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1.
Molecules ; 24(22)2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766221

RESUMO

Semiliquidambar cathayensis Chang was a traditional medicinal plant and used to treat rheumatism arthritis and rheumatic arthritis for centuries in China with no scientific validation, while only 15 components were reported. Thus, a rapid, efficient, and precise method based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) was applied in both positive- and negative-ion modes to rapidly analysis the main chemical compositions in S. cathayensis for the first time. Finally, a total of 85 chemical compositions, including 35 alkaloids, 12 flavonoids, 7 terpenoids, 5 phenylpropanoids, 9 fatty acids, 7 cyclic peptides, and 10 others were identified or tentatively characterized in the roots of S. cathayensis based on the accurate mass within 5 ppm error. Moreover, alkaloid, flavonoid, phenylpropanoid, and cyclic peptide were reported from S. cathayensis for the first time. This rapid and sensitive method was highly useful to comprehend the chemical compositions and will provide scientific basis for further study on the material basis, mechanism and clinical application of S. cathayensis roots.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Hamamelidaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química
2.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(8): 2621-2630, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418186

RESUMO

The spatial distribution and association of populations can reflect succession patterns and its adaptation strategies to the change of environmental factors, with important significance for vegetation restoration, reconstruction, and biodiversity conservation. We used the point-pattern analytical method to examine the spatial distribution and its association of the Loropetalum chinense population in karst hills of Guilin, China, based on field surveys. On the basis of Ripley K function, we used the pair-correlation function statistic derived to explore difference in the distribution patterns.We used Ripley L function to examine the spatial associations among the three diameter classes. The results showed that the diameter class structure of the population exhibited an irregular inverted "J" type, with the small diameter class occupying a large proportion, indicating an increased population structure with good regeneration capability. The individuals of the three diameter classes had a clumped distribution at the small scale. With the increases of spatial scales, the aggregation intensity gradually weakened and tended to be randomly distributed. There was an independent spatial association between individuals among the three diameter classes at small scale. As the scale increased, the spatial association between individuals with different diameter classes became positive or negative association. The greater the difference in diameter class of L. chinense population, the weaker their spatial correlation was, which might gradually turn into negative association. Our findings contributed to a clearer understanding of the ecological strategies and scale-dependent cha-racteristics of species coexistence and underlying mechanisms during the growth and development of L. chinense population in karst hills of Guilin, providing reference for the restoration, reconstruction, protection and management of forest in karst hills.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Hamamelidaceae/fisiologia , Árvores , Biodiversidade , China , Florestas
3.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0215874, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059560

RESUMO

Parrotia subaequalis is an endangered Tertiary relict tree from eastern China. Despite its important ecological and horticultural value, no transcriptomic data and limited molecular markers are currently available in this species. In this study, we first performed high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of two individuals representing the northernmost (TX) and southernmost (SJD) population of P. subaequalis on the Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. We gathered a total of 69,135 unigenes for P. subaequalis (TX) and 84,009 unigenes for P. subaequalis (SJD). From two unigenes datasets, 497 candidate polymorphic novel expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs) were identified using CandiSSR. Among these repeats, di-nucleotide repeats were the most abundant repeat type (62.78%) followed by tri-, tetra- and hexa-nucleotide repeats. We then randomly selected 54 primer pairs for polymorphism validation, of which 27 (50%) were successfully amplified and showed polymorphisms in 96 individuals from six natural populations of P. subaequalis. The average number of alleles per locus and the polymorphism information content values were 3.70 and 0.343; the average observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.378 and 0.394. A relatively high level of genetic diversity (HT = 0.393) and genetic differentiation level (FST = 0.171) were surveyed, indicating P. subaequalis maintained high levels of species diversity in the long-term evolutionary history. Additionally, a high level of cross-transferability (92.59%) was displayed in five congeneric Hamamelidaceae species. Therefore, these new transcriptomic data and novel polymorphic EST-SSR markers will pinpoint genetic resources and facilitate future studies on population genetics and molecular breeding of P. subaequalis and other Hamamelidaceae species.


Assuntos
Mineração de Dados , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Etiquetas de Sequências Expressas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Hamamelidaceae/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Polimorfismo Genético
4.
Mol Biol Rep ; 46(3): 3381-3386, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989557

RESUMO

Hamamelidaceae (Saxifragales, previously Rosales) comprises approximately six subfamily, 30 genera and 140 species, most of which are Tertiary relicts. Exbucklandia is the only genus of the subfamily Exbucklandioideae, Hamelidaceae, containing only 2-4 species. Of them, the species E. longipetala H. T. Chang is endemic to China and listed as endangered in The Biodiversity Red List of China: Higher Plant, yet some taxonomists put forward that E. longipetala should be merged into E. tonkinensis (Lecomte) H. T. Chang. Currently, there was nearly no phylogeographic studies on this genus possibly due to the deficiency of efficient molecular markers. In this study, we sequenced the genome of E. tonkinensis based on high throughput sequencing technology, and obtained approximately 6 G raw data, which was further de novo assembled into 303,481 contigs. Based on them, 15,326 SSRs were identified from 13,596 contigs, and primers were successfully designed for 10,660 SSRs. A total of 139 paired primers were synthesized, 106 of them were successfully amplified in six Exbucklandia individuals with expected PCR product size, and 24 demonstrated to be polymorphic among three Exbucklandia populations. Accordingly, the expected and observed heterozygosity were between 0.097-0.717 and 0.098-0.583. Based on these efforts, future researches on genetic diversity and population structure of Exbucklandia can be performed to understand its phylogenetic origins and phylogeographic pattern.


Assuntos
Hamamelidaceae/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Saxifragales/genética , China , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 236: 354-365, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878545

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Oil extracted from Parrotiopsis jacquemontiana stem traditionally used for wound healing, body aches and dermatitis. In this study we have evaluated oil for its phytoconstituents, antioxidant, antimicrobial and wound healing activities. METHODS: Phytochemical characterization of oil was determined by standard qualitative procedures, gas chromatography mass spectrometry technique (GC-MS) and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR). The in vitro antioxidant aptitude was determined by scavenging of DPPH radical, hydroxyl ion, nitric oxide, inhibition of ß-carotene bleaching assay and iron chelation power assay. The antimicrobial potential of oil was investigated by disc diffusion method against multidrug resistant (MDR) bacterial isolates and fungal strains. Wound healing was performed in vivo with determination of wound contraction rates, histopathology, hemostatic potential and hydroxyproline estimation. RESULTS: GC-MS analysis indicated that oil was constituted mainly of 2, 6-dimethyl-8-oxoocta-2, 6-dienoic acid, methyl ester (18.2%), syringol (17.8%), catechol (12.4%), guaiacol (5.2%), p-cresol (5.4%) and phenol, 2-propyl- (3.7%). FT-IR analysis revealed several important functional groups in its chemical composition especially phenolic O-H compound stretching. Scavenging of DPPH radical, hydroxyl ion, nitric oxide, inhibition of ß-carotene oxidation and iron chelation power assays indicated strong antioxidant activities of oil. Further it efficiently inhibited growth of multidrug resistant isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, S. lugdenesis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Coagulase -ve staphylococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged between (32-256) (µg/mL) of oil. The oil also strongly inhibited the growth of various fungal isolates with low level of minimum inhibitory concentrations (64-256) µg/mL. Remarkable rate for wound closure and epithelization, hemostatic potential and marked increase (p < 0.05) in hydroxyproline content was observed for oil during wound healing in rat. CONCLUSION: The results suggested that oil can be used as a potential source of wound healing therapeutics.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Hamamelidaceae/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Artemia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bandagens , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Medicina Tradicional , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Paquistão , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/lesões , Pele/patologia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Testes de Toxicidade , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Ferimentos e Lesões/microbiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/patologia
6.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 29(5): 1635-1644, 2018 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29797897

RESUMO

We conducted a 12-month fine root decomposition experiment under 19-year-old Mytilaria laosensis and Cunninghamia lanceolate plantations to explore the dynamics of nutrient concentration and microbial community composition. The aim of this study was to provide insights into nutrient cycling under plantations with different tree species. Our results showed that the initial concentrations of phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) were significantly higher in the fine root of M. laosensis than those in C. lanceolata, which significantly decreased with decomposition. Nitrogen (N) concentration in fine roots of both species increased with decay time. The variation of N concentration in fine root of C. lanceolata lagged behind that in M. laosensis. During the decomposition, magnesium (Mg) concentration in fine root of C. lanceolata showed no significant changes, but that of M. laosensis decreased at the initial decay stage and increased thereafter and was significantly lower than that of C. lanceolata at the 8th month. The ratio of fungi to bacteria (F/B) of both species decreased at the initial stage and then increased, with significantly higher F/B in fine root of M. laosensis than that of C. lanceolate after one-year decay. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that changes in N and K concentrations and C/N ratio explained 37.2%, 14.5% and 14.8% of the variations in microbial community composition of C. lanceolata fine root respectively. However, during the decay of M. laosensis fine root, concentrations of Mg and K were key factors, accounting for 35.9% and 17.6% of the variations in microbial community composition, respectively. We concluded that other nutrients beyond N, such as Mg, might also be an important factor affecting root decomposition in different tree species.


Assuntos
Cunninghamia , Hamamelidaceae , Raízes de Plantas , Microbiologia do Solo , Nitrogênio , Solo/química , Árvores
7.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 18(1): 43, 2018 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29386016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parrotiopsis jacquemontiana (Decne) Rehder. is locally used for skin infections and in wound healing. In this study we have evaluated methanol extract of its leaves and derived fractions against the clinical multi-drug resistant bacterial strains. METHODS: P. jacquemontiana leaves powder extracted with 95% methanol (PJM) and fractionated in escalating polarity of solvents; n-hexane (PJH), chloroform (PJC), ethyl acetate (PJE), n-butanol (PJB) and the remaining as aqueous fraction (PJA). Clinical as well as environmental 19 bacterial strains and 8 fungal strains were screened for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC). Preliminary phytochemical investigation for various phytochemical classes was also carried out. RESULTS: PJM contained the coumarins, phenols, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, sterols, phlobatannins, steroids, phytosterols, triterpenoids, acids, quinones, proteins, vitamin C, betacyanins, oils and resins while anthraquinones, phytosteroids, carbohydrates and anthocyanins were not detected. Disc diffusion assay (1 mg/disc) indicated the sensitivity of all the MDR strains of bacteria with PJM, PJE and PJB, while no inhibition was recorded with PJA. PJH and PJC inhibited the growth of all the strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Coagulase negative staphylococci used in this study. Maximum zone of inhibition (35.5 ± 1.32 mm) was obtained with PJM against Staphylococcus lugdenesis MDR (6197). Comparatively lower MIC (8-64 µg/ml) and MBC (32-256 µg/ml) values were recorded for PJM and PJE. In case of fungal strains only PJM, PJE and PJB markedly inhibited the growth and lower MIC (8-128 µg/ml) and MFC (32-512 µg/ml) values were determined for PJM and PJE. CONCLUSION: The remarkable inhibition of various bacterial and fungal strains at low doses of the extract/fractions suggested the strong antibacterial, antifungal and anti-candidal potential of P. jacquemontiana leaves.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Hamamelidaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química
8.
BMC Genet ; 19(1): 12, 2018 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29439656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loropetalum subcordatum is an endangered species endemic to China that is characterized by narrow distribution, small population size, and delayed fertilization. However, the genetic diversity of the entire extant natural and ex situ populations has not been assessed to date. In this study, we evaluated the genetic diversity and structure of six natural populations and a single ex situ population (the only known ex situ population of L. subcordatum) using sequence-related amplified polymorphism data. RESULTS: In total, 553 reliable DNA bands, of which 359 (63.28%) were polymorphic, were amplified by polymerase chain reaction with combinations of 15 primers. Low average gene diversity within populations and high genetic differentiation were detected in L. subcordatum. A Mantel test demonstrated that there was a positive correlation between genetic and geographic distances, indicating that significant genetic divergence was likely the result of geographic isolation among natural populations. Furthermore, based on genetic structure patterns, populations of L. subcordatum were divided into three clusters. Group 1 was composed of specimens from Libo, Guizhou Province (GZ) and Huanjiang, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (GX). Group 2 was composed of Mt. Wuguishan, Guangdong Province (GD). Group 3 was composed of three populations in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Additionally, clonal reproduction probably existed in GD population. According to the genetic information analysis and field survey, the ex situ population did not match its source population (GD) in terms of genetics, and its habitat was different from the original natural habitat. We observed that a few individual GD seeds were needed to improve ZS ex situ in the future. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to previous SRAP-based studies of endangered plants, L. subcordatum had extremely low average gene diversity within populations and high genetic differentiation among populations. At present, the unique ex situ population has not been successful due to non-representative samples being taken, a smaller population size, and man-made changes in habitat. Potential strategies are suggested to improve the conservation of this species.


Assuntos
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Hamamelidaceae/genética , Filogeografia , Polimorfismo Genético , Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados/métodos , China , Hamamelidaceae/classificação , Densidade Demográfica
9.
Ann Bot ; 121(4): 651-663, 2018 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29300811

RESUMO

Background and aims: Pollination by fungus gnats (Mycetophilidae and Sciaridae) is uncommon, but is nevertheless known to occur in 20 genera among eight angiosperm families. Because many fungus gnat-pollinated plants possess a dark red floral display, we hypothesized that fungus gnat pollination is more widespread among plants with similar floral display than currently known. We thus studied the pollination biology of flowers with dark red pigmentation in five families, focusing particularly on plants having small, flat, actinomorphic flowers with exposed nectaries and short stamens, because these floral characteristics mirror those of a known fungus gnat-pollinated genus (Mitella). Methods: We observed daytime and night-time floral visitors for a total of 194.5 h in Aucuba japonica (Garryaceae), Euonymus spp. (Celastraceae), Disanthus cercidifolius (Hamamelidaceae), Micranthes fusca (Saxifragaceae) and Streptopus streptopoides (Liliaceae). Visitors were categorized into functional groups, and a pollination importance index (PII) was calculated for each functional group based on visitation frequency, pollen load and behaviour on flowers. Key results: Fungus gnats were dominant among the 1762 insects observed (36-92 % depending on the plant species) and were the most important pollinators among all plants studied (PII: 0.529-1). Fungus gnat visits occurred during the daytime and, more frequently, at dusk. Most often, pollen grains became clumped on the ventral side of the head and/or thorax as the short-proboscid fungus gnats foraged on nectar and came into contact with anthers located close to the flower base. Conclusions: Pollination by fungus gnats is probably more common than previously thought, especially in habitats similar to those of the plants studied (moist forest understorey, streamside or subalpine meadow) where fungus gnats are abundant year-round. Our results further suggest that there may be a previously unnoticed association between fungus gnat pollination and dark red coloration, and a shared overall floral architecture among the plants studied.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Polinização , Animais , Dípteros/fisiologia , Euonymus/anatomia & histologia , Euonymus/fisiologia , Flores/fisiologia , Hamamelidaceae/anatomia & histologia , Hamamelidaceae/fisiologia , Japão , Liliaceae/anatomia & histologia , Liliaceae/fisiologia , Magnoliopsida/anatomia & histologia , Magnoliopsida/fisiologia , Saxifragaceae/anatomia & histologia , Saxifragaceae/fisiologia
10.
Plant Dis ; 102(4): 799-806, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673405

RESUMO

In 2012, stem gall samples on Loropetalum chinense were sent to Florida diagnostic labs from Alabama and Florida nurseries. A fluorescent pseudomonad was consistently isolated from the galls. The organism was originally identified in Alabama based on 16S rRNA sequencing as Pseudomonas savastanoi, which causes a production-limiting disease of olive. The loropetalum strains and reference strains were compared using LOPAT, Biolog, fatty acid analysis, multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), and pathogenicity tests. The LOPAT tests placed the loropetalum strains within Pseudomonas syringae. Biolog and fatty acid analysis placed the strains in various pathovars of P. syringae and P. savastanoi, respectively. MLSA of a set of housekeeping genes separated the loropetalum strains from the olive knot-inducing strains. Our work indicates there is a need to use more tests than 16S rRNA to accurately diagnose new bacterial diseases. In pathogenicity tests, the loropetalum strains produced galls only on loropetalum, but not on olive, mandevilla, or almond, indicating this strain is not a threat to the olive industry. Based on the pathogenicity assays and molecular tests, loropetalum strains represent a distinct and new pathovar, P. amygdali pv. loropetali pv. nov., for which the strain PDC13-208 (= DSMZ 105780PT) has been designated as the pathotype strain.


Assuntos
Hamamelidaceae/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Pseudomonas/genética , Pseudomonas/fisiologia
11.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 95: 1853-1867, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28968930

RESUMO

The current study aimed at exploring hepatoprotective potential of Parrotiopsis jacquemontiana leaves methanol extract (PJM) in rat. PJM constituted of significant amount of total phenolic and total flavonoid content. PJM and ethyl acetate fraction (PJE) exhibited strong antioxidant potential (DPPH, hydroxyl ion, nitric oxide, iron chelating, ß-carotene, reducing power and phosphomolybdate assay) in comparison to other extracts. CCl4 toxicity displayed significant (p<0.05) increase in level of TBARS, H2O2, nitrite while a decrease in SOD, CAT, POD and GSH in liver samples of CCl4 treated group. Serum analysis indicated significant increase in levels of ALT, AST and ALP and globulin whereas a decrease in albumin and total protein was also reported. In addition, levels of pro-inflammatory and fibrogenic cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, TGF.ß1, and leptin) of liver serum were elevated whereas adiponectin (anti-inflammatory cytokine) level was decreased in treated rats. CCl4 induced DNA damage and histopathological architecture was also studied. However, co-administration with PJM in a dose-dependent manner reversed all the above pathological parameters caused by CCl4 toxicity. HPLC-DAD analysis confirmed the existence of rutin, gallic acid, myricetin and caffeic acid in PJM and PJE while catechin was additionally present in PJM. Based on rich-antioxidant profile and hepatoprotective outcome on various pathological parameters prompted by CCl4, it can be assumed to be a promising candidate shrub for phytomedicine development against various liver ailments and oxidative-stress related disorders.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Hamamelidaceae/química , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Tetracloreto de Carbono/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Folhas de Planta , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo
12.
Molecules ; 22(9)2017 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28885580

RESUMO

Wound healing is a complex physiological process that is controlled by a well-orchestrated cascade of interdependent biochemical and cellular events, which has spurred the development of therapeutics that simultaneously target these active cellular constituents. We assessed the potential of Parrotia persica (Hamamelidaceae) in wound repair by analyzing the regenerative effects of its two main phenolic compounds, myricetin-3-O-ß-rhamnoside and chlorogenic acid. To accomplish this, we performed phytochemical profiling and characterized the chemical structure of pure compounds isolated from P. persica, followed by an analysis of the biological effects of myricetin-3-O-ß-rhamnoside and chlorogenic acid on three cell types, including keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. Myricetin-3-O-ß-rhamnoside and chlorogenic acid exhibited complementary pro-healing properties. The percentage of keratinocyte wound closure as measured by a scratch assay was four fold faster in the presence of 10 µg/mL chlorogenic acid, as compared to the negative control. On the other hand, myricetin-3-O-ß-rhamnoside at 10 µg/mL was more effective in promoting fibroblast migration, demonstrating a two-fold higher rate of closure compared to the negative control group. Both compounds enhanced the capillary-like tube formation of endothelial cells in an in vitro angiogenesis assay. Our results altogether delineate the potential to synergistically accelerate the fibroblastic and remodelling phases of wound repair by administering appropriate amounts of myricetin-3-O-ß-rhamnoside and chlorogenic acid.


Assuntos
Ácido Clorogênico/farmacologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hamamelidaceae/química , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Manosídeos/farmacologia , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Bioensaio , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Clorogênico/isolamento & purificação , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/citologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/fisiologia , Humanos , Queratinócitos/citologia , Queratinócitos/fisiologia , Manosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Modelos Biológicos , Extratos Vegetais/química
13.
Sci Rep ; 6: 37830, 2016 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27886275

RESUMO

Conspecific adults have strong negative effect on the survival of nearby early-stage seedlings and thus can promote species coexistence by providing space for the regeneration of heterospecifics. The leaf litter fall from the conspecific adults, and it could mediate this conspecific negative adult effect. However, field evidence for such effect of conspecific leaf litter remains absent. In this study, we used generalized linear mixed models to assess the effects of conspecific leaf litter on the early-stage seedling survival of four dominant species (Machilus leptophylla, Litsea elongate, Acer pubinerve and Distylium myricoides) in early-stage seedlings in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in eastern China. Our results consistently showed that the conspecific leaf litter of three species negatively affected the seedling survival. Meanwhile, the traditional conspecific adult neighborhood indices failed to detect this negative conspecific adult effect. Our study revealed that the accumulation of conspecific leaf litter around adults can largely reduce the survival rate of nearby seedlings. Ignoring it could result in underestimation of the importance of negative density dependence and negative species interactions in the natural forest communities.


Assuntos
Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/fisiologia , Acer/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Florestas , Hamamelidaceae/fisiologia , Lauraceae/fisiologia , Densidade Demográfica
14.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 194: 506-512, 2016 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27737816

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Styrax liquidus is a resinous exudate (balsam) obtained from the wounded trunk of the Liquidambar orientalis Mill. (Hamamelidaceae). Styrax has been used for treatment of various ailments in Turkish folk medicine such as skin problems, peptic ulcers, nocturnal enuresis, parasitic infections, antiseptic or as expectorant. AIM OF STUDY: In spite of frequent use of styrax in Turkish folk medicine as well as once as a stabilizer in perfumery industry, negative reports have been noticed by the international authority for restriction its use based on some limited evidences from an in vitro study. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of styrax and its ethanolic extract using in vivo and in vitro assays, as well as an antimutagenic assay and also to determine its phenolic constituents with chromatographic analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of styrax and its ethanolic extract were evaluated by Ames test performed on Salmonella TA98 and TA100 strains with and without metabolic activation (10- 30,000µg/plate). The genotoxicity was also studied in vivo by chromosomal aberrations assay on bone marrow of Balb C mice with different its concentrations (500-2000mg/kg body weight). Cytotoxicity has been evaluated by the MTT assay using L929 cell line. Its phenolic constituents were determined by HPLC analysis. RESULTS: Genotoxicological investigations of styrax or its ethanolic extract showed that none of the tested concentrations induced a significant increase in the revertant number of TA98 and TA100 strains with or without metabolic activation, indicating no mutagenicity to the tested strains. Also results indicated that up to 2000mg/kg body weight, styrax is not genotoxic in mammalian bone marrow chromosome aberration test in vivo. In cytotoxicity study, the IC50 values of styrax and its ethanolic extract were found to be 50.22±1.80 and 59.69±11.77µg/mL, respectively. Among the studied reference standards the major phenolic acids in styrax balsam was found to be p-coumaric acid (2.95mg/g), while in its ethanolic extract not only p-coumaric acid (11.46mg/g), but also gallic acid (1.60mg/g) were found to the main components. CONCLUSION: The findings of the present study provide scientific basis to the safety of styrax from the viewpoint of genotoxicity risk, and in fact, it was found to be beneficial against genotoxicity.


Assuntos
Hamamelidaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Animais , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
15.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 68(12): 1597-1603, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27696407

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity and antihyperuricemic effects of Corylopsis coreana Uyeki flos extracts and the phytochemicals contained therein. METHODS: Ethanolic extracts of the plant were prepared, and the extraction process was optimized with respect to flavonoid content and XO inhibitory activity. The optimized ethanolic extract was tested for its XO inhibitory activity and antihyperuricemic effects in potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemic mice. KEY FINDINGS: The 80% ethanolic extract showed the highest total flavonoid content and in-vitro XO inhibitory activity. In-vivo studies demonstrated that the optimized 80% ethanolic extract could inhibit hepatic XO activity and significantly alleviate hyperuricemia at a relatively low oral dose (50 mg/kg) in mice. Additionally, an in-vitro enzyme inhibition study showed that phytochemicals such as bergenin, isosalipurposide, quercetin and quercitrin may be the key constituents responsible for the observed antihyperuricemic effects of the extract. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first report on the XO inhibitory and antihyperuricemic effects of C. coreana Uyeki flos extract, which can be therapeutically applied in treating hyperuricemia and gout.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Supressores da Gota/farmacologia , Hamamelidaceae/química , Hiperuricemia/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Xantina Oxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Etanol/química , Flores , Supressores da Gota/isolamento & purificação , Hiperuricemia/sangue , Hiperuricemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperuricemia/enzimologia , Fígado/enzimologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Ácido Oxônico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Plantas Medicinais , Solventes/química , Xantina Oxidase/metabolismo
16.
BMC Res Notes ; 9: 332, 2016 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27369764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Distylium lepidotum is a small tree endemic to the Ogasawara Islands located in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. This species is a sole food for an endemic locust, Boninoxya anijimensis. Here, we developed microsatellite markers to investigate genetic diversity and genetic structure and to avoid a genetic disturbance after transplantation to restore the Ogasawara Islands ecosystem. RESULTS: Microsatellite markers with perfect dinucleotide repeats were developed using the next-generation sequencing Illumina MiSeq Desktop Sequencer. Thirty-two primer pairs were characterized in two D. lepidotum populations on Chichijima and Hahajima Islands of the Ogasawara Islands. The number of alleles for the markers ranged from three to 23 per locus in the two populations. Expected heterozygosity per locus in each population ranged from 0.156 to 0.940 and 0.368 to 0.845, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These microsatellite markers will be useful for future population genetics studies of D. lepidotum and provide a basis for conservation management of the Ogasawara Islands.


Assuntos
Genética Populacional , Hamamelidaceae/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Filogenia , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Alelos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Loci Gênicos , Variação Genética , Hamamelidaceae/classificação , Heterozigoto , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Ilhas , Japão , Oceano Pacífico , Árvores/genética
17.
Molecules ; 21(1): 94, 2016 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26784157

RESUMO

A method for the separation and quantification of three flavonoids and one isocoumarin by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been developed and validated. Four constituents present in a crude ethanolic extract of the flowers of Coryloposis coreana Uyeki, were analyzed. Bergenin, quercetin, quercitrin and isosalipurposide were used as calibration standards. In the present study, an excellent linearity was obtained with an r² higher than 0.999. The chromatographic peaks showed good resolution. In combination with other validation data, including precision, specificity, and accuracy, this method demonstrated good reliability and sensitivity, and can be conveniently used for the quantification of bergenin, quercetin, quercitrin and isosalipurposide in the crude ethanolic extract of C. coreana Uyeki flos. Furthermore, the plant extracts were analyzed with HPLC to determine the four constituents and compositional differences in the extracts obtained under different extraction conditions. Several extracts of them which was dependent on the ethanol percentage of solvent were also analyzed for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. One hundred % ethanolic extract from C. coreana Uyeki flos showed the best antimicrobial activity against the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain. Eighty % ethanolic extract showed the best antioxidant activity and phenolic content. Taken of all, these results suggest that the flower of C. coreana Uyeki flos may be a useful source for the cure and/or prevention of septic arthritis, and the validated method was useful for the quality control of C. coreana Uyeki.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Hamamelidaceae/química , Isocumarinas/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Benzopiranos/química , Benzopiranos/isolamento & purificação , Calibragem , Chalconas/química , Chalconas/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa , Etanol , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Flores/química , Humanos , Isocumarinas/química , Isocumarinas/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Extratos Vegetais/química , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Quercetina/química , Quercetina/isolamento & purificação , Padrões de Referência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Solventes
18.
Genet Mol Res ; 14(4): 12340-51, 2015 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26505383

RESUMO

Comprehensive research of genetic variation is crucial in designing conservation strategies for endangered and threatened species. Sinowilsonia henryi Hemsi. is a tertiary relic with a limited geographical distribution in the central and western areas of China. It is endangered because of climate change and habitat fragmentation over the last thousands of years. In this study, amplified fragment length polymorphism markers were utilized to estimate genetic diversity and genetic structure in and among S. henryi. In this study, Nei's genetic diversity and Shannon's information index were found to be 0.192 and 0.325 respectively, indicating a moderate-to-high genetic diversity in species. According to analysis of molecular variation results, 32% of the genetic variation was shown to be partitioned among populations, demonstrating a relatively high genetic divergence; this was supported by principal coordinate analysis and unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average analysis. Moreover, the Mantel test showed that there was no significant correlation between genetic and geographical distances. The above results can be explained by the effects of habitat fragmentation, history traits, and gene drift. Based on the results, several implications were indicated and suggestions proposed for preservation strategies for this species.


Assuntos
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Variação Genética/genética , Hamamelidaceae/genética , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados , Mudança Climática
19.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 26(4): 1083-90, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26259450

RESUMO

The light responses of photosynthesis of two-year-old Distytum chinense seedlings subjected to a simulated reservoir flooding environment in autumn and winter seasons were measured by using a Li-6400 XT portable photosynthesis system, and the light response curves were fitted and analyzed by three models of the rectangular hyperbola, non-rectangular hyperbola and modified rectangular hyperbola to investigate the applicability of different light response models for the D. chinense in different flooding durations and the adaption regulation of light response parameters to flooding stress. The results showed that the fitting effect of the non-rectangular hyperbola model for light response process of D. chinense under normal growth condition and under short-term flooding (15 days of flooding) was better than that of the other two models, while the fitting effect of the modified rectangular hyperbola model for light response process of D. chinense under longer-term flooding (30, 45 and 60 days of flooding) was better than that of the other two models. The modified rectangular hyperbola model gave the best fitted results of light compensation point (LCP) , maximum net photosynthetic rate (P(n max)) and light saturation point (LSP), and the non-rectangular hyperbola model gave the best fitted result of dark respiration rate (R(d)). The apparent quantum yield (Φ), P(n max) and LSP of D. chinense gradually decreased, and the LCP and R(d) of D. chinense gradually increased in early flooding (30 days), but D. chinense gradually produced adaptability for flooding as the flooding duration continued to increase, and various physiological indexes were gradually stabilized. Thus, this species has adaptability to some degree to the flooding environment.


Assuntos
Inundações , Hamamelidaceae/fisiologia , Hamamelidaceae/efeitos da radiação , Fotossíntese , Luz , Modelos Teóricos , Estações do Ano , Plântula/fisiologia , Plântula/efeitos da radiação
20.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 26(9): 2639-45, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26785544

RESUMO

The characteristics of soil pH and exchangeable acidity in soil profile under different vegetation types were studied in hilly red soil regions of southern Hunan Province, China. The soil samples from red soil profiles within 0-100 cm depth at fertilized plots and unfertilized plots were collected and analyzed to understand the profile distribution of soil pH and exchangeable acidity. The results showed that, pH in 0-60 cm soil from the fertilized plots decreased as the following sequence: citrus orchard > Arachis hypogaea field > tea garden. As for exchangeable acidity content, the sequence was A. hypogaea field ≤ citrus orchard < tea garden. After tea tree and A. hypogaea were planted for long time, acidification occurred in surface soil (0-40 cm), compared with the deep soil (60-100 cm), and soil pH decreased by 0.55 and 0.17 respectively, but such changes did not occur in citrus orchard. Soil pH in 0-40 cm soil from the natural recovery vegetation unfertilized plots decreased as the following sequence: Imperata cylindrica land > Castanea mollissima garden > Pinus elliottii forest ≥ Loropetalum chinensis forest. As for exchangeable acidity content, the sequence was L cylindrica land < C. mollissima garden < L. chinensis forest ≤ P. elliottii forest. Soil pH in surface soil (0-20 cm) from natural forest plots, secondary forest and Camellia oleifera forest were significantly lower than that from P. massoniana forest, decreased by 0.34 and 0.20 respectively. For exchangeable acidity content in 0-20 cm soil from natural forest plot, P. massoniana forest and secondary forest were significantly lower than C. oleifera forest. Compared with bare land, surface soil acidification in unfertilized plots except I. cylindrica land had been accelerated, and the natural secondary forest was the most serious among them, with surface soil pH decreasing by 0.52. However, the pH increased in deep soils from unfertilized plots except natural secondary forest, and I. cylindrica land was the most obvious among them, with soil pH increasing by 0.43. The effects of fertilization and vegetation type on pH and exchangeable acidity decreased with the increasing soil depth from all plots.


Assuntos
Florestas , Pradaria , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Solo/química , Arachis , Camellia sinensis , China , Citrus , Fagaceae , Hamamelidaceae , Pinus , Poaceae
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