Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 953
Filtrar
1.
Ecotoxicology ; 29(7): 1003-1016, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32617728

RESUMO

With respect to reducing the pressure on freshwater resources, treated wastewater (TWW) irrigation represents a sustainable alternative in agriculture. Due to their low quality and variable composition, TWW could entail harmful consequences for living organisms in terrestrial ecosystems. This study aims to evaluate how earthworm (Eisenia andrei) can modulate oxidative stress in bean plants (Vicia faba) that are irrigated over a course of 60 days with two doses of TWW (50 and 100%) in addition to a control condition (0%) irrigated with distilled water. This is achieved by measuring glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity and malondialdehyde accumulation (MDA) in plants. Furthermore, catalase (CAT), GST, MDA, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities of the earthworms are also assessed. Our results show that growth and physiological parameters are modified when applying TWW irrigation. Moreover, oxidative stress apprehended by GST activity and MDA accumulation is exacerbated in V. faba plants after exposure to increased TWW doses. Similarly, TWW irrigation enhances oxidative stress parameters in earthworms with a crucial decrease in AChE activity. In addition, the presence of earthworms increases growth and physiological parameters; it also results in a significant reduction in GST activity and MDA rate in V. faba plants. Our results provide new insights into the impact of TWW irrigation on soil organisms and the importance of earthworms in the reduction of oxidative stress in plants.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola , Oligoquetos/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Vicia faba/efeitos dos fármacos , Águas Residuárias/análise , Animais , Vicia faba/fisiologia
2.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt A): 114861, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504892

RESUMO

Phytoremediation coupled with agro-production is considered a sustainable strategy for remediation of trace element contaminated fields without interrupting crop production. In this study hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii was intercropped with a leguminous plant fava bean (Vicia fava) in cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) co-contaminated field to evaluate the effects of intercropping on growth performance and accumulations of trace elements in plants with plant growth promoting endophyte (PGPE) consortium application. The results showed, compared with monoculture, intercropping coupled with inoculation application promoted biomass as well as Cd and Pb concentrations in individual parts of both plants, thus increasing the removal efficiencies of trace elements (4.49-folds for Cd and 5.41-folds for Pb). Meanwhile, this superposition biofortification measure maintained normal yield and nutrient content, and limited the concentration of Cd and Pb within the permissible limit (<0.2 mg kg-1 FW) in fava bean during the grain production. These results demonstrated a feasible technical system for phytoremediation coupled with agro-production in slightly or moderately Cd and Pb co-contaminated field, and also provided useful information for further investigation of interaction mechanisms between intercropping and PGPEs inoculation.


Assuntos
Sedum , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Vicia faba , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/análise , Endófitos , Chumbo , Raízes de Plantas/química , Solo
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 729: 139020, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32498175

RESUMO

Increased global warming, caused by climate change and human activities, will seriously hinder plant development, such as increasing salt concentrations in soils, which will limit water availability for plants. To ensure optimal plant growth under such changing conditions, microorganisms that improve plant growth and health must be integrated into agricultural practices. In the present work, we examined the fate of Vicia faba microbiota structure and interaction network upon inoculation with plant-nodulating rhizobia (Rhizobium leguminosarum RhOF125) and non-nodulating strains (Paenibacillus mucilaginosus BLA7 and Ensifer meliloti RhOL1) in the presence (or absence) of saline stress. Inoculated strains significantly improved plant tolerance to saline stress, suggesting either a direct or indirect effect on the plant response to such stress. To determine the structure of microbiota associated with V. faba, samples of the root-adhering soil (RAS), and the root tissues (RT) of seedlings inoculated (or not) with equal population size of RhOF125, BLA7 and RhOL1 strains and grown in the presence (or absence) of salt, were used to profile the microbial composition by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The inoculation did not show a significant impact on the composition of the RT microbiota or RAS microbiota. The saline stress shifted the RAS microbiota composition, which correlated with a decrease in Enterobacteriaceae and an increase in Sphingobacterium, Chryseobacterium, Stenotrophomonas, Agrobacterium and Sinorhizobium. When the microbiota of roots and RAS are considered together, the interaction networks for each treatment are quite different and display different key populations involved in community assembly. These findings indicate that upon seed inoculation, community interaction networks rather than their composition may contribute to helping plants to better tolerate environmental stresses. The way microbial populations interfere with each other can have an impact on their functions and thus on their ability to express the genes required to help plants tolerate stresses.


Assuntos
Vicia faba , Bactérias , Humanos , Consórcios Microbianos , Interações Microbianas , Raízes de Plantas , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Microbiologia do Solo
4.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232425, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365065

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of incorporating different legume flours (faba bean, lentil or split pea flours) on the pasta protein network and its repercussion on in vitro protein digestibility, in comparison with reference dairy proteins. Kinetics and yields of protein hydrolysis in legume enriched pasta and, for the first time, the peptidomes generated by the pasta at the end of the in vitro gastric and intestinal phases of digestion are presented. Three isoproteic (21%) legume enriched pasta with balanced essential amino acids, were made from wheat semolina and 62% to 79% of legume flours (faba bean or F-pasta; lentil or L-pasta and split pea or P-pasta). Pasta were prepared following the conventional pastification steps (hydration, mixing, extrusion, drying, cooking). Amino acid composition and protein network structure of the pasta were determined along with their culinary and rheological properties and residual trypsin inhibitor activity (3-5% of the activity initially present in raw legume flour). F- and L-pasta had contrasted firmness and proportion of covalently linked proteins. F-pasta had a generally weaker protein network and matrix structure, however far from the weakly linked soluble milk proteins (SMP) and casein proteins, which in addition contained no antitrypsin inhibitors and more theoretical cleavage sites for digestive enzymes. The differences in protein network reticulation between the different pasta and between pasta and dairy proteins were in agreement in each kinetic phase with the yield of the in vitro protein hydrolysis, which reached 84% for SMP, and 66% for casein at the end of intestinal phase, versus 50% for L- and P-pasta and 58% for F-pasta. The peptidome of legume enriched pasta is described for the first time and compared with the peptidome of dairy proteins for each phase of digestion. The gastric and intestinal phases were important stages of peptide differentiation between legumes and wheat. However, peptidome analysis revealed no difference in wheat-derived peptides in the three pasta diets regardless of the digestion phase, indicating that there was a low covalent interaction between wheat gluten and legume proteins.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/química , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacocinética , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacocinética , Animais , Culinária , Digestão/fisiologia , Fabaceae/química , Farinha/análise , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Humanos , Hidrólise , Técnicas In Vitro , Cinética , Lens (Planta)/química , Proteínas do Leite/química , Proteínas do Leite/farmacocinética , Valor Nutritivo , Ervilhas/química , Agregados Proteicos , Triticum/química , Vicia faba/química
5.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0226471, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348333

RESUMO

The chive maggot Bradysia cellarum and the fungus gnat B. impatiens are two primary root pests of plants, which can coexist on the same host plants and are the devastating pests on liliaceous crops and edible fungi. Their growth and development are affected by the nutrient contents of their host plants. In this study, we assessed the effects of different host plant nutrients on the nutrient contents of these two Bradysia species. The nutrients of the chive (Allium tuberosum Rottl. ex Spreng.), board bean (Vicia faba L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. ramosa Hort.), cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.), wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata rubra) and pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) roots were determined, and their effect on nutrient content of the two Bradysia species after feeding on the host plant for three continuous generations were evaluated. The results show that chive and B-bean contained higher levels of protein, free amino acid, soluble sugar and starch than others. As a result, the soluble sugar, fat and protein contents were significantly higher in both Bradysia species reared on chive and B-bean than on cabbage, lettuce, W-cabbage and pepper, suggesting nutritional preference of these insects. Based on our results, we concluded that the two Bradysia species displayed nutrient preference toward chive and B-bean, which provides a reference for understanding their host plant range and for control of the insect species via field crop rotations.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/parasitologia , Dípteros/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Animais , Brassica/metabolismo , Brassica/parasitologia , Capsicum/metabolismo , Capsicum/parasitologia , Cebolinha-Francesa/metabolismo , Cebolinha-Francesa/parasitologia , Alface/metabolismo , Alface/parasitologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/parasitologia , Vicia faba/metabolismo , Vicia faba/parasitologia
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 197: 110620, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311615

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the ecotoxic effect of high concentration cesium (Cs) exposure on plant root growth and its toxicological mechanism. The radicle of broad bean (Vicia faba) was selected as experimental material. The cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of plants exposed to different Cs levels (0.19-1.5 mM) for 48 h were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis, single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assays. The results showed that radicle elongation decreased clearly after 48 h of exposure treatment with different concentrations of Cs solution. The root cell structure was obviously damaged in the Cs treatment groups (0.19-1.5 mM). At a Cs concentration of 1.5 mM, the percentages of viable non-apoptotic cells, viable apoptotic cells, non-viable apoptotic cells, and non-viable cells were 40.09%, 20.67%, 28.73%, and 10.52%, respectively. SCGE showed DNA damage in radicle cells 48 h after Cs exposure. Compared with the control group, the percentage of tail DNA in Cs exposed group (0.38-1.5 mM) increased by 0.56-1.12 times (P < 0.05). RAPD results showed that the genomic stability of V. faba radicles decreased by 4.44%-15.56%. This study confirmed that high concentration Cs exposure had cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effects on plants.


Assuntos
Césio/toxicidade , Dano ao DNA , Vicia faba/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose , Citotoxinas/toxicidade , Eletroforese , Instabilidade Genômica/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico , Análise de Célula Única , Vicia faba/genética
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(15): 18893-18901, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207023

RESUMO

The study investigates the effect of cadmium (Cd), salinity (NaCl), and combined stress on rhizosphere pH, growth parameters, membrane leakage, and genotoxicity in Vicia faba. Germinated seeds were exposed for 48 h to 0.01 mM Cd(NO3)2 (Cd), 50 mM NaCl (S50), 150 mM NaCl (S150), and Cd-NaCl (CdS50 and CdS150). An accumulation of Cd and Na was found essentially in Vicia roots under each single stress factor associated with variations in rhizosphere pH. Additional NaCl in metallic solution significantly dropped the rhizosphere pH and decreased Cd concentrations in roots by 2.3 and 3.8 times for CdS50 and CdS150, respectively. Growth parameters (root length and fresh and dry matters), mitotic activity, and micronucleus formation were not influenced by Cd and low concentration of NaCl when applied separately or together, while 150 mM of NaCl, alone or combined with Cd, affected negatively all the studied parameters, as well as chromosome and nucleus stability. V. faba seems to reduce the transport of Cd in saline conditions and therefore salinity (50 mM) may act as a protection against Cd accumulation.


Assuntos
Vicia faba , Cádmio , Raízes de Plantas , Salinidade , Cloreto de Sódio
8.
J Anim Sci ; 98(4)2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32211748

RESUMO

The growing pet food market is continuously in search for novel ingredients. Legumes such as faba beans (FB) are increasing in popularity and are known to benefit human health, but little is known about their use in pet foods. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dehulled FB utilization by dogs. Experimental diets were extruded with 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% FB inclusion (FB0, FB10, FB20, and FB30, respectively). Beagle dogs (n = 12) were fed the diets for 9-d adaptation with 5-d total fecal collection in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) was determined by external marker Cr2O3. At the culmination of each period, blood samples were collected from brachial venipuncture for complete blood count and blood chemistry. Palatability was determined with a 2-bowl test (n = 20). Means of blood parameters were separated by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) with the aid of statistical software (SAS v9.4). Contrasts and least square means of fecal parameters and ATTD were computed. Significance level was considered to be α = 0.05. Dogs ate all food on offer and maintained body weight. There was no difference (P > 0.05) among treatments (FB10, FB20, and FB30) and the control (FB0) relative to food intake, fecal output ("as is" basis), and fecal score, but feces were softer when dogs were fed the treatments (P = 0.031) and there was a linear increase (P = 0.011) in defecation frequency (stools/day) when FB increased in the diets. Dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein digestibilities were slightly higher when dogs were fed the control diet (P < 0.05) compared with the FB diets. All blood and serum chemistry parameters were similar among treatments and within the reference ranges. Dogs preferred the control diet relative to the 10% and 30% FB diets, but the 20% FB preference was similar to the control. Dogs remained healthy, maintained body weight and no adverse health events were observed during the study. Dehulled FB are a suitable ingredient for dog foods, but concentrations should not exceed 20% to avoid reduction in palatability and stool quality.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Cães/fisiologia , Vicia faba , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Digestão , Fezes , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Masculino
9.
Food Chem ; 316: 126282, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062576

RESUMO

The present study examines the foaming behavior of pea and faba bean protein concentrates and isolates and explores the impact of pH and protein-polysaccharide complexation on overrun and foam stability. Foams were prepared with 5 wt% proteins with and without 0.25 wt% xanthan gum (XG) at pH 3, 5, 7 and 9. Most foams were unstable without XG. With XG foaming properties of protein concentrates were better than isolates. Irrespective of protein type and content, all protein-XG foams at pH 3 destabilized due to large insoluble complexes, however, at pH 5 foams were stable due to smaller size of insoluble complexes. Both the protein concentrate-XG foams were stable at pH 7 and 9 due to optimum viscosity and surface tension of the soluble complexes. Overall, the study revealed that the overrun and stability of pulse protein foams can be significantly improved by adding XG and controlling their intermolecular interactions as a function of pH.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/química , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ervilhas/química , Vicia faba/química , Viscosidade
10.
Br Poult Sci ; 61(3): 287-293, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951479

RESUMO

1. This study investigated the nutritional value (digestibility of ileal crude protein and amino acids (AAs)) and the AMEN value of legumes (pea, faba bean, yellow lupin, and narrow-leaved lupin) with or without protease. 2. Two hundred, one-day-old, male Ross 308 broiler chickens were randomly allocated to ten groups. Each group received one of five different protein raw materials - either peas, faba beans, yellow lupins or narrow-leaved lupins, with or without protease produced from Bacillus licheniformis. The birds were kept in individual cages. Nutrient digestibility was calculated using the difference method. The total duration of the study was 23 d, and the study involved two phases - accommodation phase (d 1-18) and experimental phase (d 18-23). 3. The effect of protease on response traits was not consistent between the legumes. The enzyme increased the digestibility of some AAs in the pea (arginine, leucine, phenylalanine, histidine, tyrosine, alanine, and proline), faba bean (lysine, arginine, glycine, and asparagine), and yellow lupin diets (lysine, valine, and serine), but this effect was not observed in the narrow-leaved lupin diet. The change in AMEN values due to protease addition was only statistically significant for the pea diet (P < 0.05), whereas in the case of other legume species, the difference was insignificant (P > 0.05). 4. Exogenous protease increased the digestibility of AAs present in pea, faba bean, and yellow lupin seeds but not in narrow-leaved lupin diets. The AMEN value of peas increased with protease supplementation, but no effect of protease was found for the AMEN values of faba bean and both the lupin diets.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Bacillus licheniformis , Vicia faba , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Dieta , Digestão , Masculino , Valor Nutritivo , Ervilhas , Peptídeo Hidrolases
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 190: 110152, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927357

RESUMO

Nano-titanium dioxide (nTiO2) has been reported to improve tolerance of plants against different environmental stresses by modulating various physiological and biochemical processes. Nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to act as an important stress signaling molecule during plant responses to abiotic stresses. The present work was planned to investigate the involvement of endogenous NO in nTiO2-induced activation of defense system of fava bean (Vicia faba L.) plants under water-deficit stress (WDS) conditions. Water-suffered plants showed increased concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide (O2-) content coupled with increased electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation which adversely affected nitrate reductase (NR) activity, chlorophyll content and growth of the plants. However, application of 15 mg L-1 nTiO2 to stressed plants significantly induced NR activity and synthesis of NO which elevated enzymatic and non-enzymatic defense system of the stressed plants and suppressed the generation of H2O2 and O2- content, leakage of electrolytes, and lipid peroxidation. Application of nTiO2, in association with NO, also enhanced the accumulation of osmolytes (proline and glycine betaine) that assisted the stressed plants in osmotic adjustment as witnessed by improved hydration level of the plants. Involvement of NO in nTiO2-induced activation of defense system was confirmed with NO scavenger cPTIO [2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide] which caused recurrence of WDS.


Assuntos
Desidratação , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Titânio/toxicidade , Vicia faba/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorofila/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Vicia faba/metabolismo
12.
Food Chem ; 314: 126205, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968291

RESUMO

An 8-week feeding trial and transcriptome analysis were conducted to investigate the potential mechanism of muscle-hardening caused by faba bean in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). Ordinary grass carp (fed with practical diet) and crisp grass carp (fed with faba bean meal) groups were designed. Lower water holding capacity and higher some texture parameters were observed in the muscle of crisp grass carp compared with another group. 19.62 GB clean reads were generated, and total 1354 genes exhibiting differentially expression were identified (FDR < 0.05). Genes function enrichment revealed up-regulated genes in crisp grass carp mainly in response to myofibroblast proliferation, while down-regulated genes in response to immune regulation. Consistent with this, the tight junction pathway and the NF-κB signaling pathway were likewise significantly enriched. In summary, this study identified several candidate genes and putative signaling pathways deserving further investigation to the mechanism of muscle-hardening in fish fed with faba bean.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Carpas/genética , Animais , Carpas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Músculos/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Vicia faba
13.
Ecotoxicology ; 29(1): 65-74, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786708

RESUMO

To overcome the drawbacks of the Vicia faba root tip micronucleus test in soil using the solution extract method, we conducted a potting experiment by direct soil exposure. Cadmium was spiked into 3 typical soils (brown soil, red soil, and black soil) to simulate environmental concentrations (0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg kg-1). Multiple Vicia faba tissues (primary root tips, secondary root tips, and leaf tips) were sampled, and mitotic index (MI), chromosome aberration frequency (CA), and micronucleus frequency (MN) were used as endpoints after a seedling period of 5 days. The results showed a response between Cd concentrations and multiple sampling tissues of Vicia faba, and the secondary root tips responded to Cd stress the most, followed by primary root tips and leaf tips. Soil physicochemical properties (e.g., pH, total phosphorus, total organic carbon, etc.) influenced the genotoxicity of Cd, and pH was the dominant factor, which resulted in the genetic toxicity response of Cd in soils in the order: red soil > brown soil > black soil. The lowest observable effect concentration (LOEC) of Cd was 1.25 mg kg-1 for both brown soil and red soil and 2.5 mg kg-1 for black soil. In view of this, we suggested that soil properties should be considered in evaluating genotoxicity risk of Cd in soil, especially with soil pH range, and the secondary root tips should be taken as suitable test tissues in the MN test due to its more sensible response feature to Cd stress in soil.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Testes para Micronúcleos/métodos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Vicia faba/fisiologia , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Dano ao DNA , Vicia faba/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Prep Biochem Biotechnol ; 50(2): 123-132, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702433

RESUMO

The chemo-profiling of ethanolic extract of faba beans seeds was performed and explored as an α-glucosidase inhibitor. The inhibition of α-glucosidase is one of the alternatives approach to control postprandial hyperglycemia by, resulting in the delay of the carbohydrate digestion of absorbable monosaccharides. Ethanolic seed extract showed phenolic compounds, flavonoid such as gallic acid (m/z [M- H] = 169.0124,C7H6O5) ellagic acid derivatives epigallocatechin (m/z [M- H = 305.0644,C15H14O7),catechin (m/z [M- H] = 289.0656,C15H14O6), epigallocatechin gallate (m/z [M- H] = 457.0578,C22H18O11) and epicatechin monogallate (m/z [M- H] = 441.081, C22H18O10). The extract was found to exert inhibitory activity (88.28 ± 2.67%) (IC50 value of 2.30 ± 0.032 mg/mL) with a mixed mode of inhibition (Km, apparent = 0.54 ± 0.020 mM and Vmax, apparent 0.136 ± 0.04 mM/min). Molecular docking studies of gallic acid and catechin on α-glucosidase proposed productive binding modes having binding energy (-6.58 kcal/mol and -7.25 kcal/mol) with an effective number of hydrogen bonds and binding energy. Tyr63, Arg197, Asp198, Glu 233, Asn324, Asp 326 of α-glucosidase participated in binding events with gallic acid and catechin. Molecular dynamics simulation studies were performed for both complexes i.e. gal:α-glucosidase and cat:α-glucosidase along with apo state of α-glucosidase, which revealed stable systems during the simulation. These findings of the present study may give an insight into the further development of the novel antidiabetic drug from the seeds of faba beans.


Assuntos
Catequina/metabolismo , Ácido Gálico/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Vicia faba/metabolismo , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Sementes/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Vicia faba/embriologia
15.
Chemosphere ; 244: 125480, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821927

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of arsenic (As) toxicity and the mitigating role of nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on Vicia faba. Arsenics stress decreased the growth and biomass yield, and photosynthetic pigments, but it enhanced As accumulation. Supplementation of NO enhanced the afore-mentioned parameters except As accumulation which decreased in both shoot and root. Supplementation of NO enhanced the shoot tolerance index (Shoot TI%), root tolerance index (Root TI%) but it declined the As translocation factor (TF). Application of NO alleviated the As-induced decline in net assimilation rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration and leaf relative water content. The levels of proline and glycine betaine (GB) further increased due to NO application, whereas malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), electrolyte leakage (EL) and methylglyoxal (MG) declined considerably. Activities of enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) increased under As stress. Supplementation of NO up-regulated the enzymes involved in Asc-Glu cycle and glyoxalase cycle under As toxicity. Another experiment was setup to authenticate whether NO was certainly able to alleviate As toxicity. For this purpose, the NO scavenger [2-(4-carboxy-2 phenyl)-4,4,5,5-tertamethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO)] was added to As and NO supplemented plants. Addition of cPTIO to NO supplemented As-treated plants showed the same effect when As alone was supplied to plants. In conclusion, addition of NO to the growth medium maintained the plant performance under As toxicity through modulation of physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant enzymes, and the Asc-Glu and glyoxalase systems.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Arsênico/toxicidade , Nitroprussiato/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Vicia faba/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Catalase/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Lactoilglutationa Liase/metabolismo , Malondialdeído , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Doadores de Óxido Nítrico , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Vicia faba/metabolismo
16.
Chemosphere ; 241: 125063, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610463

RESUMO

The present experiment was designed to evaluate physico-chemical characteristics and phyto-genotoxicity of arsenic (As) contaminated soil collected from different sites of Lakhimpur, Uttar Pradesh (UP), India by employing Vicia faba L. The analyses included various biochemical as well as cyto-genotoxicity assays. The results showed that soil pH was slightly acidic to neutral in nature. The bulk density (1.18-1.23 gcm-3), particle density (2.51-2.59 gcm-3) and porosity (44-53%) varied in different places. The level of available nutrients, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was found to vary as 124-165 mgkg-1, 173-186 mgkg-1 and 48-98 mgkg-1, respectively. The maximum As levels were found in soil of Fulvareya (27.13 mgkg-1) and Atareya (24.12 mgkg-1), the level of As in water samples of these sites were 0.19 mgl-1and 0.21 mgl-1, respectively. Phytotoxicity of the As present in soils was evident through significant increases in stress metabolites, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonyl groups in root and shoot of V. faba. Cyto-genotoxic effects were also seen through reduced mitotic index (MI) and increased mitotic depression (MD), relative abnormality rate (RAR) as well as other chromosomal abnormalities along with micronuclei in root meristematic cells of V. faba. The phytotoxicity and cyto-genotoxicity assessment suggests the harmful soil properties that might affect biota.


Assuntos
Arsênico/toxicidade , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Arsênico/análise , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Dano ao DNA , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Índia , Meristema/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes para Micronúcleos/métodos , Índice Mitótico , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Vicia faba/efeitos dos fármacos , Vicia faba/genética
17.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124919, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726585

RESUMO

Ionic liquids (ILs) are regarded as green solvents and are frequently used in the chemical industry. However, ILs may impact plant growth if they are present in the soil environment. To compare toxicity of ILs with different anions in soil, three imidazolium-based ionic liquids (1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) were used to assess impact on Vicia faba. Following 10 d of exposure to these three ILs from 0 to 2500 mg kg-1, shoot length, root length and dry weight of Vicia faba were determined. Pot trials revealed that ILs inhibited Vicia faba growth and according to EC50 values, [C6mim]BF4 was the most toxic one. In addition, physiological indicators of Vicia faba were determined following 10 d of exposure at selected IL concentrations (0, 1, 10, 100 and 500 mg kg-1). ILs led to the generation of reactive oxygen species and then caused oxidative damage, including lipid peroxidation, protein damage and DNA damage, which triggered an increase in antioxidant content and enzyme activity. The experimental results indicated that oxidative stress may be the primary underlying toxic mechanism for Vicia faba. Furthermore, based on the data of physiological experiment, integrated biomarker response (IBR) was calculated to compare the toxicity of the three ILs and toxic order was: [C6mim]NO3<[C6mim]Br<[C6mim]BF4.


Assuntos
Líquidos Iônicos/toxicidade , Vicia faba/efeitos dos fármacos , Ânions/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Boratos/toxicidade , Brometos , Dano ao DNA , Imidazóis/toxicidade , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Nitratos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Solventes/metabolismo , Testes de Toxicidade , Vicia faba/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
Food Microbiol ; 85: 103309, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500715

RESUMO

The production of Chinese horse bean-chili-paste (CHCP) involves three fermentation phases: chili-to-moromi fermentation (CF) phase, horse bean-to-meju fermentation (HF) phase and moromi-meju mixed fermentation (MF) phase. To understand the microbial dynamics among these three phases and the potential roles of viable microbes for fermentation, microbial community dynamics was investigated by using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Furthermore, the capacities of enzyme-producing of the isolates were determined. During the CF phase, reducing sugar content increased from 3.1% to 3.49%, while pH declined from 4.85 to 4.5. The protein content in the HF phase and MF phase reduced sharply from 22.23% to 10.29% and 4.39%-1.19%, respectively. Bacillus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Oceanobacillus sp., Candida sp., Zygosaccharomyces sp. and Aspergillus sp. dominated the CF phase, while Bacillus sp., Candida sp. and Zygosaccharomyces sp. were the dominant microorganisms in both the HF and MF phases. B. amyloliquefaciens, B. methylotrophicus, B. subtilis, B. licheniformis and A. oryzae possessed strong capacities of producing enzymes, i.e. α-amylase, cellulase and xylanase, acid protease and leucine aminopeptidase, and could make a great contribution to CHCP fermentation.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Microbiota , Soja/microbiologia , Biodiversidade , Capsicum/microbiologia , Células-Tronco , Vicia faba/microbiologia
19.
J Appl Microbiol ; 128(1): 232-241, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544331

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this paper was to determine whether the quality of formulated Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf153 can be influenced by changes in fermentation conditions. In this study, the influence of the fermentation temperature on the growth and its consequence on shelf life, viability and biocontrol efficacy of freeze-dried cells of P. fluorescens Pf153 was investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cells of P. fluorescens Pf153 were grown at 20 and 28°C in flasks and fermenter and harvested in the mid-log and the beginning of the stationary phase. The survival during storage of freeze-dried cells was tested at 25°C. Cells fermented at 20°C survived in storage better than those grown at 28°C, irrespective of the harvesting time. Compared to the untreated control, in in vitro tests Pf153 was in all production temperature/duration combinations significantly effective against all tested Botrytis cinerea strains. But no differences between temperature/duration combinations were found. In bioassay on detached Vicia faba leaves, it was found that young cells, when fermented at 28°C had a significant positive influence on the biocontrol efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that fermentation parameters have an influence on the performance and quality of a formulated product. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Only limited numbers of biocontrol products based on antagonistic pseudomonads are on the market. This can be attributed to the lack of suitable formulated products with high numbers of viable cells and a good shelf life. Currently, only limited information on the influence of the fermentation on subsequent downstreaming process is available. Within this study, we focused on the influence of the two important parameters fermentation temperature and harvest time on survival, shelf life and biocontrol efficacy of P. fluorescens Pf153.


Assuntos
Agentes de Controle Biológico , Preservação Biológica/métodos , Pseudomonas fluorescens/fisiologia , Agentes de Controle Biológico/farmacologia , Botrytis/efeitos dos fármacos , Fermentação , Liofilização , Viabilidade Microbiana , Temperatura , Vicia faba/microbiologia
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 701: 134816, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704404

RESUMO

Nanotechnology is an emerging field in science and engineering, which presents significant impacts on the economy, society and the environment. The nanomaterials' (NMs) production, use, and disposal is inevitably leading to their release into the environment where there are uncertainties about its fate, behaviour, and toxicity. Recent works have demonstrated that NMs can penetrate, translocate, and accumulate in plants. However, studies about the effects of the NMs on plants are still limited because most investigations are carried out in the initial stage of plant development. The present study aimed to evaluate and characterize the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) of broad bean (Vicia faba) leaves when subjected to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with diameters of 20, 51, and 73 nm as well as to micrometer-size Ag particles (AgBulk). The AgNPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The analyses were performed by injecting the leaves with 100 mg L-1 aqueous solution of Ag and measuring the chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, gas exchange, thermal imaging, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In addition, silver ion (Ag+) release from Ag particles was determined by dialysis. The results revealed that AgNPs induce a decrease in the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) and an increase in the non-photochemical quenching. The data also revealed that AgNPs affected the stomatal conductance (gs) and CO2 assimilation. Further, AgNPs induced an overproduction of ROS in Vicia faba leaves. Finally, all observed effects were particle diameter-dependent, increasing with the reduction of AgNPs diameter and revealing that AgBulk caused only a small or no changes on plants. In summary, the results point out that AgNPs may negatively affect the photosynthesis process when accumulated in the leaves, and that the NPs themselves were mainly responsible since negligible Ag+ release was detected.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Prata/toxicidade , Vicia faba/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Vicia faba/fisiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA