia cultivars. This study provides a new insight in SP-lines and paves the way to breed elite S. obtusifolia cultivars in the future.


Assuntos
Senna (Planta)/fisiologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Prolina/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário , Senna (Planta)/metabolismo , Voo Espacial
14.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 235: 8-18, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703497

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cassia occidentalis L., a synonym of Senna occidentalis (belongs to Caesalpiniaceae family) is an annual plant. Pursuing a lead from a folk practice prevalent since the late nineteenth century in Andhra Pradesh, a Southern state of India, of use of Cassia occidentalis leaf and stem for treating patients with fracture and bone diseases, we have not only confirmed its fracture healing activity but also demonstrated efficacy in preventing glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO), the commonest form of medication-induced bone loss caused chiefly due to impairment of bone formation. AIM OF THE STUDY: In the present work, the effects of extract and fraction of leaf and stem of Cassia occidentalis was investigated in fracture healing and GIO models of rat. The study also aimed to identify osteogenic compounds from this plant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ethanolic extracts from leaf and stem of Cassia occidentalis were prepared and their efficacy tested in rat femur osteotomy (fracture healing) model. Subsequently, a butanolic fraction was prepared and osteogenic efficacy compared with the ethanolic extract, and upon finding the former to be more potent, its osteogenic effect was studied in details in GIO model. Chemical finger-printing and isolation of ten pure compounds were done to assess their osteogenic effect in rat primary osteoblast cultures. RESULTS: Ethanolic extract of stem was more effective than the leaf extract in enhancing bone regeneration at the site of osteotomy. Further, butanolic fraction of the ethanolic extract of stem was more effective than the later in bone regeneration at the femur osteotomy site and in preventing bone loss in GIO model. The mechanism of skeletal preservation involved stimulation of new bone formation and inhibition of bone resorption. As many as six osteogenic compounds were isolated out of which apigenin-6C-glucopyranoside was most effective in vitro. CONCLUSION: Our study found that a standardized extract of an ethanolic extract and its butanolic fraction from the stem of Cassia occidentalis has osteogenic as well as anti-resorptive effects, resulting in the protection against glucocorticoid-induced bone loss. Our results contribute towards validation of the traditional use of Cassia occidentalis in fracture healing and also suggest its beneficial use in GIO for which clinical trials are warranted.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Glucocorticoides/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Senna (Planta)/química , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Etanol/química , Consolidação da Fratura/efeitos dos fármacos , Índia , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
15.
Mitochondrial DNA A DNA Mapp Seq Anal ; 30(3): 407-413, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30732502

RESUMO

In the present study, two pod borer larvae were found to damage pods of the host plant Senna alata. As pods (seeds) are commercially important, it prompted the investigators to find out the adult of pod borer larvae by molecular sequencing and reported in this article for the first time from S. alata. Successful amplification was achieved for chloroplast DNA isolated from leaves of host plant S. alata and tissue DNA from unknown larvae and sequenced. The sequences were submitted to NCBI domain, and the taxonomic position of host plant of pod borer larvae was confirmed as S. alata (L.) Roxb. Of the two sequences belonging to pod borer larvae, specimen 1 (S1) matched with already available three sequences of Thylacoptila sp. AA. But, specimen 2 (S2) showed significant variation in its genetic distance in Neighborhood Joining tree and maximum likelihood tree; these factors imply that specimen 2 (S2) is distinct from Thylacoptila sp. AA. Therefore, it is reported that specimen 2 may be represented as Thylacoptila sp. BB where in BB indicates variant from other available sequences. Nonetheless, reporting species of Thylacoptila as insect pest in pods of S. alata is an important contribution to the annals of insect-pest-plant interaction more importantly in medicinally important plant species S. alata.


Assuntos
DNA de Plantas/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Genes Mitocondriais/genética , Senna (Planta)/genética , Sequência de Bases , DNA de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Índia , Sementes/genética
16.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 21(4): 770-779, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30693622

RESUMO

Senna occidentalis is an invasive plant producing a series of allelochemicals that might inhibit the development of other plants. The objective of this study was to assess the phytotoxic effect of S. occidentalis extracts on the germination, development and antioxidant defence of the native species Tabebuia chrysotricha, T. pentaphylla, T. roseoalba and Handroanthus impetiginosus (Ipê species). We evaluated the effects of chemicals extracted from S. occidentalis on the germination rate, germination speed index (GSI) and biometric parameters of the test species under controlled conditions. The effect of the extracts on the pigment content, amount of H2 O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA), and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes in roots and leaves were also tested. Alkaloids, coumarins, phenols, saponins, free steroids and condensed tannins were present in all extracts of S. occidentalis, while catechins were present only in leaf and stem extracts. Stem and root extracts caused a growth reduction in all Ipê species and total inhibition of seed germination in T. chrysotricha and T. roseoalba. All target species showed an increase in H2 O2 and MDA in radicles and leaves. Oxidative stress contributed strongly to the morphological changes, such as seed blackening, thinning and darkening of radicle tips and reduction of biomass allocation in all Ipê species. Although there was activation of antioxidant defence mechanisms, such as an increase in activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and peroxidase (POD) enzymes, the joint action of the allelochemicals caused phytotoxicity, leading to cell dysfunction in all Ipê species.


Assuntos
Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Senna (Planta)/química , Tabebuia/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Espécies Introduzidas , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Tabebuia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tabebuia/metabolismo
17.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 51(3): 637-642, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30334132

RESUMO

Stomoxyines are mechanical vectors of several pathogens of livestock with severe consequences such as low productivity from constant irritation and disturbance. In vitro and in vivo bioassays were conducted to confirm the efficacy of cypermethrin analogues on stomoxyines. Cattle treated with cypermethrin (Pantex 30 g l-1) and cypermethrin-mix (cypermethrin + oil from Senna occidentalis locally prepared by Fulani herdsmen) were compared using the restricted insecticidal application (RAP) method and a local Fulani application approach (FAA), while untreated cattle serve as control. A total of 550 speciated-fed Stomoxys niger were exposed to graded concentration of cypermethrin (Group A-D) at 30 µg/ml, 20 µg/ml, 10 µg/ml, 5 µg/ml, 1 µg/ml and 0.5 µg/ml. After 48 h, the flies were assessed for mortality. In vivo bioassay of behavioural responses to stomoxyines showed greater mean percentage repellence using RAP (94.6%) of cypermethrin when compared with FAA (46.3%). The sigmoidal non-linear regression model curve of in vitro bioassay showed cypermethrin (Pantex®-group A) to be most effective with LC50 of 1.52 µg/mL and it is significantly more effective than cypermethrin (Ectopouron®-group B) and cypermethrin-mix (Fulani cypermethrin mixture-group C) at 22.62 µg/ml and 20.62 µg/ml concentration, respectively. In this study, Pantex® demonstrated excellent stomoxyine repellence using RAP method with significant insecticidal effect. Therefore, the appropriate use of cypermethrin insecticides using RAP method is recommended for vector control to prevent African animal trypanosomiasis in Nigeria.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/farmacologia , Muscidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Senna (Planta)/química , Tripanossomíase Africana/prevenção & controle , Animais , Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Dose Letal Mediana , Nigéria
18.
Nat Prod Res ; 33(11): 1637-1640, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29347835

RESUMO

Senna occidentalis and S. hirsuta are mostly gathered from the wild for medicinal use and have a disagreeable odour when crushed. The volatile oils isolated from fresh fruits of S. occidentalis and S. hirsuta were subjected to gas chromatography (GC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and antimicrobial assays. GC and GC-MS analyses permitted the identification of 58 constituents. S. occidentalis oil was dominated by cyperene (10.8%), ß-caryophyllene (10.4%), limonene (8.0%) and caryophyllene oxide (6.8%). The main components of S. hirsuta fruit oil were benzyl benzoate (24.7%), τ-cadinol (18.9%), 2,5-dimethoxy-p-cymene (14.6%) and ß-caryophyllene (5.1%). S. occidentalis fruit oil exhibited better antimicrobial activity (MIC 78-312 µg/mL) against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger compared with S. hirsuta oil. The compositions and the activities of the fruit essential oils of S. occidentalis and S. hirsuta are reported for the first time.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Senna (Planta)/química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Bacillus subtilis/efeitos dos fármacos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nigéria , Óleos Voláteis/química , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos , Sesquiterpenos/análise , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Terpenos/análise
19.
Nat Prod Res ; 33(23): 3409-3416, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29863900

RESUMO

A continuous phytochemical study on the seeds of Senna obtusifolia (Syn.: Cassia obtusifolia) led to the isolation of a new anthraquinone analogue, obtusifolin-2-O-ß-D-(6'-O-α,ß-unsaturated butyryl)-glucopyranoside (1) and a new eurotinone analogue, epi-9-dehydroxyeurotinone-ß-D-glucopyranoside (2). Their structures were established mainly by NMR and MS experiments as well as the necessary chemical evidences. Their inhibitory effects on two organic anion transporters (OAT1 and OAT3) were investigated and the results showed that 1 exhibited a strongly specific inhibitory effect on OAT1 at 100 µM.


Assuntos
Antraquinonas/isolamento & purificação , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Sementes/química , Senna (Planta)/química , Antraquinonas/química , Antraquinonas/farmacologia , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Proteína 1 Transportadora de Ânions Orgânicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Sódio-Independentes/antagonistas & inibidores
20.
Nat Prod Res ; 33(19): 2878-2881, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445876

RESUMO

The aim of this work is to characterize the active constituents present in the ethyl acetate fraction of Senna tora, L. Roxb. seeds. Due to the fact that the main biological activity of S. tora, L seeds is attributed to its phenolic compounds which are mainly isolated from Ethyl acetate fraction, to avoid repetition of work and to save time, it was deemed necessary to confirm the identity of these phenolic compounds. This was done by GC-MS and LC-MS analysis of the ethyl acetate fraction where the structures of the isolated compounds were established on the basis of molecular ion peak and their fragmentation pattern. They were identified as Chrysophanol, Chrysarobin, 10-hydroxy-5-methoxy-2-methyl-1, 4-anthracenedione, Rubrofusarin, Parietin, Griseoxanthone-B, Isotorachrysone, and Cumbiasin B.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Senna (Planta)/química , Acetatos/química , Antraquinonas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Pironas/análise , Sementes/química , Solventes
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