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1.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 126: 1167-1176, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30625353

RESUMO

The germin-like protein (GLP) purified from Thevetia peruviana, Peruvianin-I, is the only one described as having proteolytic activity. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate the structural features responsible for its enzymatic activity. Although the amino acid sequence of Peruvianin-I showed high identity with other GLPs, it exhibited punctual mutations, which were responsible for the absence of oxalate oxidase activity. The phylogenetic analysis showed that Peruvianin-I does not belong to any classification of GLP subfamilies. Moreover, Peruvianin-I contains a catalytic triad found in all plant cysteine peptidases. Molecular docking simulations confirmed the role of the catalytic triad in its proteolytic activity. Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism assays confirmed that Peruvianin-I was stable at pH ranging from 5.0 to 8.0 and that it presented significant structural changes only above 60 °C. The addition of iodoacetamide caused changes in its native conformation, but only a slight effect was observed after adding a reducing agent. This study reports an unusual protein with germin-like structure, lacking typical oxalate oxidase activity. Instead, the proteolytic activity observed suggests that the protein is a cysteine peptidase. These structural peculiarities make Peruvianin­I an interesting model for further understanding of the action of laticifer fluids in plant defense.


Assuntos
Glicoproteínas/química , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteólise , Thevetia/enzimologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Domínio Catalítico , Dicroísmo Circular , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Filogenia , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Substâncias Redutoras/química , Análise de Sequência de Proteína , Especificidade por Substrato/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura
2.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 57(2): 104-111, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30073854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Consumption of yellow oleander (Cascabela thevetia) is a popular method of intentional self-harm in South India. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to identify the cardiac arrhythmias and electrolyte abnormalities in yellow oleander poisoning and to identify the association between electrolyte abnormalities, cardiac glycoside concentrations at admission and the severity of cardiotoxicity. This study was also designed to identify clinical and biochemical parameters at presentation which predict serious arrhythmias and determinants of mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study among 192 patients who attended our Emergency department after consuming yellow oleander seeds. Patients were monitored with serial ECGs. Serious cardiac arrhythmias included sinus bradycardia <40/min, sinus arrest/exit block, second or third degree AV block, atrial tachyarrhythmias and ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Serum sodium, potassium, magnesium, total calcium and cardiac glycoside concentrations were measured at presentation for all 192 patients. Serial estimation of cardiac glycoside concentration was done in 43 patients who presented within 24 hours of consuming at least five seeds. RESULTS: At presentation, 46 patients had serious arrhythmias and on follow-up, 11 developed new-onset serious arrhythmia. Sinus bradycardia (27%) was the most common arrhythmia followed by second-degree AV block (17%); multiple arrhythmias were observed in 18%. Digoxin effect in ECG correlated significantly with hyperkalemia. Mortality rate was 5%. Serum sodium, total calcium and magnesium levels did not correlate with cardiotoxicity. Cardiac glycoside concentration was of relatively modest clinical utility to discriminate patients with serious dysrhythmias (AUC: 0.719, 95% CI: 0.63-0.81). Prolonged PR interval and digoxin effect in ECG were significantly associated with an increased likelihood of serious dysrhythmias. Increase in 0.4 number of seed intake increased the odds of mortality by 1.5 times when all other independent variables were kept constant. CONCLUSION: Cardiac glycoside concentration at the time of presentation predicted the development of new-onset serious arrhythmias. Although serum potassium correlated significantly with cardiac glycoside concentration at admission and overall serious dysrhythmias, it did not predict the development of new-onset serious arrhythmia. On the whole, serious dysrhythmias were significantly associated with higher number of seeds ingested, hypotension at admission, PR interval prolongation, presence of digoxin effect in ECG, hyperkalemia and higher cardiac glycoside concentration. The independent determinants of mortality were larger number of seeds ingested and hypotension at admission. Cardiac glycoside concentration and hyperkalemia failed to be independent markers of serious dysrhythmias as well as mortality.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/etiologia , Glicosídeos Cardíacos/sangue , Intoxicação por Plantas/etiologia , Thevetia/envenenamento , Desequilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Eletrocardiografia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Intoxicação por Plantas/sangue , Intoxicação por Plantas/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Sementes/envenenamento , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 54(1): 1-13, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30285582

RESUMO

Modified Thevetia peruviana shell activated carbon for sorption of dimethoate from aqueous solution derived with potassium hydroxide (KOH) was studied at different concentrations for its potential application in water treatment. The batch sorption was investigated using dimethoate solution of 10-100 mg/L concentrations. Proximate analysis was determined and changes on the surfaces and structure of the TPS were characterized after chemical activation with KOH using XRD, FTIR, SEM-EDAX, pHpzc, BET. The quantum chemical calculation for dimethoate yielded molecule associated energies of -9.8421 (HOMO) and -2.3879 (LUMO) and a total energy of -53,376.2. The kinetic of the sorption was modeled which indicated the sorption equilibrium time as 90 min and pseudo-first order kinetics model showing R2 = 0.994 provided a better description of the process. Analysis of sorption equilibrium revealed that the data fitted well to Freundlich sorption isotherm model (R2 = 0.966), indicating multi-layer sorption of dimethoate on the surface of sorbent. The sorption of dimethoate onto KOHTPS shows 92.60% removal efficiency.


Assuntos
Dimetoato/isolamento & purificação , Hidróxidos/química , Compostos de Potássio/química , Thevetia/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Purificação da Água/métodos , Adsorção , Exoesqueleto/química , Animais , Carvão Vegetal/química , Dimetoato/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/isolamento & purificação , Cinética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Modelos Químicos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Difração de Raios X
4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD013230, 2018 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30565220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral poisoning is a major cause of mortality and disability worldwide, with estimates of over 100,000 deaths due to unintentional poisoning each year and an overrepresentation of children below five years of age. Any effective intervention that laypeople can apply to limit or delay uptake or to evacuate, dilute or neutralize the poison before professional help arrives may limit toxicity and save lives. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of pre-hospital interventions (alone or in combination) for treating acute oral poisoning, available to and feasible for laypeople before the arrival of professional help. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, ISI Web of Science, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and three clinical trials registries to 11 May 2017, and we also carried out reference checking and citation searching. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials comparing interventions (alone or in combination) that are feasible in a pre-hospital setting for treating acute oral poisoning patients, including but potentially not limited to activated charcoal (AC), emetics, cathartics, diluents, neutralizing agents and body positioning. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two reviewers independently performed study selection, data collection and assessment. Primary outcomes of this review were incidence of mortality and adverse events, plus incidence and severity of symptoms of poisoning. Secondary outcomes were duration of symptoms of poisoning, drug absorption, and incidence of hospitalization and ICU admission. MAIN RESULTS: We included 24 trials involving 7099 participants. Using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool, we assessed no study as being at low risk of bias for all domains. Many studies were poorly reported, so the risk of selection and detection biases were often unclear. Most studies reported important outcomes incompletely, and we judged them to be at high risk of reporting bias.All but one study enrolled oral poisoning patients in an emergency department; the remaining study was conducted in a pre-hospital setting. Fourteen studies included multiple toxic syndromes or did not specify, while the other studies specifically investigated paracetamol (2 studies), carbamazepine (2 studies), tricyclic antidepressant (2 studies), yellow oleander (2 studies), benzodiazepine (1 study), or toxic berry intoxication (1 study). Eighteen trials investigated the effects of activated charcoal (AC), administered as a single dose (SDAC) or in multiple doses (MDAC), alone or in combination with other first aid interventions (a cathartic) and/or hospital treatments. Six studies investigated syrup of ipecac plus other first aid interventions (SDAC + cathartic) versus ipecac alone. The collected evidence was mostly of low to very low certainty, often downgraded for indirectness, risk of bias or imprecision due to low numbers of events.First aid interventions that limit or delay the absorption of the poison in the bodyWe are uncertain about the effect of SDAC compared to no intervention on the incidence of adverse events in general (zero events in both treatment groups; 1 study, 451 participants) or vomiting specifically (Peto odds ratio (OR) 4.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.30 to 57.26, 1 study, 25 participants), ICU admission (Peto OR 7.77, 95% CI 0.15 to 391.93, 1 study, 451 participants) and clinical deterioration (zero events in both treatment groups; 1 study, 451 participants) in participants with mixed types or paracetamol poisoning, as all evidence for these outcomes was of very low certainty. No studies assessed SDAC for mortality, duration of symptoms, drug absorption or hospitalization.Only one study compared SDAC to syrup of ipecac in participants with mixed types of poisoning, providing very low-certainty evidence. Therefore we are uncertain about the effects on Glasgow Coma Scale scores (mean difference (MD) -0.15, 95% CI -0.43 to 0.13, 1 study, 34 participants) or incidence of adverse events (risk ratio (RR) 1.24, 95% CI 0.26 to 5.83, 1 study, 34 participants). No information was available concerning mortality, duration of symptoms, drug absorption, hospitalization or ICU admission.This review also considered the added value of SDAC or MDAC to hospital interventions, which mostly included gastric lavage. No included studies investigated the use of body positioning in oral poisoning patients.First aid interventions that evacuate the poison from the gastrointestinal tractWe found one study comparing ipecac versus no intervention in toxic berry ingestion in a pre-hospital setting. Low-certainty evidence suggests there may be an increase in the incidence of adverse events, but the study did not report incidence of mortality, incidence or duration of symptoms of poisoning, drug absorption, hospitalization or ICU admission (103 participants).In addition, we also considered the added value of syrup of ipecac to SDAC plus a cathartic and the added value of a cathartic to SDAC.No studies used cathartics as an individual intervention.First aid interventions that neutralize or dilute the poison No included studies investigated the neutralization or dilution of the poison in oral poisoning patients.The review also considered combinations of different first aid interventions. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The studies included in this review provided mostly low- or very low-certainty evidence about the use of first aid interventions for acute oral poisoning. A key limitation was the fact that only one included study actually took place in a pre-hospital setting, which undermines our confidence in the applicability of these results to this setting. Thus, the amount of evidence collected was insufficient to draw any conclusions.


Assuntos
Primeiros Socorros/métodos , Envenenamento/terapia , Acetaminofen/envenenamento , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/envenenamento , Antidepressivos/envenenamento , Antídotos/uso terapêutico , Benzodiazepinas/envenenamento , Carbamazepina/envenenamento , Catárticos/uso terapêutico , Carvão Vegetal/uso terapêutico , Frutas/envenenamento , Humanos , Ipeca/uso terapêutico , Envenenamento/etiologia , Viés de Publicação , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Thevetia/envenenamento
5.
PLoS One ; 13(4): e0196194, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29708983

RESUMO

Two experiments (pot and field experiments) were conducted in two consecutive years to evaluate the protective effects of botanical-chemical formulations on physiological, biochemical performance and grain yield of wheat inoculated with Bipolaris sorokiniana. We compared different formulations comprising Calotropis procera, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Thevetia peruviana extracts, chemical fungicide (mefenoxam) and salicylic acid to modulate the defense system of wheat host plants. Among the selected plant species J. mimosifolia aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts (1.2% w/v) resulted in 96 to 97% inhibition against B. sorokiniana. Both in pot and field experiments, among all the formulations of selected plant extracts the combined formulation of JAF2 (J. mimosifolia 0.6%)+MFF2 (mefenoxam 0.1%) lowered the dose of chemical fungicide required to reduce the leaf spot blotch disease. The same formulation induced resistance in wheat apparently through the accumulation of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, protease, acid invertase, chitinase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase. This formulation also stimulated the defense-related gene expression of PR-proteins. The same treatment gave even more increase (48%, 12% and 22%) in no. of grains/spike, grains weight and grain yield, than the MFF1 (mefenoxam 0.2%). We conclude that foliar application of J. mimosifolia leaf extract with very low dose of chemical fungicide (J. mimosifolia 0.6%+mefenoxam 0.1%) is a promising approach for the management of leaf blight and spot blotch in wheat.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Thevetia/química , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/microbiologia
6.
J Postgrad Med ; 64(2): 123-126, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28862240

RESUMO

Self-harm by consuming yellow oleander seeds has become more frequent in South Asian countries, especially Sri Lanka and in southern parts of India. Yellow oleander poisoning usually presents with gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and neurological manifestations as well as electrolyte abnormalities. Cardiac effects can manifest as nearly any type of dysrhythmia and sudden death with very few premonitory signs. To our knowledge yellow oleander poisoning related acute myocardial infarction has not yet been reported. We report a 37-year-old man with yellow oleander poisoning who had normal sinus rhythm at presentation but within few hours developed acute ST-segment myocardial infarction.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/induzido quimicamente , Intoxicação por Plantas , Plantas Tóxicas/envenenamento , Thevetia/envenenamento , Adulto , Angiografia Coronária , Stents Farmacológicos , Eletrocardiografia , Humanos , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Nerium , Sementes/envenenamento , Resultado do Tratamento , Vômito/etiologia
7.
J Diet Suppl ; 15(3): 352-364, 2018 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28956681

RESUMO

The Dietary Supplements and Health Education Act (DSHEA), passed by the United States Congress in October of 1994, defines herbal products as nutritional supplements, not medications. This opened the market for diverse products made from plants, including teas, extracts, essential oils, and syrups. Mexico and the United States share an extensive border, where diverse herbal products are available to the public without a medical prescription. Research undertaken in the neighboring cities of Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, and El Paso, Texas, USA, shows the use of herbs is higher in this border area compared to the rest of the United States. A portion of the population is still under the erroneous impression that "natural" products are completely safe to use and therefore lack side effects. We review the dangers of ingesting the toxic seed of Thevetia spp. (family Apocynaceae), commonly known as "yellow oleander" or "codo de fraile," misleadingly advertised on the Internet as an effective and safe dietary supplement for weight loss. Lack of proper quality control regarding herbs generates a great variability in the quantity and quality of the products' content. Herb-drug interactions occur between some herbal products and certain prescription pharmaceuticals. Certain herbs recently introduced into the U.S. market may not have been previously tested adequately for purity, safety, and efficacy. Due to the lack of reliable clinical data regarding the safe use of various herbal products currently available, the public should be made aware regarding the possible health hazards of using certain herbs for therapeutic purposes. The potentially fatal toxicity of yellow oleander seed is confirmed by cases reported from various countries, while the purported benefits of using it for weight loss have not been evaluated by any known clinical trials. For this reason, the use of yellow oleander seed as a dietary supplement should be avoided.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/toxicidade , Suplementos Nutricionais/toxicidade , Sementes/toxicidade , Thevetia/toxicidade , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/economia , Fármacos Antiobesidade/normas , Suplementos Nutricionais/economia , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Contaminação de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Rotulagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Rotulagem de Alimentos/normas , Fraude , Humanos , Internet , Legislação sobre Alimentos , México , Intoxicação por Plantas/etiologia , Intoxicação por Plantas/prevenção & controle , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Plantas Medicinais/efeitos adversos , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Tóxicas/química , Plantas Tóxicas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Tóxicas/toxicidade , Sementes/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Texas , Thevetia/química , Thevetia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estados Unidos
8.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 17(1): 241, 2017 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28464893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K. Schum or Cascabela peruviana (L.) Lippold (commonly known as ayoyote, codo de fraile, lucky nut, or yellow oleander), native to Mexico and Central America, is a medicinal plant used traditionally to cure diseases like ulcers, scabies, hemorrhoids and dissolve tumors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic, antiproliferative and apoptotic activity of methanolic extract of T. peruviana fruits on human cancer cell lines. METHODS: The cytotoxic activity of T. peruviana methanolic extract was carried out on human breast, colorectal, prostate and lung cancer cell lines and non-tumorigenic control cells (fibroblast and Vero), using the MTT assay. For proliferation and motility, clonogenic and wound-healing assays were performed. Morphological alterations were monitored by trypan blue exclusion, as well as DNA fragmentation and AO/EB double staining was performed to evaluate apoptosis. The extract was separated using flash chromatography, and the resulting fractions were evaluated on colorectal cancer cells for their cytotoxic activity. The active fractions were further analyzed through mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The T. peruviana methanolic extract exhibited cytotoxic activity on four human cancer cell lines: prostate, breast, colorectal and lung, with values of IC50 1.91 ± 0.76, 5.78 ± 2.12, 6.30 ± 4.45 and 12.04 ± 3.43 µg/mL, respectively. The extract caused a significant reduction of cell motility and colony formation on all evaluated cancer cell lines. In addition, morphological examination displayed cell size reduction, membrane blebbing and detachment of cells, compared to non-treated cancer cell lines. The T. peruviana extract induced apoptotic cell death, which was confirmed by DNA fragmentation and AO/EB double staining. Fractions 4 and 5 showed the most effective cytotoxic activity and their MS analysis revealed the presence of the secondary metabolites: thevetiaflavone and cardiac glycosides. CONCLUSION: T. peruviana extract has potential as natural anti-cancer product with critical effects in the proliferation, motility, and adhesion of human breast and colorectal cancer cells, and apoptosis induction in human prostate and lung cancer cell lines, with minimal effects on non-tumorigenic cell lines.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Glicosídeos Cardíacos/uso terapêutico , Flavonas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Thevetia/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Glicosídeos Cardíacos/análise , Glicosídeos Cardíacos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Fragmentação do DNA , Feminino , Flavonas/análise , Flavonas/farmacologia , Frutas , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , México , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Células Vero
9.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng ; 40(4): 573-587, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27987091

RESUMO

In this work, a mechanistic model for predicting the dynamic behavior of extracellular and intracellular nutrients, biomass production, and the main metabolites involved in the central carbon metabolism in plant cell cultures of Thevetia peruviana is presented. The proposed model is the first mechanistic model implemented for plant cell cultures of this species, and includes 28 metabolites, 33 metabolic reactions, and 61 parameters. Given the over-parametrization of the model, its nonlinear nature and the strong correlation among the effects of the parameters, a parameter estimation routine based on identifiability analysis was implemented. This routine reduces the parameter's search space by selecting the most sensitive and linearly independent parameters. Results have shown that only 19 parameters are identifiable. Finally, the model was used for analyzing the fluxes distribution in plant cell cultures of T. peruviana. This analysis shows high uptake of phosphates and parallel uptake of glucose and fructose. Furthermore, it has pointed out the main central carbon metabolism routes for promoting biomass production in this cell culture.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Modelos Biológicos , Células Vegetais/metabolismo , Thevetia/citologia , Thevetia/metabolismo
10.
Curr Pharm Des ; 23(7): 1051-1059, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27748195

RESUMO

Plants have been always a fruitful source of active metabolites against many human disorders, where cardiovascular (CV) diseases have been one of the major health problems all over the world. There are some clinically proved medicinal plants with cardioprotective effects such as Crataegus monogyna and C. oxyacantha (hawthorn) from Rosaceae. On the other hand, cardiac glycosides, present in a number of plant species, are wellknown for their cardiotonic activity. However, we encountered such a fact that very less number of studies are available on the source plants; e.g. Adonis vernalis, Convallaria majalis, Strophanthus kombe, Thevetia peruviana, Leonurus cardiaca, etc. Consequently, we herein aimed to cover all available data consisting of in vitro, in vivo, and human studies (if any) on cardiotonic effects of the aforementioned species through a wide literature search using Scopus, Web of Science as well as Pubmed.


Assuntos
Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais/química , Adonis/química , Cardiotônicos/química , Cardiotônicos/isolamento & purificação , Convallaria/química , Humanos , Leonurus/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Strophanthus/química , Thevetia/química
11.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 163: 87-91, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27541569

RESUMO

Thevetia peruviana (T. peruviana) has been considered as a potentially important plant for industrial and pharmacological application. Among the number of compounds which are produced by T. peruviana, antioxidants and polyphenols are of particular interest due to their benefits on human health. Cell suspension cultures of T. peruviana were established under different conditions: 1) constant illumination (24h/day) at different light wavelengths (red, green, blue, yellow and white), 2) darkness and 3) control (12h/12h: day light/dark) to investigate their biomass, substrate uptake, polyphenols production and oxidizing activity. The results showed biomass concentrations between 17.1g dry weight (DW)/l (green light) and 18.2g DW/l (control) after 13days. The cultures that grew under green light conditions consumed completely all substrates after 10days, while other cultures required at least 13days or more. The total phenolic content was between 7.21 and 9.46mg gallic acid (GA)/g DW for all light conditions. In addition the ferric reducing antioxidant power and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid antioxidant activity ranged from 5.41-6.58mg ascorbic acid (AA)/g DW and 82.93-110.39µmol Trolox/g DW, respectively. Interestingly, the samples which grew under the darkness presented a higher phenolic content and antioxidant capacity when compared to the light conditions. All together, these results demonstrate the extraordinary effect of different lighting conditions on polyphenols production and antioxidant compounds by T. peruviana.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Luz , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Thevetia/citologia , Thevetia/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico/efeitos da radiação , Proliferação de Células/efeitos da radiação , Células Cultivadas , Suspensões , Thevetia/efeitos da radiação
12.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; 18(9): 837-47, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27086856

RESUMO

Phytochemical investigation of the seeds of Thevetia peruviana resulted in the isolation of seven cardiac glycosides (1-7), including two new compounds (1 and 2). Cytotoxicity of them toward cancer cell lines P15 (human lung cancer cell), MGC-803 (human gastric cancer cells), SW1990 (human pancreatic cancer cells), and normal hepatocyte cell LO2 suggested that compound 1 could selectively inhibit the proliferation of cancer cell lines with IC50 from 0.05 to 0.15 µM. Pro-apoptotic activity revealed that it induced the apoptosis of MGC-803 cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, treatment of MGC-803 cancer cells with 1 resulted in diminution of pro-caspases 3 and 9 and activation of caspases 3 and 9, while it increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in a dose-dependent manner. These meant that 1 induced the apoptosis of cancer cells by involving the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. In addition, the cell cycle distribution of MGC-803 cancer cells treated by 1 revealed that it could lead to cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. Altogether, this study suggested that compound 1 may exhibit anticancer activity by its capability of induction of intrinsic apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase.


Assuntos
Glicosídeos Cardíacos/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos Cardíacos/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Thevetia/química , Glicosídeos Cardíacos/química , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspases/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular
13.
J Oleo Sci ; 65(4): 311-8, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26972464

RESUMO

The aim of this study was analyze the effect of jasmonic acid (JA) and abscisic acid (ABA) as elicitors on fatty acids profile (FAP), phenolic compounds (PC) and antioxidant capacity (AC) in callus of Thevetia peruviana. Schenk & Hildebrandt (SH) medium, supplemented with 2 mg/L 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic (2, 4-D) and 0.5 mg/L kinetin (KIN) was used for callus induction. The effect of JA (50, 75 and 100 µM) and ABA (10, 55 and 100 µM) on FAP, PC and AC were analyzed using a response surface design. A maximum of 2.8 mg/g of TPC was obtained with 100 plus 10 µM JA and ABA, respectively, whereas AC maximum (2.17 µg/mL) was obtained with 75 plus 100 µM JA and ABA, respectively. The FAP was affected for JA but not for ABA. JA increased cis-9, cis-12-octadecadienoic acid and decreased dodecanoic acid. Eight fatty acids were identified by GC-MS analysis and cis-9-octadecenoic acid (18:1) was the principal fatty acid reaching 76 % in treatment with 50 µM JA plus 55 µM ABA. In conclusion, JA may be used in T. peruviana callus culture for obtain oil with different fatty acids profile.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Fenóis/análise , Thevetia/química , Acetatos , Ácidos Graxos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Cinetina , Ácidos Láuricos/análise , Ácidos Esteáricos/análise
14.
Planta ; 243(5): 1115-28, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26794967

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The latex from Thevetia peruviana is rich in plant defense proteins, including a 120 kDa cysteine peptidase with structural characteristics similar to germin-like proteins. More than 20,000 plant species produce latex, including Apocynaceae, Sapotaceae, Papaveraceae and Euphorbiaceae. To better understand the physiological role played by latex fluids, a proteomic analysis of Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) Schum latex was performed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. A total of 33 proteins (86 %) were identified, including storage proteins, a peptidase inhibitor, cysteine peptidases, peroxidases and osmotins. An unusual cysteine peptidase, termed peruvianin-I, was purified from the latex by a single chromatographic step involving gel filtration. The enzyme (glycoprotein) was inhibited by E-64 and iodoacetamide and exhibited high specific activity towards azocasein (K m 17.6 µM), with an optimal pH and temperature of 5.0-6.0 and 25-37 °C, respectively. Gel filtration chromatography, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry revealed that peruvianin-I possesses 120 kDa, pI 4.0, and six subunits (20 kDa). A unique N-terminal amino acid sequence was obtained to oligomer and monomers of peruvianin-I (1ADPGPLQDFCLADLNSPLFINGYPCRNPALAISDDF36). High-resolution images from atomic force microscopy showed the homohexameric structure of peruvianin-I may be organized as a trimer of dimers that form a central channel similar to germin-like proteins. Peruvianin-I exhibited no oxalate oxidase and superoxide dismutase activity or antifungal effects. Peruvianin-I represents the first germin-like protein (GLP) with cysteine peptidase activity, an activity unknown in the GLP family so far.


Assuntos
Látex/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Thevetia/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Caseínas/metabolismo , Cisteína Proteases/isolamento & purificação , Cisteína Proteases/metabolismo , Cisteína Proteases/farmacologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Látex/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Proteômica/métodos
15.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 48(6): 669-674, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28066105

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K. Schum. (Apocynaceae) is known to possess cardioactive glycoside such as thevetin A, thevetin B, neriifolin, peruvoside, thevetoxin, and ruvoside. Traditionally, T. peruviana leaves are used as abortifacient. The aim of the present study is to evaluate antifertility potential of T. peruviana leaves. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Cardiac glycoside freed leaves of T. peruviana were extracted with methanol using maceration method. The dried cardiac glycoside-free methanolic extract of T. peruviana leaves (TPL-Me-G) was screened for phytoconstituents and evaluated for its effect on estrogen-primed female Sprague-Dawley rat uterus model. It was further studied for effects on the estrous cycle, implantation, and effect on estrogen and progesterone. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Statistical analysis was done by ANOVA followed by Dunnett's t-test. RESULTS: Alkaloids, flavonoids, essential oils, carbohydrates, and amino acids were found to be present in the glycoside-free extract. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) in n-butanol: acetone: water (4:1:5) revealed the presence of quercetin and kaempferol. The presence of flavonoids (quercetin 0.0326% and kaempferol 0.138% on dry weight basis) was reconfirmed by high-performance TLC analysis. The extract was able to induce uterine contractions (EC50, 0.170 mg/ml) in a dose-dependent manner. Further investigation showed significant (P < 0.001) extension of estrous cycle and anti-implantation activity of the extract by reduction of the progesterone level. CONCLUSIONS: Methanolic extract of T. peruviana leaves (TPL-Me-G) containing quercetin 0.0326% and kaempferol 0.138% possesses a significant (P < 0.001) antifertility potential by virtue of decreasing the progesterone level.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais Femininos/farmacologia , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta , Thevetia , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anticoncepcionais Femininos/isolamento & purificação , Estrogênios/sangue , Ciclo Estral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Estral/fisiologia , Feminino , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Gravidez , Progesterona/antagonistas & inibidores , Progesterona/sangue , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda/métodos , Útero/fisiologia
16.
J Nat Prod ; 79(1): 38-50, 2016 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26714048

RESUMO

Investigation of the seeds of Thevetia peruviana resulted in the isolation of 15 new (2-16) and 18 known (1 and 17-33) cardiac glycosides. Eight 19-nor-cardenolides (1-8), including two rare 19-nor-10-hydroperoxycardenolides, were obtained from T. peruviana for the first time. All the structures were characterized by NMR spectroscopy and chemical derivatization. The inhibitory effects of cardiac glycosides 1-33 against three cancer cell lines (human lung cancer cells, P15; human gastric cancer cells, MGC-803; and human pancreatic cancer cells, SW1990) and one normal hepatocyte cell line, LO2, were evaluated, and a preliminary structure-activity relationship is discussed. In addition, cardiac glycosides 1, 22, 26, and 28 were evaluated for their apoptosis-inducing activities in MGC-803 cells, showing IC50 values in the range 0.02-0.53 µM.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Cardenolídeos/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos Cardíacos/isolamento & purificação , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Sementes/química , Thevetia/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Cardenolídeos/química , Cardenolídeos/farmacologia , Glicosídeos Cardíacos/química , Glicosídeos Cardíacos/farmacologia , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Estrutura Molecular , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
18.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol ; 34(2): 105-13, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26081029

RESUMO

Methanol extracts of Thevetia peruviana (METP) (Apocynaceae) fruit showed antitumor activity against Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell line in Swiss albino mice. The METP-treated group's tumor volume, tumor weight, and viable cell count were decreased compared to the EAC control group. Tumor volumes were 3.62±0.12 ml, 2.88±0.23 ml, and 1.34±0.17 ml for the EAC control group and the METP-treated groups (50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg body weight), respectively. Nonviable cell counts were 4.44%±0.42%, 18.57%±3.07%, and 68.12%±5.32% in the EAC control group and the METP-treated groups (50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg body weight), respectively. METP-treated EAC cell-bearing mice had an increased life span (48.69% and 83.78%) compared to the EAC control group. Hematological and serum biochemical profiles were restored to normal levels in METP-treated mice compared to the EAC control group. METP significantly (P<0.001) decreased lipid peroxidation and recovered reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase toward normal levels compared to the EAC control group. In summary, METP exhibited remarkable antitumor activity in Swiss albino mice, which is plausibly attributable to its augmentation of endogenous antioxidant mechanisms.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma de Ehrlich/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Thevetia/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Análise Química do Sangue , Frutas/química , Testes Hematológicos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Fitoterapia
19.
Bull Soc Pathol Exot ; 107(5): 306-11, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25301110

RESUMO

The authors describe three cases of severe accidental poisoning by plants used as part of a traditional treatment in Mayotte. The established, or suspected, toxicity of Thevetia peruviana (Yellow oleander), Cinchona pubescens (Red quinine-tree), Melia azaderach (Persian lilac, also called china berry) and Azadirachta indica (Neem), is discussed. The clinical presentation is cardiac (atrioventricular block) and well known for Thevetia and Cinchona intoxications. Neurological signs and multi-organ failure are found for Azadirachta and Melia. The identification of the plants is never easy, nor is the evidence of their accountability. In the three cases reported, no other cause than the traditional treatment has been found to explain the clinical presentation. The outcome was favorable in all cases. The authors emphasize the difficulties to investigate these accidents, the poor medical knowledge of these practices in tropical areas, and in Mayotte particularly. The need for cooperation with local botanists, familiar with traditional medicine, is also underlined.


Assuntos
Bloqueio Atrioventricular/induzido quimicamente , Azadirachta/envenenamento , Cinchona/envenenamento , Medicina Arábica , Fitoterapia/efeitos adversos , Thevetia/envenenamento , Adulto , Idoso , Bebidas/envenenamento , Bradicardia/induzido quimicamente , Comores , Feminino , Galactagogos/envenenamento , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Farmacognosia
20.
Indian J Med Sci ; 67(7-8): 178-83, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24469562

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cardiac toxicity after self-poisoning from ingestion of yellow oleander seeds is common in Eastern Sri Lanka. OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical manifestations, cardiac arrhythmias, electrolytes abnormalities and outcome of management using currently available treatment, Poisoning Unit, Tertiary Care Hospital in Eastern Sri Lanka. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 65 patients [Mean age : 23(± 0.43)yrs], (Male: Female=27:38) with yellow oleander poisoning (YOP) admitted to a Poisoning Unit, Tertiary Care Hospital in Eastern Sri Lanka from January to December 2011. RESULTS: Most patients are symptomatic who presented with classical symptoms of vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea. Cardiac dysrhythmias such as bradycardia or an irregular pulse are the most common findings on examination. Most symptomatic patients had conduction defects affecting the sinus node, the atrioventricular (AV) node, or both. Patients showing cardiac arrhythmias that required transfer for specialised management had significantly higher serum potassium concentrations. Almost all patients were treated with multiple activated charcoal even late presentation. Patients with brad arrhythmias were treated with intravenous boluses of atropine and intravenous infusions of isoprenaline. Temporary cardiac pacing was done for those not responding to drug therapy. There were two deaths (3.07%), both had third-degree heart block. They died even definitive treatment could be instituted. Of the remaining 63 patients, 54 (83.1%) patients required treatment, and 29 were treated with only atropine and/or isoprenaline while one required cardiac pacing in addition. 12 (18.4%) patients had arrhythmias that were considered life threatening (second-degree heart block type II, third-degree heart block and nodal bradycardia). They had good recovery even though they had developed cardiac toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: YOP are common among young females. The cardiac toxicity develops within 24 hrs of ingestion of YO seeds. The risk of toxicity has negative correlation with number of seeds. Most patients have nonspecific symptoms. AV conduction defects are common. Multiple activated charcoals alone were safe and adequate in most cases even late presentation.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/induzido quimicamente , Thevetia/envenenamento , Dor Abdominal/induzido quimicamente , Adolescente , Adulto , Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Carvão Vegetal/uso terapêutico , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperpotassemia/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Envenenamento/tratamento farmacológico , Sementes/envenenamento , Sri Lanka , Tentativa de Suicídio , Vômito/induzido quimicamente , Adulto Jovem
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