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1.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232295, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353023

RESUMO

In Rubiaceae phylogenetics, the number of markers often proved a limitation with authors failing to provide well-supported trees at tribal and generic levels. A robust phylogeny is a prerequisite to study the evolutionary patterns of traits at different taxonomic levels. Advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized biology by providing, at reduced cost, huge amounts of data for an increased number of species. Due to their highly conserved structure, generally recombination-free, and mostly uniparental inheritance, chloroplast DNA sequences have long been used as choice markers for plant phylogeny reconstruction. The main objectives of this study are: 1) to gain insight in chloroplast genome evolution in the Rubiaceae (Ixoroideae) through efficient methodology for de novo assembly of plastid genomes; and, 2) to test the efficiency of mining SNPs in the nuclear genome of Ixoroideae based on the use of a coffee reference genome to produce well-supported nuclear trees. We assembled whole chloroplast genome sequences for 27 species of the Rubiaceae subfamily Ixoroideae using next-generation sequences. Analysis of the plastid genome structure reveals a relatively good conservation of gene content and order. Generally, low variation was observed between taxa in the boundary regions with the exception of the inverted repeat at both the large and short single copy junctions for some taxa. An average of 79% of the SNP determined in the Coffea genus are transferable to Ixoroideae, with variation ranging from 35% to 96%. In general, the plastid and the nuclear genome phylogenies are congruent with each other. They are well-resolved with well-supported branches. Generally, the tribes form well-identified clades but the tribe Sherbournieae is shown to be polyphyletic. The results are discussed relative to the methodology used and the chloroplast genome features in Rubiaceae and compared to previous Rubiaceae phylogenies.


Assuntos
Cloroplastos/genética , DNA de Cloroplastos/genética , Genoma de Cloroplastos/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Rubiaceae/genética , Coffea/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genômica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
2.
Mutat Res ; 850-851: 503145, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247555

RESUMO

5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a widely used antineoplastic drug. In this work, a comprehensive study was performed to detect the extent of chromosomal damage and morphological sperm defects induced by 5-FU in male mice and the possible protective role of the iridoids-rich fraction of Pentas lanceolata leaves (IFPL). Six main groups were examined in micronucleus and chromosomal assays: I- control negative, II- control positive (i.p. treated with single dose of 75 mg/kg 5-FU), III- control plant (orally administrated IFPL, 300 mg/kg, 5 consecutive days), and IV-VI- treated with IFPL (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, 5 consecutive days) plus 5-FU (i.p. treated at the last day). Samples were taken 24 h post treatment. The study of morphological sperm anomalies, single and repeated treatments were examined and samples were taken after 35 days from the 1st treatment. In bone marrow, 5-FU induced a significant increase in the micro-nucleated polychromatic erythrocytes, chromosome anomalies (CAs) and also cytotoxic effects. A significant percentage of CAs was recorded in spermatocytes after 5-FU treatment reached 22.80 ± 1.32 vs 4.20 ± 0.37 for control (mainly X-Y univalent, 90%). IFPL was recorded to be non-mutagenic in all tests examined. In addition, it alleviated the previous defects in a dose-dependent manner. A significant and dramatic increase in the percentage of morphological sperm defects was recorded after single and repeated treatments with 5-FU reached 13.24 ± 0.24, 30.42 ± 0.32 respectively vs 2.56 ± 0.14 for control. Amorphous head-sperm and sperm with coiled tail were the most pronounced types of abnormalities. Significant protection was detected with the highest tested dose of IFPL. In conclusion: 5-FU demonstrated to be a genotoxic agent. Its genotoxicity in germ cells is serious and may lead to reproductive toxicity, infertility or heritable defects. The results also demonstrated the biosafety of IFPL and its possible protective role in combined treatment with 5-FU.


Assuntos
Iridoides/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rubiaceae/química , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Aberrações Cromossômicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Iridoides/química , Masculino , Camundongos , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espermatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatócitos/patologia , Espermatozoides/patologia
3.
Zootaxa ; 4748(2): zootaxa.4748.2.5, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230076

RESUMO

The whitefly genus Minutaleyrodes Jesudasan and David is revised based upon the examination of type specimens, and Minutaleyrodes andamanensis sp. nov. on Aporosa octandra (Phyllanthaceae), and Minutaleyrodes whisper sp. nov. on Psychotria andamanica (Rubiaceae) are described from the Little Andaman Island, India. The following taxonomic changes are proposed: Minutaleyrodes tricolorata Pushpa and Sundararaj syn. nov. is synonymized with Dialeurodes turpiniae (Meganathan and David), and Minutaleyrodes cherasensis (Corbett) syn. nov. with Minutaleyrodes minuta (Singh); Aleuroclava kolliensis (David) comb. nov. for Aleurotuberculatus kolliensis David, and Aleuroclava pearlis (Pushpa and Sundararaj) comb. nov. for Minutaleyrodes pearlis Pushpa and Sundararaj. A revised key to puparia of Minutaleyrodes and new host plant records are included. Habitus of the holotype of the new species illustrations, line drawings, microphotographs and scanning electron microscope images of the new and known species are provided.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Rubiaceae , Animais , Índia
4.
Zootaxa ; 4722(1): zootaxa.4722.1.10, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230644

RESUMO

Notopleura Liebau, 1991 (Crustacea, Ostracoda, Hemicytheridae) established as a subgenus of Thaerocythere Hazel, 1967 with the type species Thaerocythere (Notopleura) lusitanica Liebau, 1991, is a younger homonym of Notopleura Krauss, 1902 (Insecta, Orthoptera, Acrididae). It is here replaced by the new name Martiniportella, which refers to the harbour of São Martinho do Porto (Portugal), where the extant specimens came from.


Assuntos
Rubiaceae , Animais , Crustáceos
5.
Phytochemistry ; 173: 112296, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087436

RESUMO

The first phytochemical examination of extracts from leaves and stem bark of Palicourea luxurians (Rusby) Borhidi yielded two undescribed and one known alstrostine derivative together with the oxindole alkaloid javaniside as well as with 5α-carboxystrictosidine. Additionally, five iridoids and four secologanin derived isolation artifacts have been isolated. Lack of strictosidine and its follow-up metabolization products suggested that the Pictet-Spenglerase in P. luxurians does barely or not catalyze the formation of strictosidine. Against this background the biosynthesis of javaniside and 5α-carboxystrictosidine is discussed with regard to possible reaction mechanisms. Similarly, P. luxurians used an independent biosynthetic pathway to produce alstrostine type structures from secologanin and tryptamine in a 2:1 ratio. The structure of isoalstrostine A, which was isolated for the first time, allowed the refinement of a previously reported pathway to the alstrostine type carbon skeleton as well as to some follow-up metabolization products. In spite of various biosynthetic pathways incorporating secologanin to gain different types of tryptophan- and tryptamine-iridoid alkaloids, P. luxurians accumulates this compound as well a couple of further metabolized iridoids deriving from loganin and secologanin.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Rubiaceae , Alcaloides de Triptamina e Secologanina , Glucosídeos Iridoides , Iridoides , Triptaminas , Triptofano , Alcaloides de Vinca
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(5): 2535-2543, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964816

RESUMO

Diverse forms of cultivation have evolved across the tree of life. Efficient farming requires that the farmer deciphers and actively promotes conditions that increase crop yield. For plant cultivation, this can include evaluating tradeoffs among light, nutrients, and protection against herbivores. It is not understood if, or how, nonhuman farmers evaluate local conditions to increase payoffs. Here, we address this question using an obligate farming mutualism between the ant Philidris nagasau and epiphytic plants in the genus Squamellaria that are cultivated for their nesting sites and floral rewards. We focused on the ants' active fertilization of their crops and their protection against herbivory. We found that ants benefited from cultivating plants in full sun, receiving 7.5-fold more floral food rewards compared to shade-cultivated plants. The higher reward levels correlated with higher levels of crop protection provided by the ants. However, while high-light planting yielded the greatest immediate food rewards, sun-grown crops contained less nitrogen compared to shade-grown crops. This was due to lower nitrogen input from ants feeding on floral rewards instead of insect protein gained from predation. Despite this tradeoff, farming ants optimize crop yield by selectively planting their crops in full sun. Ancestral state reconstructions across this ant-plant clade show that a full-sun farming strategy has existed for millions of years, suggesting that nonhuman farmers have evolved the means to evaluate and balance conflicting crop needs to their own benefit.


Assuntos
Formigas/fisiologia , Evolução Biológica , Rubiaceae/fisiologia , Agricultura , Animais , Formigas/genética , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Rubiaceae/genética , Rubiaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rubiaceae/parasitologia , Simbiose
7.
Nat Prod Res ; 34(5): 683-691, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30325205

RESUMO

Four ursane-type triterpenoid glycosides (1-4), two benzophenone glycosides (5 and 6), and one iridoid glucoside (7) were isolated and characterized from the dried roots of Vangueria agrestis. Compounds 1 (3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-ß-D-xylopyranosyl]pomolic acid 28-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl ester) and 5 (2-O-[ß-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-ß-D-glucopyranosyl]-6,4'-dihydroxy-4-methoxy benzophenone) were found to be new metabolites. The identity of all compounds has been accomplished, primarily, based on 1 D and 2 D NMR and HRESMS analysis. Compounds 6 and 2, showed inhibitory effect against Trypanosoma brucei with IC50 22.3 µM for 6 and IC50 11.1 µM, IC90 12.3 µM for 2.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Rubiaceae/química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Benzofenonas/química , Benzofenonas/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/química , Iridoides/química , Iridoides/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Raízes de Plantas/química , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
8.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 3729051, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885784

RESUMO

Genipin, as the most effective ingredient of various traditional medications, encompasses antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial capacities. More recently, it is suggested that genipin protects against septic liver damage by restoring autophagy. The purpose of the current study was to explore the protective effect of genipin against carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4-) induced acute liver injury (ALI) and its underlying molecular machinery. Our results indicated that treatment with genipin significantly reduced CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity by ameliorating histological liver changes, decreasing the aspartate aminotransferase and alanine transaminase levels, alleviating the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, and promoting autophagic flux. Moreover, genipin effectively induced the conversion of LC3 and inhibition of p62 accumulation. The liver expressions of ATG5, ATG7, and ATG12 were significantly increased by genipin pretreatment in the ALI mice model. This protective effect may be mediated by the inhibition of mTOR and the activation of p38 MAPK signaling pathways. Meanwhile, genipin attenuated CCl4-induced inflammatory response by inhibiting the NF-κB and STAT3 signaling pathway. In addition, pretreatment with autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or inhibition of p38 MAPK by SB203580 abolished the hepatoprotective effect of genipin. Taken together, our study implicates that genipin has a protective potential against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity, which might be strongly associated with the induction of autophagy and the attenuation of inflammatory response.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Tetracloreto de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Iridoides/uso terapêutico , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Rubiaceae/química , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação/patologia , Iridoides/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos
9.
Zootaxa ; 4674(4): zootaxa.4674.4.3, 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715993

RESUMO

A new whitefly species, Asialeyrodes nicobarica Dubey, sp. nov. found infesting Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb.) (Rubiaceae) on the Nicobar Island, located in the Indian part of the Sundaland hotspot, is described here. Puparia of the new species differ from all of its congeners in shape, and in having the median tubercles on abdominal segments I-VI, a posteriorly notched vasiform orifice and a broad caudal furrow filled with small linear striations. Asialeyrodes menoni Meganathan and David syn. nov and A. tuberculata Pushpa and Sundararaj syn. nov are synonymised with A. indica Sundararaj and David. Icfrealeyrodes splendens (Meganathan David) comb. nov. is proposed for Asialeyrodes splendens Meganathan and David. Illustrations include habitus, line drawings, holotype images of the new species and A. tuberculata, and scanning electron microscope photomicrographs. Puparial keys differentiating Asialeyrodes Corbett from allied Indian Aleyrodinae genera and to puparia of species currently included in Asialeyrodes in India are provided. Also, the placement of a non-congeneric species, Rhachisphora spherica Sundararaj and Dubey in Asialeyrodes is discussed.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Rubiaceae , Animais , Índia
10.
Zootaxa ; 4613(1): zootaxa.4613.1.8, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716430

RESUMO

Two new species of the family Eriophyidae (Acari: Eriophyoidea) from Mount Trusmadi, Malaysia, are described and illustrated. They are Neodicrothrix grandcaputus sp. nov. on Stachyurus himalaicus (Stachyuraceae) and Latitudo asiaticis sp. nov. on Psychotria asiatica (Rubiaceae). Both of the two new species are vagrant on the lower leaf surface. No damage to the host was observed. In addition to the description, a key to species of Neodicrothrix is provided.


Assuntos
Ácaros , Rubiaceae , Animais , Malásia , Folhas de Planta , Sementes
11.
Molecules ; 24(21)2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694179

RESUMO

The genus Lasianthus (Rubiaceae) consists of approximately 180 species, of which the greatest species diversity is found in tropical Asia. Some of the Lasianthus species have been used in folk medicine to treat tinnitus, arthritis, fever, and bleeding. Lasianthus verticillatus (Lour.) Merr. (Syn. Lasianthus trichophlebus auct. non Hemsl.) is a shrub, branchlets terete about 1.5-3 m in height. This paper studies the chemical composition of the leaves of L. verticillatus for the first time, which resulted in the isolation of five undescribed iridoid glucosides, lasianosides A-E (1-5), together with three known compounds (6-8). The undescribed structures of isolated compounds (1-5) were characterized by physical and spectroscopic data analyses, including one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR, IR, UV, and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectra (HR-ESI-MS). Furthermore, the electronic circular dichroism data determined the absolute configurations of the new compounds. The free radical scavenging properties of isolated compounds was assessed by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, and their cytotoxicity was assessed toward human lung cancer cell line A549 by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. Among the isolated compounds, 3 and 4 displayed potent radical scavenging activities with IC50 values of 30.2 ± 1.8 and 32.0 ± 1.2 µM, which were comparable to that of Trolox (29.2 ± 0.39 µM), respectively, while 5 possessed moderate activity with an IC50 value of 46.4 ± 2.3 µM. None of the isolated compounds exerted cytotoxicity against human cell line A549. As a result, lasianosides C, D, and E have the potential to be non-toxic safe antioxidant agents.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Glucosídeos Iridoides/química , Glucosídeos Iridoides/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Rubiaceae/química , Células A549 , Ásia , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Estrutura Molecular , Picratos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
12.
Molecules ; 24(22)2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739473

RESUMO

Guettarda speciosa is known in traditional folk medicine for treating cough, cold, sore throat, fever, wounds, epilepsy, and headaches. To discover the scientific pharmacological potential of G. speciosa, we explore its anti-inflammatory, cytotoxicity, and inhibition of amyloid-beta (Aß) aggregation effects. Cyclooxygenase assay of the G. speciosa CHCl3 (GSC) extract and G. speciosa MeOH (GSM) extract are more selective to COX-1 inhibition with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 3.56 µg/mL for the GSC extract and 4.98 µg/mL for the GSM extract. Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y inhibition and thioflavin T assay amyloid-beta (Aß) aggregate inhibition of the GSM and GSC extracts showed their potential therapeutic effects against Alzheimer's disease. The putative compounds from the LC-MS analysis could be responsible for the observed activities. The results suggest that G. speciosa possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-neurodegenerative properties and a promising lead as a source of pharmacologically active compounds.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Rubiaceae/química , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Benzotiazóis/metabolismo
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(23)2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775302

RESUMO

Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) is a pharmacotherapeutic target in type 2 diabetes. Inhibitors of this enzyme constitute a new class of drugs used in the treatment and management of type 2 diabetes. In this study, phytocompounds in Nauclea latifolia (NL) leaf extracts, identified using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), were tested for potential antagonists of DPP-IV via in silico techniques. Phytocompounds present in N. latifolia aqueous (NLA) and ethanol (NLE) leaf extracts were identified using GC-MS. DPP-IV model optimization and molecular docking of the identified compounds/standard inhibitors in the binding pocket was simulated. Drug-likeness, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of promising docked leads were also predicted. Results showed the presence of 50 phytocompounds in NL extracts of which only 2-O-p-methylphenyl-1-thio-ß-d-glucoside, 3-tosylsedoheptulose, 4-benzyloxy-6-hydroxymethyl-tetrahydropyran-2,3,5-triol and vitamin E exhibited comparable or better binding iGEMDOCK and AutoDock Vina scores than the clinically prescribed standards. These four compounds exhibited promising drug-likeness as well as absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET) properties suggesting their candidature as novel leads for developing DPP-IV inhibitors.


Assuntos
Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/química , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular/normas , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Rubiaceae/química , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Extratos Vegetais/química , Conformação Proteica
14.
Molecules ; 24(23)2019 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771186

RESUMO

One new iridoid, namely neonanin C (1) one monocyclic iridoid ring-opened derivative namely neonanin D (2), two new bis-iridoid derivatives namely reticunin A (3) and reticunin B (4) with sixteen known compounds (5-20) were isolated from the stems of Neonauclea reticulata (Havil.) Merr. These new structures were determined by the detailed analysis of spectroscopic data and comparison with the data of known analogues. Compounds 1-20 were evaluated for inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages cell line. The results showed that all compounds exhibited no obvious cytotoxicity compared to the control group and five compounds including isoboonein (7), syringaresinol (10), (+)-medioresinol (12), protocatechuic acid (14) and trans-caffeic acid (15) exhibited inhibitory activities with IC50 values at 86.27 ± 3.45; 9.18 ± 1.90; 76.18 ± 2.42; 72.91 ± 4.97 and 95.16 ± 1.20 µg/mL, respectively.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Iridoides/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Rubiaceae/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Iridoides/química , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Caules de Planta/química , Células RAW 264.7
15.
Z Naturforsch C J Biosci ; 74(11-12): 289-293, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525160

RESUMO

A new saponin, 3-O-ß-d-3-oxo-glucopyranosyl-ursa-12,20(30)-diene-27,28-dioic acid (1), was isolated from the methanol extract of stem bark of Crossopteryx febrifuga together with the known 3ß-d-glucopyranosyl-ursa-12,20(30)-diene-27,28-dioic acid (2), shanzhiside methyl ester (3), shanzhiside (4), ß-sitosterol (5), ß-sitosterol-3-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside (6), ursa-12,20(30)-diene-27,28-dioic acid (7), hederagenin (8), and oleanolic acid (9). The structures were established by comprehensive interpretation of their spectral data 1D- (1H and 13C), 2D-NMR (1H-1H COSY, HMQC, HMBC), spectroscopic, and electrospray ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis. The isolated compounds and extracts were screened for their antibacterial properties. Although the EtOAc and n-BuOH extracts exhibited considerable antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 32 µg/mL, compounds 2 and 8 showed moderate activity against Enterococcus faecalis with MIC values of 256 and 128 µg/mL, respectively. The new compound (1) exhibited a moderate antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus with an MIC value of 512 µg/mL.


Assuntos
Glucosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Rubiaceae/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Configuração de Carboidratos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear de Carbono-13 , Glucosídeos/química , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia
16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 245: 112170, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434002

RESUMO

ETHNOBOTANICAL RELEVANCE: The interest on herbal health supplements for obesity is increasing globally. Our previous ethnobotanical survey in Tiruvallur district, Tamil Nadu, India indicated the use of Spermacoce hispida L. seeds for the treatment of obesity. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was aimed to validate the traditional claim and to identify the antihyperlipidemic principle in the seeds of Spermacoce hispida using bioassay guided fractionation method. METHODS: Bioassay monitored fractionation of the aqueous extract from Spermacoce hispida seeds was carried out using triton WR 1339 induced hyperlipidemic animals. It yielded deacetylasperulosidic acid (DAA) as the active ingredient. Pharmacokinetic properties of DAA were predicted using DataWarrior and SwissADME tools. In vitro antiobesity and antihyperlipidemic effects of DAA were evaluated in 3T3L1 preadipocytes and HepG2 cells, respectively. The chronic antihyperlipidemic efficacy of DAA was evaluated in high fat diet fed rats. RESULTS: DAA did not show any mutagenic and tumorigenic properties. It bound with PPARα with comparable ligand efficiency as fenofibrate. The treatment with DAA significantly lowered the proliferation of matured adipocytes, but not preadipocytes. The treatment of steatotic HepG2 cells with DAA significantly decreased the LDH leakage by 43.03% (P < 0.05) at 50 µM concentration. In triton WR 1339 induced hyperlipidemic animals, the treatment with 50 mg/kg dose significantly lowered the TC, TG and LDL-c levels by 40.27, 46.00 and 63.65% respectively. In HFD fed animals, the treatment at 10 mg/kg decreased BMI and AC/TC ratio without altering SRBG. It also improved serum lipid, transaminases and phosphatases levels of HFD fed animals. The treatment lowered adipocyte hypertrophy and steatosis of hepatocytes. CONCLUSION: This preliminary report supported the traditional use of Spermacoce hispida for the treatment of obesity. Further detailed investigations on the long term safety, efficacy and molecular mode of action of Spermacoce hispida and DAA will throw more light on their usefulness for the management of obesity.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Glicosídeos Iridoides/uso terapêutico , Rubiaceae , Células 3T3-L1 , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacocinética , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Hipolipemiantes/farmacocinética , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Índia , Glicosídeos Iridoides/farmacocinética , Glicosídeos Iridoides/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional , Camundongos , Ratos Wistar , Sementes
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(16)2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426351

RESUMO

The plant Ophiorrhiza pumila produces camptothecin (CPT), a kind of terpene indole alkaloid (TIAs) that has been widely used in treatment of cancer. Tryptophan-arginine-lysine-tyrosine (WRKY) transcription factors have been reported to play important roles in plant metabolism and development. In this study, a novel WRKY transcription factor named OpWRKY3 was isolated from O. pumila, with full-length open reading frame (ORF) of 1128 bp, encoding 375 amino acids. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that OpWRKY3 shared the highest homology with VvWRKY30, and it is a significant feature belonging to group III. OpWRKY3 was responsive to various treatments, including gibberellin (GA3), methyl jasmonate (MJ), acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), salicylic acid (SA), and abscisic acid (ABA). Besides, OpWRKY3 is expressed predominantly in stems. Subcellular localization analysis showed that OpWRKY3 localized in the nucleus. The biomass of OpWRKY3-SRDX transgenic hairy roots (S line) was visibly suppressed, while there were slight changes between overexpression of the OpWRKY3 line (OE line) and the control. In addition, the concentration and total production of camptothecin precursors including loganin and secologanin were significantly changed in both OE and S lines while total production of CPT was significantly changed in most transgenic lines. Thus, the present work revealed that OpWRKY3 may act as a regulator in the growth and development of O. pumila, and in production of camptothecin and its precursors.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/metabolismo , Camptotecina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Rubiaceae/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Rubiaceae/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
18.
J Oleo Sci ; 68(8): 747-757, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292338

RESUMO

The present study revealed the optimization of nanoemulsion containing palm oil derivatives and Parthenium hysterophorus L. crude extract (PHCE) as pre-emergence herbicide formulation against Diodia ocimifolia. The nanoemulsion formulation was prepared by high energy emulsification method, and it was optimized by mixture experimental design (MED). From the optimization process, analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a fit quadratic polynomial model with an optimal formulation composition containing 30.91% of palm kernel oil ester (PKOE), 28.48% of mixed surfactants (Tensiofix and Tween 80, 8:2), 28.32% of water and 12.29% of PHCE. The reading of both experimental and predicted particle size in the verification experiment were acceptable with a residual standard error (RSE) was less than 2%. Under the optimal condition, the smallest particle size obtained was 140.10 nm, and the particle was shown by morphology analysis to be spherical and demonstrated good stability (no phase separation) under centrifugation and different storage conditions (25 ± 5°C and 45°C). Nanoemulsion stored for 60 days exhibits monodisperse emulsion with a slight increase of particle size. The increase in particle size over time might have contributed by Ostwald ripening phenomenon which is shown by a linear graph from Ostwald ripening rate analysis. In the in vitro germination test, P. hysterophorus nanoemulsion (PHNE) was shown to cause total inhibition of D. ocimifolia seed at lower concentration (5 g L-1) as compared to PHCE (10 g L-1). The finding of the research could potentially serve as a platform for the development of palm oil based formulation containing plant crude extract for green weed management.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/química , Emulsões/química , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Óleos Vegetais/química , Herbicidas/química , Herbicidas/isolamento & purificação , Tamanho da Partícula , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Rubiaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Tensão Superficial
19.
Primates ; 60(5): 449-457, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342225

RESUMO

Frugivorous vertebrates such as primates are important dispersal agents in tropical forests, although the role of folivorous colobines is generally not considered. However, recent studies reported seed dispersal by endo- and epizoochory in colobine primates, including the proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus), suggesting that the role colobines play in seed dispersal might have been underestimated. In the Lower Kinabatangan Floodplain in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, we investigated whether seeds were still able to germinate after being ingested by proboscis monkeys. Faecal samples (n = 201) from proboscis monkeys were collected between 2015 and 2017. Intact seeds belonging to eight plant species were found in 77% of the faecal samples. Nauclea spp. were the most abundant plant species, accounting for 98% of all intact seeds. This study is the first to conduct germination trials on seeds defecated by proboscis monkeys. Higher germination success was recorded in ingested Nauclea spp. seeds than in control seeds, from both ripe and unripe Nauclea orientalis fruits (P < 0.001). Therefore, we suggest that proboscis monkeys play a role in seed dispersal by enhancing the germination success of defecated seeds for at least some plant species. Similar to other colobines, although proboscis monkeys may provide a lower contribution to seed dispersal (low seed diversity over short distances) than other sympatric frugivores, this study emphasises that proboscis monkeys do contribute to the dispersal of intact seeds, such as Nauclea spp., in potentially suitable riverine habitats.


Assuntos
Cadeia Alimentar , Dispersão Vegetal , Presbytini/fisiologia , Rubiaceae/fisiologia , Dispersão de Sementes , Animais , Bornéu , Malásia
20.
Toxicon ; 168: 126-130, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325459

RESUMO

Palicourea marcgravii is the most important toxic plant in Brazil due to its acute toxicity (sudden death), palatability, cumulative effect and broad geographical distribution. The study aimed to evaluate the resistance between cattle of different breeds by experimental intoxication of Palicourea marcgravii. Eighteen males were randomly divided into three groups (Nellore, Curraleiro Pe-Duro and Pantaneiro), six animals in each group. All animals were experimentally intoxicated with P. marcgravii at 0.5 mg/kg of equivalent sodium monofluoracetate acid, receiving one single oral dose. All cattle presented symptoms and the toxic plant caused death in all cattle of the Nellore and Pantaneiro breeds and only three Curraleiro cattle. No changes were observed in the leukogram, fibrinogen, albumin, total protein and bilirubins. Hyperglycemia and increased of aspartate transaminase, creatinine kinase, urea and creatinine were detected in all breeds. Changes in the values of the gamma glutamyl transferase were individualized and did not follow a standard response. Fourteen cattle presented the histopathological findings of renal hydropic degeneration. The lower death rate of Curraleiro cattle indicates a higher resistance than cattle of the Nellore and Pantaneiro breeds.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/induzido quimicamente , Bovinos/genética , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Rubiaceae/toxicidade , Animais , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Especificidade da Espécie
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