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1.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226487, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856191

RESUMO

Bohemian gentian (Gentianella praecox subsp. bohemica) is an endemic taxon that occurs on the Czech Massif and together with the Sturmian gentian (Gentianella obtusifolia subsp. sturmiana) are the only autumnal species of Gentianella with large flowers in central Europe. Both species have declined dramatically in both population size and numbers of populations. The Bohemian gentian rescue programme, which recommended appropriate management measures, was adopted in 2011. Here we study the ecology of this species, results of the rescue programme and explore the possibilities of using the experience resulting from this programme for improving the viability of the second species. Long-term monitoring of populations of the Bohemian gentian has shown that regular mowing or grazing together with careful litter removal and gap creation are necessary for its survival in the current climatic conditions. We found some ecological differences between these two closely related species of Gentianella. However, our empirical experience of the largest population of the Sturmian gentian at a site where it thrives, and general evidence that gaps are crucial for the successful establishment of Gentianella seedlings, indicate that regular mowing or grazing together with careful litter removal and creation of gaps, should also be recommended as in the case of the Bohemian gentian rescue programme. Artificial gaps are especially crucial for successful seedling regeneration in oligotrophic meadows with dense vegetation, where the last Sturmian gentian populations survive.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Fenômenos Ecológicos e Ambientais , Gentianella , Filogenia
2.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 2692970, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30800665

RESUMO

In previous studies, Gentianella acuta (Michx.) Hulten was reported to contain xanthones, iridoids, terpenoids, and sterols and is mainly used to cure hepatitis, jaundice, fever, headache, and angina pectoris. In this study, we used bioassay guided fractionation to identify compounds from G. acuta and investigated their activity against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis of H9c2 cells using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. The levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic (GCLC) expression were assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Protein expression was evaluated using western blot. The results showed that all four compounds had protective effects on H9c2 cells. The transcription levels of HO-1 and GCLC significantly increased in H9c2 cells pretreated with norswertianolin (1), swetrianolin (2), demethylbellidifolin (3), and bellidifolin (4). However, compared to the model group, the transcription levels of Nrf2 were not enhanced by pretreatment with compounds 1, 2, and 4. The protein expression levels of HO-1 and GCLC in H9c2 cells were greater than that in the H2O2-treated group, and the expression of Nrf2 was not significantly changed except by swetrianolin treatment; inhibitors can reverse the protective effect by ZnPP (15 µM), BSO (10 µM), and brusatol (10 µM). The results indicated that the four compounds isolated from G. acuta inhibited the oxidative injury induced by H2O2 by activating the Nrf2/ARE pathway in H9c2 cells and provide evidence that G. acuta may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Gentianella/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Glutamato-Cisteína Ligase/metabolismo , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Xantenos/farmacologia , Xantonas/farmacologia
3.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 110: 733-741, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554111

RESUMO

Gentianella acuta (Michx.) Hulten (G. acuta) has been widely used in Mongolian medicines for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases in Ewenki and Oroqen, Inner Mongolia autonomous region, China. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and related mechanism of G. acuta on isoproterenol (ISO)-induced oxidative stress, fibrosis, and myocardial damage in rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into the normal control group, ISO induced group and ISO+G. acuta treatment group. Rats were administered with ISO subcutaneously (5 mg/kg/day) for 7 days, and were orally administered simultaneously with aqueous extracts of G. acuta for 21 days. This investigation showed G. acuta treatment ameliorated cardiac structural disorder, excessive collagenous fiber accumulation and cardiac malfunction. Compared with the ISO induced model group, G. acuta treatment increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and glutathione (GSH) level, prevented the rise of malondialdehyde (MDA), and decreased hydroxyproline contents in the heart tissues. Moreover, G. acuta reduced the expression of transforming growth factor ß1 (TGF-ß1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and inhibited the expression and activation of NF-κB-P65 in myocardial tissues. These results suggested that G. acuta protects against ISO-induced cardiac malfunction probably by preventing oxidative stress, and fibrosis, and the mechanism might be through inhibiting NF-κB pathway.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/prevenção & controle , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Gentianella , Isoproterenol/toxicidade , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Cardiomiopatias/induzido quimicamente , Cardiomiopatias/metabolismo , Cardiotônicos/isolamento & purificação , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Masculino , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
4.
Ecology ; 99(2): 259-269, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29205298

RESUMO

As a compensatory response to herbivory, plants may branch vigorously when the growth of dormant meristems is triggered by shoot damage. Undamaged plants, on the other hand, often restrain branching, and this limitation on growth can be considered a cost of tolerance to herbivory. Restrained branching is caused by apical dominance and may, alternatively, be associated with fitness benefits in competitive environments that favor fast vertical growth. To test these hypotheses regarding selection for restrained branching, we compared the performance of two subspecies of the biennial grassland herb Gentianella campestris; the tall, apically dominant ssp. campestris and the short, multi-stemmed ssp. islandica, which shows reduced apical dominance. For both subspecies, we manipulated the height of surrounding vegetation (competition) and damage intensity in grasslands of differing productivity (high, medium, low), and examined population growth rates using matrix population models combined with life table response experiments. In the absence of damage, ssp. campestris exhibited a higher population growth rate than ssp. islandica in the tallest vegetation, however with the growth rate still being below one. In the medium and low productivity environments where the vegetation was shorter, the population growth rate of ssp. islandica was considerably higher than that of ssp. campestris as long as no more than about 50% of the plants were damaged. When plants were damaged, the apically dominant ssp. campestris showed a positive population growth rate (λ > 1) and often overcompensatory seed production in all productivity levels, while ssp. islandica showed no compensation and therefore the population was predicted to decline (λ < 1). We conclude that restrained branching in Gentianella cannot be selected for by competition alone, but that episodes of apical damage are required to maintain the trait. Furthermore, because of the costs of restrained branching, apical dominance should be selected against in grasslands where competition and disturbance are low.


Assuntos
Asteraceae , Gentianella , Herbivoria , Meristema , Sementes
5.
Nat Prod Res ; 32(18): 2171-2177, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28868928

RESUMO

In the present study, two new xanthones, (5'S,8'S)-1,3,5,8-tetrahydroxyxanthone(7→2')-1,3,5,8-tetrahydroxy-5',6',7',8'-tetrahydroxanthone (1), 5-hydroxy-3,4,6-trimethoxyxanthone-1-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (2), and eight known xanthones (3-10) were isolated from the whole plants of Gentianella acuta. Their structures were identified by the spectroscopic analyses (HR-ESI-MS, and 1D and 2D NMR). Meanwhile, cell-protective effects against H2O2-induced H9c2 cardiomyocyte injury and cytotoxic activities of compounds 1-10 were also determined.


Assuntos
Gentianella/química , Substâncias Protetoras/isolamento & purificação , Xantonas/isolamento & purificação , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Miocárdio/citologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Xantonas/química , Xantonas/farmacologia
6.
Molecules ; 22(8)2017 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28783086

RESUMO

As a Mongolian native medicine and Ewenki folk medicinal plant, Gentianella acuta has been widely used for the treatment of diarrhea, hepatitis, arrhythmia, and coronary heart disease. In the course of investigating efficacy compounds to treat diarrhea using a mouse isolated intestine tissue model, we found 70% EtOH extract of G. acuta whole plants had an inhibitory effect on intestine contraction tension. Here, nineteen constituents, including five new compounds, named as gentiiridosides A (1), B (2), gentilignanoside A (3), (1R)-2,2,3-trimethyl-4-hydroxymethylcyclopent-3-ene-1-methyl-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside (4), and (3Z)-3-hexene-1,5-diol 1-O-α-l-arabinopyranosyl(1→6)-ß-d-glucopyranoside (5) were obtained from it. The structures of them were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects on motility of mouse isolated intestine tissue of the above mentioned compounds and other thirteen iridoid- and secoiridoid-type monoterpenes (7-10, 13-16, 18, 19, 21, 22, and 25) previously obtained in the plant were analyzed. As results, new compound 5, some secoiridoid-type monoterpenes 7, 10, 12-14, 16, and 17, as well as 7-O-9'-type lignans 31 and 32 displayed significant inhibitory effect on contraction tension at 40 µM.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/química , Gentianella/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Animais , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Movimento Celular , Intestinos/citologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
7.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 93: 626-635, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28686977

RESUMO

Gentianella acuta (Michx.) Hulten is widely used for the treatment of arrhythmia and coronary heart disease in Ewenki Folk Medicinal Plants and Mongolian Medicine, popularly known as "Wenxincao" in China. To investigate the potential protective role of the xanthones from G. acuta against myocardial I/R injury in isolated rat heart and its possible related mechanism. The protective role of xanthones on myocardial I/R injury was studied on Langendorff apparatus. The hemodynamic parameters including the left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), the maximum rate of up/down left intraventricular pressure (±dp/dtmax), coronary flow (CF) and heart rate (HR) were recorded during the perfusion. The results demonstrated that the xanthones from G. acuta treatment significantly improved myocardial function (LVDP, ±dp/dtmax and CF), increased the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), ATP and the ratio of glutathione and glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG), whereas suppressed the levels of Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Furthermore, the xanthones upregulate the level of Bcl-2 protein and downregulate the level of Bax protein. These results indicated that xanthones from G. acuta exhibited cardioprotective effects on myocardial I/R injury through its activities of anti-oxidative effect and anti-apoptosis effect.


Assuntos
Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Gentianella/química , Ventrículos do Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Xantonas/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Catalase/metabolismo , Creatina Quinase/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Ventrículos do Coração/metabolismo , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
8.
Nat Prod Commun ; 12(1): 55-56, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30549824

RESUMO

Phytochemical study of Gentianella azurea (Bunge) Holub (Gentianaceae) collected in Buryatia Republic (Russian Federation) resulted in the isolation of twenty-one compounds including bellidifolin, bellidin, isobellidifolin, norswertianolin, isobellidifolin-8-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside, orientin, cynaroside, .cosmosiin, apigenin, 4'-O-caffeoylswertiamarin, swertiamarin-6'-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside and sweroside, firstly detected in this species. The extracts and individual compounds were shown to possess antioxidant and anticholinesterase potential.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Gentianella/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Extratos Vegetais/química , Federação Russa , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
9.
Fitoterapia ; 113: 164-9, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27514655

RESUMO

Five new compounds, gentixanthones A1 (1), A2 (2), and gentichromones A1-A3 (3-5), together with thirteen known xanthones (6-18) were obtained from the whole plants of Gentianella acuta (Michx.) Hulten. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Among them, compounds 6, 8, 13, 14, and 17 were obtained from Gentianella genus firstly, and 7, 12, 15, 16, and 18 were isolated from this plant for the first time. Meanwhile, inhibitory effects of 1-18 on motility of mouse isolated intestine tissue were determined. As results, xanthones 1, 2, 6, 7, 9, 10 and 14 were found to have significant reduce effect on intestine contraction tension, and structure-activity relationship was discussed.


Assuntos
Gentianella/química , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Peristaltismo/efeitos dos fármacos , Xantonas/farmacologia , Animais , Técnicas In Vitro , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Xantonas/química
10.
J Nat Med ; 70(4): 780-8, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27306440

RESUMO

Two tetrahydroxanthones, 1,3,5S,8S-tetrahydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydroxanthone (1) and 1,3,5R,8S-tetrahydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydroxanthone (2), and six new tetrahydroxanthone glycosides, amarellins A-F (3-8), were isolated from the aerial parts of a Mongolian medicinal plant Gentianella amarella ssp. acuta (Gentianaceae). The structures of 1-8 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, chemical conversion, and ECD calculation. Amarellins A-C (3-5) were assigned as 8-O-ß-D-glucoside, 8-O-ß-D-xyloside, and 1-O-ß-D-glucoside of 1, respectively, while amarellins D-F (6-8) were elucidated to be 8-O-ß-D-xyloside, 1-O-ß-D-glucoside, and 3-O-ß-D-glucoside of 2, respectively.


Assuntos
Gentianella/química , Glucosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Xantonas/isolamento & purificação , Gentianaceae/química , Glucosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/química , Estrutura Molecular , Mongólia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta , Plantas Medicinais/química , Xantonas/química
11.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 18(1): 111-23, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26031436

RESUMO

Phenotypic polymorphism represents the most obvious type of intraspecific diversity raising scientific interest in its evolution and maintenance. We studied the regional endemic Gentianella bohemica, which exhibits an early- and a late-flowering morph. Genetic variation and structuring were investigated in relation to potential pollination and mating system differences, to verify hypotheses of evolutionary integrity, origin, and reproductive isolation of both flowering morphs. We identified the rarer early-flowering morph as an independent genetic entity, being more selfing, likely stronger pollinator-limited and reproductively isolated. All analysed populations showed strong among population differentiation and low overall genetic diversity due to habitat fragmentation and reduced population sizes. These results indicate likely inbreeding, but we also found evidence for possible outbreeding depression in the late-flowering morph. Both G. bohemica morphs are characteristic of traditionally used, nutrient-poor grasslands, but they represent independent conservation units and need temporally adapted management. We, therefore, also briefly discuss our results in the general context of conservation activities in relation to intraspecific polymorphisms and strongly argue for their formal and consequent consideration.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Gentianella/fisiologia , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados , Áustria , Ecossistema , Flores/genética , Genética Populacional , Gentianella/genética , Endogamia , Polinização , Densidade Demográfica , Estações do Ano
12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 41(12): 2280-2283, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28901073

RESUMO

Twelve xanthones compounds were isolated from the ethanol extract of Gentianella acuta by means of reversed-phase preparative HPLC and various kinds of column chromatography including silica gel and ODS . Their structures were fully elucidated on the basis of MS, 1D and 2D-NMR data. The structures of xanthones were identified as 1, 7-dihydroxy-3-methoxyxanthone-7-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (1), swertiapuniside (2), 1, 3, 8- trihydroxy -4, 5-dimethoxyxanthone-1-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl(6→1)-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (3), 1, 2, 8-trihydroxy-5, 6-dimethoxyxanthone-2-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (4), 1, 3, 7, 8-tetrahydroxyxanthone-1-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (5), 1, 3, 5, 8-tetrahydroxy-5, 6, 7, 8-tetrahydroxanthone (6), 1, 3, 5-thihydroxyxanthone (7),1, 3, 5, 8-tetrahydroxyxanthone (8), 1, 2, 8-trihydroxy-5, 6-dimethoxyxanthone (9), bellidifolin (10), mangiferin (11), swertianolin (12). Compounds 1-9 were isolated from Gentianella genus for the first time.


Assuntos
Gentianella/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Xantonas/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação
13.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 174: 261-9, 2015 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26297839

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Gentianella acuta (Michx.) Hulten belonging to the family of Gentianaceae is an annual plant mainly distributed in north of China, Mongolia plateau, Siberia and Far East areas of Russia. The whole herb was used as folk medicine to treat hepatitis, jaundice, headache and fever in Mongolia native medicine. Xanthones are the main active compounds of G. acuta and possess a lot of pharmacological and biological activities AIM OF THE STUDY: A selective and sensitive UHPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination and pharmacokinetic study of swertianolin, norswertianolin, bellidifolin and demethylbellidifolin (DMB) in rat plasma after oral administration of G. acuta extract. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sample preparation involved a liquid-liquid extraction of the analytes with ethyl acetate. Butylparaben was employed as an internal standard. LC separation was achieved on an Agilent SB-C18 RRHD column (1.8 µm, 150 mm × 2.1 mm) at 30°C with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-water (0.1% formic acid) (90:10, v/v). The detection was accomplished by multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) scanning with electrospray ionization (ESI) source operating in the negative ionization mode. The optimized mass transition ion-pairs (m/z) monitored for swertianolin, norswertianolin, bellidifolin, DMB and I.S. were 435.1/272.0, 420.8/258.9, 273.0/258.0, 258.9/214.9 and 193.0/92.0, respectively. RESULTS: The current UHPLC-MS/MS assay was validated for linearity, intra-day and inter-day precisions, accuracy, extraction recovery and stability and was suitable for pharmacokinetic studies of the four xanthones after oral administration of G. acuta extract. The time to reach the maximum plasma concentration (Tmax) was 0.40 ± 0.12 h for swertianolin, 0.27 ± 0.07 h for norswertianolin, 1.00 ± 0.18 h for bellidifolin and 0.94 ± 0.15 h for demethylbellidifolin. The elimination half-time (t1/2) of swertianolin, norswertianolin, bellidifolin and DMB, was 19.7 ± 9.64 h, 11.3 ± 4.51 h, 19.9 ± 8.11 h and 24.9 ± 8.19 h, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study described a simple, sensitive and validated UHPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of four xanthones in rat plasma after oral administration of G. acuta extract, and investigated on their pharmacokinetic studies as well.


Assuntos
Gentianella , Extratos Vegetais/sangue , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Administração Oral , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Ratos
14.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 40(5): 804-6, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26087537

RESUMO

Lomatogonium rotatum (L.) Fries, Gentianopsis barbata (Froel) Ma, and Gentianella acuta (Michx.) Hulten, the three kinds of Digeda-species Mongolian medicinal materials belonging to the family Gentianaceae, bad been widely used for the treatment of liver diseases. To analyze comparatively the content of swertiamarin and swertisin among these three kinds of Digeda-species Mongolian medicinal materials. HPLC method was applied for qualitative and quantitative analysis of swertiamarin and swertisin. The Phenomenex C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 µm) was used, chromatographic methanol and water as mobile phase, the flow rate was 1.5 mL x min(-1) with UV detected at 237 nm, column oven temperature was 25 degrees C. Results showed that the contents of swertiamarin and swertisin were closely related the different species and producing areas. The content range of swertiamarin in L. rotatum from different habitats was 1.73% - 2.72%, 0.43% - 0.96% for the swertisin content; the content of swertiamarin in G. barbata from Alxa Left Banner was 0.38%, and the content of swertiamarin and swertisin in G. barbata from the others habitats and G. Acuta from different habitats were all detected qualitatively. The contents of swertiamarin and swertisin among these medicinal plants showed a significant difference due to the different species and producing areas. As a consequence, these medicinal plants should not be put together for clinical applications.


Assuntos
Apigenina/análise , Gentianaceae/química , Glucosídeos Iridoides/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Pironas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Gentianaceae/classificação , Gentianella/química , Gentianella/classificação , Medicina Tradicional da Mongólia , Mongólia
15.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 24(22): 5260-4, 2014 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25442320

RESUMO

A phytochemical investigation on crude extract of Gentianella azurea led to the isolation of ten new (1-10) and one known (11) secoiridoid glycosides. Their structures were unambiguously elucidated by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR. Compounds 2, 5 and 11 were found to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 macrophages with IC50 values of 52.78 ± 8.61, 0.69 ± 0.23 and 5.18 ± 1.33, respectively, while indomethacin, the positive control, showed an IC50 value of 1.25 ± 0.52 µM.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Gentianella/química , Glicosídeos Iridoides/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Gentianella/metabolismo , Humanos , Glicosídeos Iridoides/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos Iridoides/farmacologia , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Camundongos , Conformação Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo
16.
Zhong Yao Cai ; 37(5): 800-3, 2014 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25335286

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the lignans from the whole plant of Gentianella acuta. METHODS: The compounds were isolated by various chromatographic techniques and indentified by spectroscopic methods. RESULTS: Nine compounds were isolated and identified as (7R,8S) -dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol-4,9'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), alaschanisoside A (2), citrusin A (3), olivil-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), leptolepisol D (5), acanthoside D (6), (+) pinoresinol-4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7), (+) 8-hydroxypinoresinol-4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (8), and (+) pinoresinol-8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (9). CONCLUSION: Compounds 1 - 9 are isolated from this plant for the first time, compounds 1 and 9 are isolated from Gentianella genus for the first time,and compounds 2, 3 and 5 - 8 are isolated from Gentianaceae family for the first time.


Assuntos
Gentianella/química , Lignanas/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Etanol/química , Glucosídeos/química , Glucosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Lignanas/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética
17.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 39(4): 715-20, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25204153

RESUMO

This study aims to establish a new method for quality evaluation of Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix by simultaneous determination of five iridoids (loganic acid, 6'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylgentiopicroside, swertiamarin, gentiopicroside, sweroside), and to detect five iridoids in the root of eight species (Gentiana macrophylla, G. straminea, G. crassicaulis, G. dahurica, G. robusta, G. waltonii, G. lhassica, and G. tibetica). The separation was carried out on a Shiseido SPOLAR C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) column eluted with mobile phase of water containing 0.04% formic acid (A) and acetonitrile (B) in a gradient program. The flow rate was 0.8 mL x min(-1). The detect wavelength was set at 240 nm. The column temperature was kept at 30 degrees C. The volume of injection was 5 microL. The five iridoids were well separated with ideal linear correlations. The average recoveries were 97.35% - 106.23%. All the five iridoids were detected in the root of eight species. The contents of same species changed in a somewhat wider range. The contents in root of G. dahurica were lower than that in other species.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Gentianella/química , Glicosídeos Iridoides/análise , China
18.
J Nat Prod ; 77(5): 1201-9, 2014 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24806310

RESUMO

Thirteen new dammarane-type triterpenoids (1-13) and four known analogues, gentirigenic acid (14) and the gentirigeosides A, B, and E (15-17), were isolated from Gentianella azurea. Their structures were elucidated by detailed analysis of the NMR, MS, and X-ray crystallographic data. This is the first report of dammarane-type triterpenoids in the Gentianella genus. In addition, the known structures of gentirigenic acid (14) and the gentirigeosides A, B, and E (15-17) were revised based on the X-ray diffraction analysis. Gentirigeoside A (15) was found to inhibit nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages with an IC50 value of 6.6 ± 2.1 µM.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Gentianella/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia
19.
Z Naturforsch C J Biosci ; 67(1-2): 29-38, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22486039

RESUMO

The infusion of the aerial parts of Gentianella multicaulis (Gillies ex Griseb.) Fabris (Gentianaceae), locally known as 'nencia', is used in San Juan Province, Argentina, as stomachic and as a bitter tonic against digestive and liver problems. The bioassay-guided isolation of G. multicaulis extracts and structural elucidation of the main compounds responsible for the antifungal and free radical scavenging activities were performed. The extracts had strong free radical scavenging effects in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay (45-93% at 10 microg/mL) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay at 200 microg/mL. Demethylbellidifolin (4) had high antioxidant activity in the DPPH and FRAP assay. The dermatophytes Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and T. rubrum were moderately inhibited by the different extracts (MIC values of 125-250 microg/mL). Demethylbellidifolin (4), bellidifolin (5), and isobellidifolin (6) showed an antifungal effect (MIC values of 50 microg/mL), while swerchirin (3) was less active with a MIC value of 100 microg/mL. In addition, oleanolic acid (1) and ursolic acid (2) were also isolated. These findings demonstrate that Gentianella multicaulis collected in the mountains of the Province of San Juan, Argentina, is an important source of compounds with antifungal and antioxidant activities.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Gentianella/química , Argentina , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
20.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; 63(7): 802-12, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22475010

RESUMO

The dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and methanol extracts from the leaves, roots, and flowers of the five species of Gentiana (Gentiana asclepiadea, Gentiana cruciata, Gentiana olivieri, Gentiana septemfida, and Gentiana verna) and Gentianella caucasea were investigated for their inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and antioxidant effect using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, metal-chelation capacity, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assays. Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extracts were determined spectrophotometrically. The presence of some characteristic compounds found in Gentiana species (gentiopicroside, swertiamarin, isoorientin, isovitexin and vitexin) was analyzed in the extracts by thin layer chromatography. The flower DCM extract of G. verna exerted the highest inhibition against AChE (53.65 ± 1.03%), whereas the root EtOAc extract of G. cruciata was the most effective in BChE inhibition assay (50.72 ± 0.75%) at 100 µg ml⁻¹. The extracts of G. verna were also found to be more active in the antioxidant tests.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Gentiana/química , Gentianella/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Acetilcolinesterase/química , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Butirilcolinesterase/química , Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/isolamento & purificação , Electrophorus/metabolismo , Etnofarmacologia , Flores/química , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gentiana/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gentianella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cavalos/metabolismo , Quelantes de Ferro/química , Quelantes de Ferro/isolamento & purificação , Quelantes de Ferro/farmacologia , Medicina Tradicional , Concentração Osmolar , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solventes/química , Especificidade da Espécie , Turquia
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