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1.
Gene ; 755: 144905, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540372

RESUMO

DNA methylation, an important epigenetic modification, regulates a wide range of biological processes. Previous MSAP results showed that the occurrence of PaWB related to changes of DNA methylation level; however, the relationship between DNA methylation and gene expression remains obscure in paulownia. Therefore, in the present study, we applied WGBS and RNA-seq techniques to investigate the DNA methylation and gene expression changes between healthy Paulownia fortunei seedlings and the phytoplasma-infected ones. A map of methylated cytosines at the single base pair resolution of paulownia was constructed. Compared to the healthy seedlings, the DNA methylation level increased after phytoplasma infection, and the change of mCHH was the main methylation pattern. DMR analysis showed that 422,662 DMRs in the genome were identified, in which, 27,871 DMR-associated genes were differentially expressed. Finally, 436 genes with significant differences in their methylation levels and mRNA expression profiles were identified through integrated analysis of the DNA methylomic and transcriptomic. KEGG pathway analysis revealed that these genes are mainly involved in plant hormone signal transduction, carbon metabolism, and starch and sucrose metabolism pathways. Two of DMR-associated genes were verified by BS- PCR. Finally, we selected TRP 1 and R2R3-MYB protein were closely related to the occurrence of PaWB. Our findings provide valuable insight into the mechanism of PaWB at the epigenetic level.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Lamiales/genética , Phytoplasma/genética , China , Epigênese Genética/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Infecções/genética , Lamiales/microbiologia , Magnoliopsida/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Phytoplasma/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Plântula/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
2.
Gene ; 752: 144788, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439375

RESUMO

Primulina genus is an ideal wild ornamental flower and emerging model for studying biosynthesis, diversity, and evolution of flower pigment. However, the molecular mechanism underlying anthocyanin biosynthesis and regulation in Primulina remains unknown. Here, changes in anthocyanin content and the expression profiles of anthocyanin biosynthetic structural genes were examined in developing Primulina swinglei flowers and three other organs. Seventy-three R2R3-MYB transcription factor genes were identified from transcriptome of P. swinglei flowers, two of which, PsMYB1 and PsMYB2, are candidate regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis according to clustering analysis. Furthermore, transient over-expression studies using tobacco leaves showed distinct pigment accumulation following co-infection with PsMYB1 and MrbHLH1 (a previously confirmed anthocyanin regulator from Morella rubra). Additionally, dual luciferase assays showed that PsMYB1 trans-activated the PsANS promoter, with the addition of MrbHLH1 resulting in a 5-fold increase in the intensity of this interaction. PsMYB1 did not, however, have any effect on the PsF3H promoter. The expression profile and dual luciferase assays showed that PsMYB2 plays no roles in anthocyanin regulation. Therefore, PsMYB1 is proposed to be the transcription factor gene regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis in P. swinglei.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Antocianinas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Lamiales/genética , Magnoliopsida/genética , Pigmentação/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Tabaco/genética , Transativadores/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética
3.
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 49, 2020 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sympatric sister species provide an opportunity to investigate the genetic mechanisms and evolutionary forces that maintain species boundaries. The persistence of morphologically and genetically distinct populations in sympatry can only occur if some degree of reproductive isolation exists. A pair of sympatric sister species of Primulina (P. depressa and P. danxiaensis) was used to explore the genetic architecture of hybrid male sterility. RESULTS: We mapped one major- and seven minor-effect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that underlie pollen fertility rate (PFR). These loci jointly explained 55.4% of the phenotypic variation in the F2 population. A Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller (BDM) model involving three loci was observed in this system. We found genotypic correlations between hybrid male sterility and flower morphology, consistent with the weak but significant phenotypic correlations between PFR and floral traits. CONCLUSIONS: Hybrid male sterility in Primulina is controlled by a polygenic genetic basis with a complex pattern. The genetic incompatibility involves a three-locus BDM model. Hybrid male sterility is genetically correlated with floral morphology and divergence hitchhiking may occur between them.


Assuntos
Hibridização Genética , Lamiales/genética , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Simpatria/genética , Análise de Variância , Epistasia Genética , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Flores/genética , Genética Populacional , Genoma de Planta , Genótipo , Vigor Híbrido/genética , Fenótipo , Pólen/genética , Análise de Componente Principal , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 196: 110538, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244118

RESUMO

The use of phytoremediation was an efficient strategy for the restoration of mine slag and the addition of modifier was favorable for improving the phytoremediation efficiency. Herein, spent mushroom compost (SMC) was added in manganese (Mn) slag to reveal the phytoremediation potential of Paulownia fortunei seedlings. The transportation, subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Mn in P. fortunei, the diurnal variation of photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme activities in P. fortunei leaves were measured to reveal the effect of SMC (mass ratios of 10%, M+) on the phytoremediation of Mn slag. Results showed that the addition of SMC increased the accumulation content of Mn by 408.54% due to the increased biomass of P. fortunei seedlings. After SMC amendment, the maximum net photosynthetic rate (Pn) increased and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities decreased significantly (p < 0.05), which was beneficial to the tolerance of leaves to Mn stress. SMC amendment maintained the cell structural integrity of P. fortunei seedlings observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM). Additionally, SMC amendment decreased the damage level of Mn to the cell of P. fortunei seedlings by using function groups (-CH3 and -COOH) to bond Mn in the cell walls and vacuoles. SMC amendment reduced the Mn toxicity to P. fortunei seedlings and improved the phytoremediation capacity.


Assuntos
Agaricales/metabolismo , Compostagem , Lamiales/metabolismo , Manganês/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Fotossíntese , Plântula/metabolismo
5.
Cell ; 180(5): 826-828, 2020 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142675

RESUMO

The carnivorous plant Utricularia gibba forms cup-shaped leaflets to capture prey. Whitewoods et al. (2020) use computational modeling to simulate the formation of the trap's 3D geometry. Directional expansion of the young leaflet is proposed to be a crucial morphogenetic driver, pointing at a fundamental principle of plant development.


Assuntos
Lamiales/genética , Expressão Gênica , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Folhas de Planta
6.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226337, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940359

RESUMO

Genlisea hawkingii, which is a new species of Genlisea subgen. Tayloria (Lentibulariaceae) from cerrado in southwest Brazil, is described and illustrated. This species has been found in only one locality thus far, in the Serra da Canastra, which is located in the Delfinópolis municipality in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The new species is morphologically similar to Genlisea violacea and G. flexuosa, but differs from them in having a corolla with a conical and curved spur along with sepals with an acute apex and reproductive organs that only have glandular hairs. Moreover, it is similar to G. uncinata's curved spur. G. hawkingii is nested within the subgen. Tayloria clade as a sister group to all the other species of this subgenus. Therefore, both morphological and phylogenetic results strongly support G. hawkingii as a new species in the subgen. Tayloria.


Assuntos
Lamiales/classificação , Filogenia , Brasil , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
7.
Science ; 367(6473): 91-96, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753850

RESUMO

Leaves vary from planar sheets and needle-like structures to elaborate cup-shaped traps. Here, we show that in the carnivorous plant Utricularia gibba, the upper leaf (adaxial) domain is restricted to a small region of the primordium that gives rise to the trap's inner layer. This restriction is necessary for trap formation, because ectopic adaxial activity at early stages gives radialized leaves and no traps. We present a model that accounts for the formation of both planar and nonplanar leaves through adaxial-abaxial domains of gene activity establishing a polarity field that orients growth. In combination with an orthogonal proximodistal polarity field, this system can generate diverse leaf forms and account for the multiple evolutionary origins of cup-shaped leaves through simple shifts in gene expression.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Lamiales/anatomia & histologia , Lamiales/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Expressão Gênica , Lamiales/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(1): 424-437, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797270

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to monitor and model indicators of soil contamination, organic matter evolution and biochemical processes involved in a long-term phytoremediation process. Populus nigra L., Paulownia tomentosa Steud., Cytisus scoparius L. and natural vegetation were used in differently contaminated areas (high, medium and low levels of contamination). Parameters indicating contamination (total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and heavy metals) and agronomic (C, N and P) and functional (enzyme activities) soil recovery were monitored for 3.5 years. Three subareas with different levels of contamination (high, medium and low) were identified according to the Nemerow Index. A considerable decrease in TPH (52% on average) over time in the whole site was measured, while the metal reduction was only of about 22% at surface level. A stimulation in metabolic soil processes and improvement in the chemical quality of the soil was also observed throughout the experimental site. Statistical analysis modelling showed that the contaminant content decreased following a one-phase decay model, while the dramatic increase in enzyme activities could be represented by an exponential growth equation. On the basis of our data, it is possible to conclude that the initial contamination level affected neither the decontamination process nor the improvement in soil quality, which occurred similarly in the three different contaminated areas.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Lamiales/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/análise , Petróleo/análise , Populus/metabolismo , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 704: 135307, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812382

RESUMO

Heavy metal contamination and tropospheric ozone (O3) pollution often co-occur in heavy industrial urban areas, adversely affecting urban plant health. Little is known about the characteristics of growth, physiological metabolism, bioaccumulation of cadmium (Cd) and mineral nutrients in urban trees under the combination of soil Cd contamination and elevated O3 exposure. In this study, one-year-old street tree Catalpa ovata G. Don seedlings were exposed to Cd contaminated soil (0, 100, 500 mg/kg soil) with 40 µg/m3 O3 (ambient air) and 120 µg/m3 O3 (elevated O3 exposure) for 4 weeks. The results revealed that 500 mg/kg soil Cd addition alone decreased net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, peroxidase activity and increased abscisic acid content and oxidative injury in the leaves of C. ovata. Furthermore, Cd soil contamination decreased leaf, stem, root and total biomass and affected Cd, Mg, Fe, and Zn contents in leaves (P < 0.01), but it did not affect Mg, Fe and Zn contents in roots. O3 exposure did not affect growth, net photosynthetic rate, Cd accumulation and mineral nutrient contents of C. ovata. No interactive effect between Cd and O3 was found on growth, oxidative injury, photosynthetic rate, and the contents of Cd, Mg, Fe and Zn in plant tissues (P > 0.05). Our findings suggest that C. ovata is an appropriate tree species for urban greening and afforestation in heavy industrial urban areas with high O3 pollution in Northeast China. To ensure successful afforestation in heavy industrial areas, the long-term and large scale studies are needed to advance our understanding of the combined effects from extreme climate conditions and multi-pollutant exposure on the metabolism of mature urban trees.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Cádmio/toxicidade , Lamiales/fisiologia , Ozônio/toxicidade , China , Lamiales/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese
10.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 177: 112835, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499428

RESUMO

Tuberculosis of cervical lymph nodes is called scrofula in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Clinical manifestation is that unilateral or bilateral neck can have multiple enlarged lymph nodes of different sizes. Current therapeutic drugs include Lysionotus pauciflorus Maxim. tablets and compound of Lysionotus pauciflorus Maxim., which have a significant effect on tuberculosis of cervical lymph nodes. This compound is composed of three herbs, Lysionotus pauciflorus Maxim., Prunella vulgaris L. and Artemisia argyi Levl.et Vant. A selective and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was established and validated in rat plasma for the first time. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Wonda Cract ODS-2 C18 Column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm). The mobile phase contained 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution and acetonitrile with a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The detection was performed in negative electrospray ionization mode and the precursor/product ion transitions of six components and internal standard (IS) sulfamethoxazole were quantified in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) using QTRAP-3200 MS/MS. The method fulfilled US Food and Drug Administration guidelines for selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy, precision, matrix effect, extraction recovery, dilution integrity, and stability. This proposed method was then successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of 10 mL/kg compound extracts in rats. The pharmacokinetic parameters and plasma concentration-time profiles would prove valuable in pre-clinical and clinical investigations on the disposition of compound medicine.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Lamiales/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Administração Oral , Animais , Ácidos Cafeicos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Cafeicos/sangue , Ácidos Cafeicos/farmacocinética , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacocinética , Flavonas/administração & dosagem , Flavonas/sangue , Flavonas/farmacocinética , Glucosídeos/administração & dosagem , Glucosídeos/sangue , Glucosídeos/farmacocinética , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Fenilpropionatos/administração & dosagem , Fenilpropionatos/sangue , Fenilpropionatos/farmacocinética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Comprimidos , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/tratamento farmacológico
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(24)2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817365

RESUMO

Utricularia amethystina Salzm. ex A.St.-Hil. & Girard (Lentibulariaceae) is a highly polymorphic carnivorous plant taxonomically rearranged many times throughout history. Herein, the complete chloroplast genomes (cpDNA) of three U. amethystina morphotypes: purple-, white-, and yellow-flowered, were sequenced, compared, and putative markers for systematic, populations, and evolutionary studies were uncovered. In addition, RNA-Seq and RNA-editing analysis were employed for functional cpDNA evaluation. The cpDNA of three U. amethystina morphotypes exhibits typical quadripartite structure. Fine-grained sequence comparison revealed a high degree of intraspecific genetic variability in all morphotypes, including an exclusive inversion in the psbM and petN genes in U. amethystina yellow. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that U. amethystina morphotypes are monophyletic. Furthermore, in contrast to the terrestrial Utricularia reniformis cpDNA, the U. amethystina morphotypes retain all the plastid NAD(P)H-dehydrogenase (ndh) complex genes. This observation supports the hypothesis that the ndhs in terrestrial Utricularia were independently lost and regained, also suggesting that different habitats (aquatic and terrestrial) are not related to the absence of Utricularia ndhs gene repertoire as previously assumed. Moreover, RNA-Seq analyses recovered similar patterns, including nonsynonymous RNA-editing sites (e.g., rps14 and petB). Collectively, our results bring new insights into the chloroplast genome architecture and evolution of the photosynthesis machinery in the Lentibulariaceae.


Assuntos
DNA de Cloroplastos/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Cloroplastos , Lamiales/genética , Fotossíntese/genética , Edição de RNA
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(1)2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861318

RESUMO

Utricularia belongs to Lentibulariaceae, a widespread family of carnivorous plants that possess ultra-small and highly dynamic nuclear genomes. It has been shown that the Lentibulariaceae genomes have been shaped by transposable elements expansion and loss, and multiple rounds of whole-genome duplications (WGD), making the family a platform for evolutionary and comparative genomics studies. To explore the evolution of Utricularia, we estimated the chromosome number and genome size, as well as sequenced the terrestrial bladderwort Utricularia reniformis (2n = 40, 1C = 317.1-Mpb). Here, we report a high quality 304 Mb draft genome, with a scaffold NG50 of 466-Kb, a BUSCO completeness of 87.8%, and 42,582 predicted genes. Compared to the smaller and aquatic U. gibba genome (101 Mb) that has a 32% repetitive sequence, the U. reniformis genome is highly repetitive (56%). The structural differences between the two genomes are the result of distinct fractionation and rearrangements after WGD, and massive proliferation of LTR-retrotransposons. Moreover, GO enrichment analyses suggest an ongoing gene birth-death-innovation process occurring among the tandem duplicated genes, shaping the evolution of carnivory-associated functions. We also identified unique patterns of developmentally related genes that support the terrestrial life-form and body plan of U. reniformis. Collectively, our results provided additional insights into the evolution of the plastic and specialized Lentibulariaceae genomes.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Evolução Molecular , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Genoma de Planta , Genômica , Lamiales/genética , Adaptação Biológica , Carnivoridade , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Duplicação Gênica , Genômica/métodos , Cariotipagem , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Retroelementos , Sequências de Repetição em Tandem
13.
PLoS Biol ; 17(10): e3000427, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600203

RESUMO

Leaves display a remarkable range of forms, from flat sheets with simple outlines to cup-shaped traps. Although much progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms of planar leaf development, it is unclear whether similar or distinctive mechanisms underlie shape transformations during development of more complex curved forms. Here, we use 3D imaging and cellular and clonal analysis, combined with computational modelling, to analyse the development of cup-shaped traps of the carnivorous plant Utricularia gibba. We show that the transformation from a near-spherical form at early developmental stages to an oblate spheroid with a straightened ventral midline in the mature form can be accounted for by spatial variations in rates and orientations of growth. Different hypotheses regarding spatiotemporal control predict distinct patterns of cell shape and size, which were tested experimentally by quantifying cellular and clonal anisotropy. We propose that orientations of growth are specified by a proximodistal polarity field, similar to that hypothesised to account for Arabidopsis leaf development, except that in Utricularia, the field propagates through a highly curved tissue sheet. Independent evidence for the polarity field is provided by the orientation of glandular hairs on the inner surface of the trap. Taken together, our results show that morphogenesis of complex 3D leaf shapes can be accounted for by similar mechanisms to those for planar leaves, suggesting that simple modulations of a common growth framework underlie the shaping of a diverse range of morphologies.


Assuntos
Carnivoridade/fisiologia , Lamiales/citologia , Células Vegetais/ultraestrutura , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/citologia , Polaridade Celular , Proliferação de Células , Forma Celular , Tamanho Celular , Lamiales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(31): 31924-31933, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487011

RESUMO

The golden trumpet tree bark (GTB), a wood-processing residue, was tested as adsorbent material for decontamination of wastewaters containing methylene blue dye (MB). The powdered material was preponderantly amorphous, containing an irregular surface with the presence of lignin and holocellulose. The adsorption was favorable at basic pH of 10 and adsorbent dosage of 0.5 g L-1. The kinetics has finished in only 30 min and fitted by the general order model (GO). The isotherm behaviors were successfully represented by the Langmuir model. The value found for the maximum adsorption capacity was 232.25 mg g-1, being obtained at 328 K. The standard variation of Gibbs free energy (ΔG0) ranged from - 10.77 to - 8.09 kJ mol-1, indicating a spontaneous and favorable adsorption. A variation of standard enthalpy (ΔH0) of 18.58 kJ mol-1 revealed an endothermic adsorption. A sloped forward curve was found in the continuous operation, with breakthrough time (tb) of 325 min. The stoichiometry capacity of the column (qeq) and the length of mass transfer zone (Zm) were, respectively, 23.57 mg g-1 and 11.28 cm. The GTB was efficient in the treatment of a simulated effluent, obtaining color removal of 96%. These results show that GTB can be applied as adsorbent for decontamination of wastewaters containing methylene blue.


Assuntos
Lamiales/química , Azul de Metileno/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Adsorção , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Lignina/química , Azul de Metileno/isolamento & purificação , Casca de Planta/química , Termodinâmica , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação
15.
Am Nat ; 194(4): 541-557, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490725

RESUMO

While native populations are often adapted to historical biotic and abiotic conditions at their home site, populations from other locations in the range may be better adapted to current conditions due to changing climates or extreme conditions in a single year. We examine whether local populations of a widespread species maintain a relative advantage over distant populations that have evolved at sites better matching the current climate. Specifically, we grew lines derived from low- and high-elevation annual populations in California and Oregon of the common monkeyflower (Erythranthe guttata) and conducted phenotypic selection analyses in low- and high-elevation common gardens in Oregon to examine relative fitness and the traits mediating relative fitness. Californian low-elevation populations have the highest relative fitness at the low-elevation site, and Californian high-elevation populations have the highest relative fitness at the high-elevation site. Relative fitness differences are mediated by selection for properly timed transitions to flowering, with selection favoring more rapid growth rates at the low-elevation site and greater vegetative biomass prior to flowering at the high-elevation site. Fitness advantages for Californian plants occur despite incurring higher herbivory at both sites than the native Oregonian plants. Our findings suggest that a lag in adaptation causes maladaptation in extreme years that may be more prevalent in future climates, but local populations still have high growth rates and thus are not yet threatened.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Clima , Herbivoria , Lamiales/genética , Lamiales/fisiologia , Altitude , California , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aptidão Genética , Lamiales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 134: 110815, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520668

RESUMO

Genotoxicity of B. officinalis, G. officinalis, V. luteum and V. hirundinaria extracts, which demonstrated strong antioxidant capacity, was tested using chromosome aberration, sister chromatid exchange (SCE), cytokinesis-block micronucleus and alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assays in human lymphocytes in vitro and Ames Salmonella/microsome test. All tested extracts were not mutagenic in S. typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 with and without metabolic activation and did not induce chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes in vitro. Extract from G. officinalis was the only one, which induced significant increase in micronuclei, indicating possible aneugenic effect. All investigated plant extracts induced DNA damage evaluated by the comet assay, while B. officinalis and V. luteum extracts induced slight increase in SCE values. The determined variation in response might be due to the plant extract tested and donor susceptibility.


Assuntos
Lamiales/química , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Stachys/química , Vincetoxicum/química , Ensaio Cometa , Humanos , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes para Micronúcleos , Salmonella typhimurium/genética
17.
Naturwissenschaften ; 106(9-10): 51, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455975

RESUMO

Endophytic actinomycetes, a prolific source of natural products, are well known for their diverse metabolic versatility, and their association with medicinal plants and antimicrobial potential are well worth exploring. We isolated and identified the Streptomyces cavourensis strain MH16 inhabiting the tree Millingtonia hortensis Linn. using phylogenetic analysis based on a 16S rRNA molecular approach. We used the disc diffusion method to evaluate the impact of differences in the compositions of the media on the production of secondary metabolites from strain MH16. The production of antimicrobial metabolites was determined by the observation of inhibition zones on intensive bands when using a TLC-bioautography assay. Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites was optimal when the strain MH16 was cultured in ISP-2 medium as depicted by a zone of inhibition. Strain MH16 effectively inhibited methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, and other multi drug-resistant pathogens. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the antimicrobial metabolites was 25-100 µg mL-1. The study manifests the optimization and utilization of different fermentation media which best suits for increased production of the secondary metabolites from Streptomyces cavourensis. This research suggests that the antimicrobial metabolites of strain MH16 found in M. hortensis has great potential for the biodiscovery of new anti-infective drugs against a wide range of multidrug-resistant pathogens.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/biossíntese , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptomyces/genética , Streptomyces/metabolismo , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Meios de Cultura/farmacologia , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lamiales/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Streptomyces/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptomyces/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
Integr Comp Biol ; 59(6): 1597-1608, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406979

RESUMO

The carnivorous plant bladderwort exemplifies the use of accumulated elastic energy to power motion: respiration-driven pumps slowly load the walls of its suction traps with elastic energy (∼1 h). During a feeding strike, this energy is released suddenly to accelerate water (∼1 ms). However, due to the traps' small size and concomitant low Reynolds number, a significant fraction of the stored energy may be dissipated as viscous friction. Such losses and the mechanical reversibility of Stokes flow are thought to degrade the feeding success of other suction feeders in this size range, such as larval fish. In contrast, triggered bladderwort traps are generally successful. By mapping the energy budget of a bladderwort feeding strike, we illustrate how this smallest of suction feeders can perform like an adult fish.


Assuntos
Transferência de Energia/fisiologia , Cadeia Alimentar , Lamiales/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Termodinâmica
19.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(8): 2541-2548, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418176

RESUMO

The changes and distribution of non-structural carbohydrate (NSC, including soluble sugar and starch) content in different organs of one-year-old Caryopteris mongolica seedlings were investigated under suitable water condition (CK), slow-dying drought stress, and fast-dying drought stress. There was no significant difference in soluble sugar content of all organs between slow-dying drought stress and CK. With the extended duration of drought, the soluble sugar content in stem increased firstly and then decreased, while starch and NSC contents decreased. The soluble sugar content in coarse roots decreased, while starch and NSC contents increased. The soluble sugar content in leaves increased, while starch and NSC contents of leaves decreased. The NSC content of leaves, stems, coarse roots and fine roots were 6.2%, 7.8%, 8.3% and 7.4% at the death time (80 days), respectively. Under fast-dying drought stress, soluble sugar content in all organs was higher than that in CK, while starch and NSC contents were lower than that in CK. With the increasing time, soluble sugar content of roots decreased, while starch and NSC contents increased. The soluble sugar, starch and NSC contents in stems increased. The soluble sugar content of leaves increased, while starch and NSC contents decreased. The NSC content of leaves, stems, coarse roots and fine roots were 5.9%, 6.6%, 8.9% and 7.7% at lethal time (30 days), respectively. Under different drought stress, non-structural carbohydrates among different organs of C. mongolica seedlings showed different dynamics. Under slow-dying drought stress, NSC gave priority to allocate energy for maintaining physiological metabolism of organs. Under fast-dying drought stress, NSC mainly maintained plant metabolism in the form of soluble sugar, regulated osmotic potential, promoted water absorption, and coped with drastic drought stress.


Assuntos
Carboidratos , Secas , Lamiales/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta , Raízes de Plantas , Plântula
20.
Am J Bot ; 106(7): 1021-1031, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299090

RESUMO

PREMISE: Closely related species occurring in sympatry may experience the negative consequences of interspecific pollen transfer if reproductive isolation (RI) barriers are not in place. We evaluated the importance of pre- and post-pollination RI barriers in three sympatric species of Achimenes (Gesneriaceae), including ecogeographic, phenological, floral isolation, self-pollination, and hybrid viability (fruit and seed set). METHODS: We recorded geographic distribution throughout species ranges and assessed flowering phenology and pollinator visitation at one site in central Mexico. In the greenhouse, we measured floral traits involved in RI and quantified fruit and seed set for from self, intraspecific, and interspecific crosses. RESULTS: Ecogeographic barriers were important in RI, but under sympatry, phenological and floral barriers contributed more to total RI. Phenological RI varied between species and years, while floral RI was 100% effective at preventing interspecific visitation. Species showed differences in floral morphology, color, and scents associated with specialized pollination systems (A. antirrhina-hummingbirds, A. flava-bees, A. patens-butterflies); heterospecific visitation events were restricted to rare secondary pollinators. Hybrid crosses consistently yielded progeny in lower numbers than intraspecific crosses. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated that neither autogamy nor early post-pollination barriers prevent interspecific pollen flow between Achimenes species. However, floral isolation, acting through a combination of attraction and reward traits, consistently ensures specificity of the pollination system. These results suggest that selection on floral traits to reduce the costs of hybrid progeny production may have played a role in evolution or maintenance of specialized pollination systems in Achimenes.


Assuntos
Flores/fisiologia , Lamiales , Polinização , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Simpatria , Animais , Abelhas , Aves , Borboletas , Hibridização Genética , Odorantes , Néctar de Plantas/metabolismo , Autofertilização , Açúcares/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
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