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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(15): 3178-3186, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602870

RESUMO

Ziziphora bungeana is a kind of medicinal plants belongs to Labiatae,and it also a kind of geoherbs in Xinjiang. The main active ingredient linarin has a higher content in inflorescence than in other parts. In this study,high-throughput sequencing technology was used to reveal the transcriptome of the inflorescence of Z. bungeana,77 366 unigenes were acquired,of which 56 375 unigenes were annotated based on search of the database and classification. Through the analysis of metabolic pathways,sixty unigenes were probably encoding some enzymes involved in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathways. The contents of linarin in different parts were determined and the key genes were verified by qRT-PCR. The discovery provides the research basis for further analysis of the enzyme genes involved in the biosynthesis of the major flavonoid components in Z. bungeana.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/biossíntese , Lamiaceae/química , Transcriptoma , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(14): 6418-6430, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. is a valuable source of rosmarinic acid (RA) and methoxylated hydroxyflavones (such as xanthomicrol and cirsimaritin) with antioxidative and antiplatelet effects and with antiproliferative potential against various cancer cells. The extensive application of nanotechnology in hairy root cultures is a new sustainable production platform for producing these active constituents. In the present study, hairy roots derived from 4-week-old leaves and Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATCC15834 were used to investigate the impact of various concentrations of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe NPs) in two elicitation time exposures (24 and 48 h) on growth, antioxidant enzyme activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content (TPC and TFC), and some polyphenols. Gene expression levels of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (pal) and rosmarinic acid synthase (ras) were also analyzed. RESULTS: Iron nanoparticles enhanced biomass accumulation in hairy roots. The treatment time and Fe NP dosage largely improved the activity of antioxidant enzymes, TPC and TFC. The highest RA (1194 µg g-1 FW) content (9.7-fold), compared to controls, was detected with 24 h of exposure to 75 mg L-1 Fe NP, which was consistent with the expression of pal and ras genes under the influence of elicitation. The xanthomicrol, cirsimaritin, and isokaempferide content was increased 11.87, 3.85, and 2.27-fold, respectively. CONCLUSION: Stimulation of D. kotschyi hairy roots by Fe NPs led to a significant increase in the induction and production of important pharmaceutical compounds such as rosmarinic acid and xanthomicrol. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/biossíntese , Compostos Férricos/farmacologia , Flavonoides/biossíntese , Lamiaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Lamiaceae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lamiaceae/genética , Lamiaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nanopartículas/química , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/genética , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
3.
Res Vet Sci ; 125: 333-344, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352282

RESUMO

Minthostachys verticillata essential oil (EO) is a natural product that reports immunomodulatory effects on human T cells as well as anti-inflammatory activity. Bovine mastitis is a worldwide disease, mainly caused by bacteria, affecting milk quality and yield, leading to high economic losses. Environmental pathogens, as Enterococcus faecium, are implicated in the disease. Antibiotic therapy is adequate, although it can leave residues in milk, causing problems in human health. The search of immunomodulatory substances for bovine mastitis treatment is a promising alternative strategy. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of M. verticillata EO on macrophage phagocytosis and evaluate its immunomodulatory and protective effects in mice challenged with E. faecium. The results showed that EO activated macrophage phagocytosis mechanisms inducing reactive oxygen species production. Moreover, EO modulated the innate immune response in mammary glands of female Balb/c mice challenged with E. faecium decreasing the infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and IL-1ß and TNF-α mRNA expression. In addition, EO increased the expression of IL-10 in the last hours of infection. Treatment with EO did not increase the number of activated CD4+ or CD8+ T cells or the production of specific antibodies. These results suggest that EO play an important role in helping to resolve the infection in the first hours without activating adaptive immunity. In addition, a marked decrease of the bacterial count in the glands of mice treated with EO was observed. A natural product such as M. verticillata EO could have a potential use to control bovine mastitis.


Assuntos
Enterococcus faecium/fisiologia , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Lamiaceae/química , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mastite Bovina/tratamento farmacológico , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Mastite Bovina/microbiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Óleos Voláteis/química , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia
4.
Microsc Res Tech ; 82(9): 1507-1528, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172635

RESUMO

Foliar micromorphological features are useful to elucidate the taxonomy and systematics of the Lamiaceae species. Leaf epidermal morphology using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy of 22 Lamiaceae species from 15 genera have been investigated with an aim to solve its taxonomic problem in the correct identification. Various foliar micromorphological features were observed to explain their importance in resolving the correct identification of Lamiaceae taxa. Two main types of trichomes were observed; glandular trichomes (GTs) and nonglandular trichomes (NGTs). GTs were further divided into seven subtypes including the capitate, subsessile capitate, sessile capitate, sunken, barrel, peltate, and clavate. Similarly, NGTs were also divided into simple unicellular and multicellular including conical, falcate, cylindrical, dendrite, papillose, and short hook shape. Quantitative measurement includes the length and width of the trichomes, stomatal complex, epidermal cells, stomata, and trichomes index. Based on the foliar micromorphological characters, a taxonomic key was developed to delimit and correctly identify studied taxa. Further molecular, other anatomical and phylogenetic studies are recommended to strengthen the systematics of Lamiaceae.


Assuntos
Lamiaceae/anatomia & histologia , Lamiaceae/classificação , Epiderme Vegetal/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Biometria , Microscopia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Paquistão , Tricomas/anatomia & histologia
5.
J Insect Sci ; 19(2)2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222325

RESUMO

Bioassays were conducted to assess the individually insecticidal activities of hexane, acetone, and methanol extracts from Hemizygia welwitschii Rolfe-Ashby leaves powder against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). The extracts were applied at 2, 4, 6, and 10 g/kg of cowpea and the untreated seeds served as negative control. Treatments were arranged in a complete randomized design with four replications. Adult mortality, F1 progeny emergence, as well as insect population increase, seeds damage, and seeds germination were carried out. The results obtained showed that the three extracts of H. welwitschii were very effective in protecting stored cowpea against C. maculatus at the highest dosage (10 g/kg) 7 d after treatment. There was no F1 progeny emergence of C. maculatus in cowpea treated with hexane extract at the dosage of 10 g/kg, while, at the same dosage, acetone and methanol extracts almost completely inhibited the F1 progeny emergence. Also, the different concentration levels significantly protected the seeds with regard to seed damage caused by C. maculatus compared with the untreated control after 3 mo storage. The viability of seeds was not affected by the extracts. Because of their effectiveness, the three extracts of H. welwitschii leaves powder could be a good candidate in pest management programs, especially against C. maculatus in stored cowpea grains, in Cameroon and other developing countries.


Assuntos
Besouros , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Lamiaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Animais , Testes de Toxicidade , Vigna
6.
Planta Med ; 85(11-12): 869-910, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216581

RESUMO

The 2 genera Ballota and Otostegia, belonging to the Lamiaceae family, are closely related taxonomically and found mainly in the Mediterranean area, Middle East, and North Africa. Since ancient times, they have been largely employed in traditional medicine for their biological properties such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, insecticidal, anti-malaria, etc. Phytochemical investigations of Ballota and Otostegia species have revealed that diterpenoids are the main constituents of the genera. A large number of flavonoids and other metabolites were also identified. This review, covering literature from 1911 up to 2018, includes traditional uses, chemical profiles (both of volatile and nonvolatile metabolites), and biological properties of all the taxa of these 2 genera studied to date.


Assuntos
Ballota , Lamiaceae , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Ballota/química , Ballota/metabolismo , Humanos , Lamiaceae/química , Lamiaceae/metabolismo , Medicina Tradicional , Extratos Vegetais/química
7.
Life Sci ; 231: 116519, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152813

RESUMO

Glechoma hederacea belongs to the Labiatae family and has many biological activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of a hot water extract of G. hederacea (HWG). Our results indicated that rosmarinic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, genistin, and ferulic acid were the most abundant phytochemicals in HWG. The free radical scavenging capacity of HWG in cell-free systems was evaluated by using the α,α-diphenyl-ß-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ß-carotene bleaching assays. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of HWG were determined in vitro in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The results demonstrated that DAPI staining, the comet assay, and DNA fragmentation showed that HWG prevented LPS-induced DNA damage in RAW264.7 macrophages, reduced the content of LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA), increased GSH levels, and regulated antioxidant enzyme activities. We also demonstrated that HWG significantly decreased the LPS-induced mRNA expression of iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1ß in RAW264.7 macrophages, and reduced the LPS-induced protein expression of iNOS and COX-2 in RAW264.7 macrophages. These results show that HWG and its main components possess potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Lamiaceae/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Lamiaceae/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Células RAW 264.7/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
8.
Molecules ; 24(10)2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096603

RESUMO

The currently available antidepressant agents necessitate the development of newer alternatives because of their serious adverse effects and costs. Traditional medicinal knowledge is likely the key that opens the door to discover new medicines. In Turkish folk medicine, the infusion prepared from aerial parts of Micromeria myrtifolia Boiss. & Hohen is used as pleasure and medicinal tea for its relaxing action. The present research was conceived to confirm the antidepressant's potential of this traditional medicinal plant. In this process, first of all, the collected and shade-dried aerial parts of M. myrtifolia were powdered and then, extracted using solvents with different polarity as follows; n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and methanol (MeOH). The antidepressant activity of the extracts was evaluated by using several in vivo and in vitro experimental models of depression. When the data obtained from the control and experimental groups were compared, it was determined that the MeOH extract was the most active. The active components of this extract were isolated and identified utilizing various chromatographic separation techniques. The MeOH extract was applied to reversed phase (RP-18) column chromatography to obtain five main fractions and they were tested on antidepressant activity models. The isolated compounds from the obtained fractions were elucidated as rosmarinic acid (1), myricetin (2), apigenin (3), and naringenin (4) which were assumed to be responsible for the antidepressant activity of the aerial parts. According to the results, rosmarinic acid, myricetin, apigenin, and naringenin showed statistically significant activity on forced swimming test and tetrabenazine-induced ptosis models, whereas only rosmarinic acid showed statistically significant activity on the tail suspension test. Apigenin displayed the highest inhibitory activity on MAO A and B enzymes. Studies in the future should be performed to investigate the antidepressant activity mechanism of these natural compounds. The current research could be an important step in the development of the new agents that can be used in the treatment of depression.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Lamiaceae/química , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antidepressivos/química , Comportamento Animal , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Solventes
9.
Phytochemistry ; 164: 111-121, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125861

RESUMO

An investigation of the n-BuOH fraction of Schnabelia nepetifolia (Benth.) P.D.Cantino led to the isolation and identification of 12 undescribed phenylethanoid glycosides (nepetifosides A-L) and one undescribed phenylmethanoid glycoside (nepetifoside M), together with 23 known compounds. The structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic analyses including two-dimensional nuclear-magnetic-resonance (2D-NMR) spectroscopy and chemical-hydrolysis methods. Nepetifoside F exhibited strong activity that significantly increased osteoblast proliferation at three concentrations of 0.1, 1, and 10 µM. Moreover, nepetifoside C and nepetifoside D exhibited moderate activities in promoting the proliferation of osteoblasts at medium and high concentrations of 1 µM and 10 µM, respectively.


Assuntos
Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Lamiaceae/química , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Álcool Feniletílico/farmacologia , Células 3T3 , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , Conformação Molecular , Álcool Feniletílico/química , Álcool Feniletílico/isolamento & purificação , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
10.
Molecules ; 24(10)2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109023

RESUMO

This work is an updated snapshot of Lamium plants and their biological activities. The main features of the plant are described and the components of its essential oils are summarized. The traditional medicinal uses of Lamium plants has been reported. The presence of these chemicals i.e., hydroxycinnamic acids, iridoids, secoiridoids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, phenylpropanoids, phytoecdysteroids, benzoxazinoids, betaine can provide biological activities. After the discussion of antioxidant properties documented for Lamium plants, the biological activities, studied using in vitro models, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive activity, and pain therapy and cytotoxicity and cytoprotective activity are here described and discussed. Finally, targeted examples of in vivo studies are reported.


Assuntos
Lamiaceae/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Manejo da Dor , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia
11.
Molecules ; 24(10)2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126143

RESUMO

In order to clarify the chemical color change of teak (Tectona grandis L.F.), the difference of chemical composition between the heartwood and sapwood of teak was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based on the acetone extractive compounds. The results showed that the difference in content of the main components between heartwood and sapwood was not obvious. However, the amount of extractives in heartwood was higher than that in sapwood, especially for phenols, quinones, and ketones. The most obvious different substances in the acetone extractive between heartwood and sapwood were 4-tert-butyl-2-phenyl-phenol,2-methyl-anthraquinone, and 2,3-dimethyl-1,4,4a,9a-tetrahydro-9,10-anthracenedione, which might be the main composition for the chromatic aberration of teak. This paper focuses on a preliminary study and further work such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet photometric detector (UV)/mass spectrometry (MS) will be carried out.


Assuntos
Acetona/química , Lamiaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , China , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Cetonas/análise , Fenóis/análise , Quinonas/análise
12.
Molecules ; 24(7)2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959741

RESUMO

The present results dealing with the antiphytoviral activity of essential oil indicate that these plant metabolites can trigger a response to viral infection. The essential oil from Micromeria croatica and the main oil components ß-caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide were tested for antiphytoviral activity on plants infected with satellite RNA associated cucumber mosaic virus. Simultaneous inoculation of virus with essential oil or with the dominant components of oil, and the treatment of plants prior to virus inoculation, resulted in a reduction of virus infection in the local and systemic host plants. Treatment with essential oil changed the level of alternative oxidase gene expression in infected Arabidopsis plants indicating a connection between the essential oil treatment, aox gene expression and the development of viral infection.


Assuntos
Satélite do Vírus do Mosaico do Pepino/antagonistas & inibidores , Cucumovirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/virologia , Cucumovirus/patogenicidade , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Lamiaceae/química , Oxirredutases/antagonistas & inibidores , Doenças das Plantas/virologia
13.
Molecules ; 24(8)2019 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013876

RESUMO

Spray-drying is the most popular encapsulation method used for the stabilization and protection of biologically active compounds from various environmental conditions, such as oxidation, moisture, pH, and temperature. Spray-drying increases the bioavailability of the natural active compounds and improves the solubility of low-soluble compounds. The aim of this work was to study the effects of different wall materials and optimize wall material solution's composition on physicochemical properties of microcapsules loaded with phenolics, extract rich in volatile compounds and essential oil from Elsholtzia ciliata herb. For encapsulation of elsholtzia and dehydroelsholtzia ketones, more suitable wall materials were used-beta-cyclodextrin and sodium caseinate. Four phenolics-sodium caseinate, skim milk, beta-cyclodextrin, and resistant-maltodextrin-were used. A D-optimal mixture composition design was used to evaluate the effect of wall material solution's composition using sodium caseinate (0.5-1 g), skim milk (6-10 g), resistant-maltodextrin (8-12 g), and beta-cyclodextrin (0.5-1 g) for the encapsulation efficiency, drying yield, and physicochemical properties. The optimal mixture composition was 0.54 g of sodium caseinate, 10 g of skim milk, 8.96 g of resistant-maltodextrin, and 0.5 g of beta-cyclodextrin. These encapsulating agents had a good performance in the microencapsulation of E. ciliata ethanolic extracts by the spray-drying technique. It is proven that the produced microparticles have a good potential to be included in various pharmaceutical forms or food supplements.


Assuntos
Caseínas/química , Dessecação , Etanol/química , Lamiaceae/química , Leite/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Polissacarídeos/química , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química , Animais , Composição de Medicamentos
14.
Molecules ; 24(8)2019 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013947

RESUMO

Many Premna species have been used in traditional medicine to treat hypertension and cardiac insufficiency, and as a tonic for cardiac-related problems. Some have been reported to possess cardiovascular protective activity through several possible mechanisms, but not Premna foetida. In the present study, the methanol extract of P. foetida leaves (PFM) and its isolated compounds were evaluated for their ability to inhibit copper-mediated human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and arachidonic acid (AA)- and adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation. Six flavonoids, three triterpenoids, vanillic acid and stigmasterol were successfully isolated from PFM. Of the isolated compounds, quercetin was the most active against LDL oxidation (IC50 4.25 µM). The flavonols were more active than the flavones against LDL oxidation, suggesting that hydroxyl group at C-3 and the catechol moiety at B-ring may play important roles in protecting LDL from oxidation. Most tested flavonoids showed stronger inhibition towards AA-induced than the ADP-induced platelet aggregation with apigenin exhibiting the strongest effect (IC50 52.3 and 127.4 µM, respectively) while quercetin and kaempferol showed moderate activity. The results suggested that flavonoids, especially quercetin, apigenin and kaempferol were among the major constituents of P. foetida responsible for anti-LDL oxidation and anti-platelet aggregation.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/metabolismo , Flavonoides , Lamiaceae/química , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais , Folhas de Planta/química , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Difosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Ácido Araquidônico/farmacologia , Plaquetas/citologia , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Lipoproteínas LDL/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/química , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacologia
15.
Planta Med ; 85(11-12): 1034-1039, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30965376

RESUMO

In this paper, the isolation of one new iridoid glucoside, 6ß-acetoxyipolamiide (1: ), and thirteen (2:  - 14: ) known congeners from two Lamiaceae species, Stachys ocymastrum and Premna resinosa, leaf extracts is reported. The structural determination of the isolated compounds was performed by mono- and bidimensional NMR spectroscopic analysis as well as MS experiments. The isolates were assayed for their antiangiogenic activity by two in vivo models, zebrafish embryos and chick chorioallantoic membrane assays. The compounds with a significant antiangiogenic activity in both assays were ß-hydroxyipolamiide (2: ), ipolamiide (3: ), and buddlejoside A5 (8: ). 6-O-α-l-(3″-O-p-Methoxycinnamoyl-4″-O-acetyl)rhamnopyranosyl catalpol (13: ) and 6-O-α-l-(2″-trans-caffeoyl)rhamnopyranosyl catalpol (6: ) showed the best antiangiogenic response on blood vessel growth in zebrafish embryos, whereas saccatoside (10: ) and 6-O-α-l-(2″-O - : p-methoxycinnamoyl-3″-O-acetyl)rhamnopyranosyl catalpol (14: ) resulted in a strong reduction of capillary formation in the chorioallantoic membrane assay.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Iridoides/isolamento & purificação , Lamiaceae/química , Stachys/química , Animais , Bioensaio , Embrião de Galinha , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Iridoides/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Peixe-Zebra
16.
Phytochemistry ; 162: 121-128, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30884256

RESUMO

Cedrol is an extremely versatile sesquiterpene alcohol that was approved by the Food and Drug Administration of the United States as a flavoring agent or adjuvant and has been commonly used as a flavoring ingredient in cosmetics, foods and medicine. Furthermore, cedrol possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties including sedative, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities. Commercial production of cedrol relies on fractional distillation of cedar wood oils, followed by recrystallization, and little has been reported about its biosynthesis and aspects of synthetic biology. Here, we report the cloning and functional characterization of a cedrol synthase gene (Lc-CedS) from the transcriptome of the glandular trichomes of a woody Lamiaceae plant Leucosceptrum canum. The recombinant Lc-CedS protein catalyzed the in vitro conversion of farnesyl diphosphate into the single product cedrol, suggesting that Lc-CedS is a high-fidelity terpene synthase. Co-expression of Lc-CedS, a farnesyl diphosphate synthase gene and seven genes of the mevalonate (MVA) pathway responsible for converting acetyl-CoA into farnesyl diphosphate in Escherichia coli afforded 363 µg/L cedrol as the sole product under shaking flask conditions. Transient expression of Lc-CedS in Nicotiana benthamiana also resulted in a single product cedrol with a production level of 3.6 µg/g fresh weight. The sole production of cedrol by introducing of Lc-CedS in engineered E. coli and N. benthamiana suggests now alternative production systems using synthetic biology approaches that would better address sufficient supply of cedrol.


Assuntos
Carbono-Carbono Liases/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Lamiaceae/citologia , Lamiaceae/enzimologia , Terpenos/metabolismo , Tabaco/metabolismo , Tricomas/enzimologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Carbono-Carbono Liases/química , Carbono-Carbono Liases/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular , Escherichia coli/genética , Engenharia Genética , Lamiaceae/genética , Tabaco/genética
17.
Chemistry ; 25(22): 5664-5667, 2019 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924209

RESUMO

Stachyonic acid A, arising from the first in-depth phytochemical investigation of the herb Basilicum polystachyon, was found to display potent inhibitory activity against dengue virus, with limited cytotoxicity. Andrographolide, a known dengue virus inhibitor and closely related labdane-type diterpene, is structurally more complex but displayed poor antiviral activity in the PRNT assay, and increased cytotoxicity in comparison. Furthermore, a Diels-Alder reaction with PTAD identified the active pharmacophore of stachyonic acid to be the conjugated diene.


Assuntos
Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Vírus da Dengue/efeitos dos fármacos , Dengue/tratamento farmacológico , Diterpenos/química , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Descoberta de Drogas , Humanos , Lamiaceae/química , Modelos Moleculares , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 7805467, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30881997

RESUMO

The present study aimed to investigate the acaricidal properties of six essential oils. They were extracted from some plant species (Lamiaceae and Myrtaceae) using the technique of hydrodistillation with the Clevenger apparatus. The chemical compositions of the essential oils under study were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). An Adult Immersion Test (AIT) and a Larval Immersion Test (LIT) were used to evaluate the acaricidal activity of these essential oils against the adults and larvae of Hyalomma scupense. GC-MS analysis showed the major constituents of each essential oil: 25.49% of α-thujone (lavender); 46.82% of carvacrol (oregano); 78.78% of carvacrol (thyme); 40.27% of 1,8-cineole (blue gum); 17.45% of p-cymene (river red gum); and 26.96% of 1,8-cineole (rosemary). The biotests on the essential oils revealed that they inhibit the reproduction of H. scupense engorged females at a rate of 100 % with doses of 0.781 µl/ml of rosemary, 1.562 µl/ml of thyme, 3.125 µl/ml of lavender and oregano, and 6.250 µl/ml of blue gum and river red gum. After a treatment that lasted for 24 hours, essential oils showed a larvicidal activity with respective values of lethal concentrations (LC): LC50, LC90, and LC95 (0.058, 0.358, and 0.600 µl/ml for thyme; 0.108, 0.495, and 0.761 µl/ml for rosemary; 0.131, 0.982, and 1.740 µl/ml for oregano; 0.155, 2.387, and 5.183 µl/ml for blue gum; 0.207, 1.653, and 2.978 µl/ml for river red gum; and 0.253, 2.212, and 4.092 µl/ml for lavender). This is the first report on the acaricidal activity of these essential oils against H. scupense. The results obtained showed that the essential oils with chemotype carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, α-thujone, and p-cymene are highly acaricidal, and they can be used for ticks control. However, further studies on their toxicity in nontarget organisms are required.


Assuntos
Ixodidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Theileriose/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Bovinos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Ixodidae/patogenicidade , Lamiaceae/química , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/patogenicidade , Lavandula/química , Myrtaceae/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Origanum/química , Theileriose/parasitologia , Thymus (Planta)/química
19.
Carbohydr Polym ; 212: 270-276, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832857

RESUMO

In this study, the relaxation modulus was used to elucidate the gelling mechanism of polysaccharides from Mesona blumes. The pH of Mesona blumes polysaccharides (MBP) was adjusted could significantly change the relaxation modulus of MBP. The results showed that the hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interaction existed in during the formation of MBP gel. The addition of salt ions (sodium ions and calcium ions), EDTA and urea have different effects on the relaxation modulus of MBP. Result showed that the hydrogen bond was the main force maintaining the MBP gel network structure, followed was calcium ions. And electrostatic interaction was not the decisive role of gel formation. The small molecules with active hydrogen-bond donors and/or acceptors were added into MBP, which proved -COOH was involved in the hydrogen bonds formation of MBP gel. In addition, the entanglement network number (ENN) results quantitatively assessed contribution of interaction: hydrogen bonds interaction > calcium ions (calcium bridge) >electrostatic interaction.


Assuntos
Cálcio/química , Géis/química , Lamiaceae , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Ureia/química , Cálcio/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Módulo de Elasticidade/fisiologia , Géis/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Reologia/métodos , Ureia/metabolismo
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(14): 14024-14035, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852751

RESUMO

Present study aimed to evaluate the vermicomposting of lignocellulosic wastes employing Eisenia fetida earthworms. The study examined the effectiveness of vermicomposting for 105 days by mixing lignocellulosic waste (LW) with cattle manure (CM) in five different proportions. Results revealed that TOC and C/N ratio decreased gradually till end and in vermicomposts varied between 268-320 g/kg and 12.26-16.85, respectively. Nutrient content (NPK) in the vermicomposts increased with time in all the mixtures. Heavy metals' content also increased in vermicomposts and benefit ratio for heavy metals ranged between 0.06 and 5.1. Increase in earthworm biomass (22.38-39.64 g) and reproduction (21.27-31.60 hatchlings/worm) was also satisfactory in all the waste mixtures. Based on results, it can be inferred that lignocellulosic waste can successfully be converted into good quality manure employing earthworms.


Assuntos
Compostagem/métodos , Lignina , Oligoquetos/fisiologia , Animais , Biomassa , Bovinos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Lamiaceae , Esterco , Metais Pesados/análise , Folhas de Planta , Reciclagem , Solo/química
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