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1.
Planta Med ; 86(6): 405-414, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097974

RESUMO

Postoperative adhesions are regarded as the major complication following abdominal surgery. Rosmarinus officinalis has shown antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, we aimed to assess the influence of 70% v/v hydro-ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of R. officinalis against postoperative abdominal adhesions in a rat model. Forty-eight male Wistar rats (190 ± 20 g) were divided into six groups of eight: group 1 = normal group, without any surgical procedures, group 2 = control group, group 3 = vehicle group, and groups 3, 4, and 5 = experimental groups receiving 2 mL of 4, 2, or 1% w/v R. officinalis treatment. Adhesion levels were macroscopically examined. Additionally, the levels of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6, interleukin-1ß, and TNF-α), growth factors (transforming growth factor-ß1, and vascular endothelial growth factor), oxidative (NO, nitric oxide and MDA, malondialdehyde), and antioxidative (GSH, glutathione) factors were evaluated. Our results revealed that the adhesion score, interleukin-6, interleukin-1ß, TNF-α, transforming growth factor-ß1, vascular endothelial growth factor, NO, and MDA levels were significantly increased in the vehicle group, while the GSH level was diminished. R. officinalis treatment notably ameliorated the adhesion score following postoperative abdominal adhesions compared with the vehicle group. Our results also revealed that R. officinalis markedly reduced inflammatory cytokines, oxidative factors, fibrosis, and angiogenesis biomarkers, whereas it increased the antioxidative factor. Therefore, R. officinalis may be a potential candidate for the management of postoperative peritoneal adhesion.


Assuntos
Rosmarinus , Animais , Masculino , Lavagem Peritoneal , Extratos Vegetais , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Aderências Teciduais , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular
2.
Chemosphere ; 249: 126159, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087451

RESUMO

This study highlights the trace metal and metalloid (TMM) accumulation in Rosmarinus officinalis L. and its chemical responses when exposed to high levels of contamination. R. officinalis individuals growing along a gradient of mixed TMM soil pollution, resulting from past industrial activities, were analysed. Several plant secondary metabolites, known to be involved in plant tolerance to TMM or as a plant health indicator, were investigated. The levels of thiol compounds and phytochelatin precursors (cysteine and glutathione) in the shoots were measured in the laboratory, while a portable non-destructive instrument was used to determine the level of phenolic compounds and chlorophylls directly on site. The level of Pb, As, Sb and Zn contaminations within the soil and plants was also determined. The results highlighted a decrease of TMM translocation with increases of soil contamination. The concentration of TMM in the shoots followed the Mitscherlich equation and reached a plateau at 0.41, 7.9, 0.37, 51.3 mg kg-1 for As, Pb, Sb and Zn, respectively. In the shoots, the levels of thiols and phenols were correlated to concentrations of TMM. Glutathione seems to be the main thiol compounds involved in the tolerance to As, Pb and Sb. Phenols indices, using non-destructive measurements, may be considered as an easy way to establish a proxy to estimate the TMM contamination level of the R. officinalis shoots. The study highlights metabolic processes that contribute to the high potential of R. officinalis for phytostabilisation of TMM in contaminated areas in the Mediterranean.


Assuntos
Metais/toxicidade , Plantas/metabolismo , Rosmarinus/fisiologia , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Adaptação Fisiológica , Biodegradação Ambiental , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Locais de Resíduos Perigosos , Humanos , Metais/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Oligoelementos/análise
3.
Poult Sci ; 99(2): 708-718, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029156

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) sources and rosemary leaves powder (RLP) on the semen quality, fatty acid analysis, and some reproductive hormones of senescent broiler breeder roosters. Thirty-five 45-wk-old Ross breeder roosters were randomly divided into 7 groups (5 birds/group), and received following treatments including control group (basal diet), fish oil (2%), corn oil (2%), an equal (50:50%) proportion of fish oil and corn oil (50:50%), fish oil (2%) with 5 g/kg capsulated RLP, corn oil (2%) with 5 g/kg capsulated RLP, and an equal (50:50) proportion of fish oil and corn oil (50:50%) with 5 g/kg capsulated RLP of diet for 60 D, during which time their seminal characteristics were evaluated every 20 D. At the end of the trial (on day 60), semen samples were tested for determination of sperm fatty acid analysis, lipid peroxidation, and some reproductive hormones. Results showed that feeding fish oil and fish/corn oil with RLP was associated with an increase in docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3) and docosatetraenoic acid (C22:4n-6) in sperm. The fish oil diet increased the proportion of n-3 fatty acids in sperm, and as a consequence, the (n-6)/(n-3) ratio also decreased (P < 0.05). RLP (5 g/kg) to the fish and fish/corn-oil (50:50%)-based diet resulted in improvement in sperm concentration, total motility (%), sperm progressive motility (%), membrane integrity, and viability in terms 0 to 60 day trial (P < 0.05). Diets and age interacted to positively affect sperm concentration and sperm membrane integrity. Also this herbal antioxidant decreased the seminal content of malondialdehyde (MDA) significantly (P < 0.05). Testosterone and LH serum levels of reproductive hormones were significantly higher in fish and fish/corn-oil with RPL (50:50%)-based diet than other groups (P < 0.05). It can be concluded that RLP as an antioxidant could remarkably improve the effects of n-3 and n-3/n-6 PUFA on sperm characteristics, seminal MDA, and hormones levels in aged breeder roosters. The susceptibility of semen to lipid peroxidation was increased in chickens fed without RLP. Future studies are needed to disclose the causal mechanisms involved.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/metabolismo , Rosmarinus/química , Sêmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/administração & dosagem , Hormônio Luteinizante/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio Luteinizante/metabolismo , Masculino , Folhas de Planta/química , Pós/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Testosterona/metabolismo
4.
Food Chem ; 313: 126094, 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923867

RESUMO

Element contents in different types of spices and aromatic herbs collected from Italy and Tunisia were evaluated. The aim was to evaluate: the possible differences and/or similarities among the analyzed samples; if it is possible related the samples to their geographical origins; the nutritional quality and the potential health risks. Potassium, Ca, Mg and Ni were low in laurel and rosemary; mint and thyme showed the highest Na and the lowest Se contents; arsenic and Cd levels were found highest in verbena which had also the lowest Hg content; lastly, black pepper had the highest Mn and the lowest Pb contents. Instead discrimination between Italian and Tunisian samples for each spices and aromatic herbs under analysis was achieved by PCA. Essential elements intake through samples was small. Levels of Pb in some samples exceed the maximum allowable level, but any safety risk for consumers is excluded.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas , Especiarias/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Componente Principal , Rosmarinus/química , Rosmarinus/metabolismo , Sicília , Thymus (Planta)/química , Thymus (Planta)/metabolismo , Tunísia , Verbena/química , Verbena/metabolismo
5.
Planta ; 251(2): 37, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907671

RESUMO

In Sicily, small differences exist between wild and cultivated rosemary biotypes; VOCs and genetic profiles may be a useful tool to distinguish them. A germplasm collection of Rosmarinus officinalis L. was harvested from 15 locations in Sicily. Eleven wild and four cultivated populations were collected and, due to the surveyed area covered, they can be considered as a representative panel of Sicilian genetic background of the species. Ex situ plant collection was transferred to the field cultivation in homogeneous conditions for characterizing through a multidisciplinary approach. The study included morphological traits observations (growth habitus, flower color, number and size of leaves, length and number of internodes), VOC profiles using HS-SPME, genome size by flow cytometry analysis, and genetic characterization by means of DNA and nuclear microsatellite (nSSR) investigation. To detect any pattern within- and among-populations variability, all morphological and chemical data were submitted to ANOVA, while clustering and structure population analysis were carried out using genetic profiles. The present work allowed us to distinguish rather well between wild and cultivated genotypes and to underline the biodiversity richness among rosemary Sicilian germplasm, never highlighted, useful for future breeding programs addressed to exploit this important resource.


Assuntos
Rosmarinus/genética , Análise de Variância , Citometria de Fluxo , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
6.
Nat Prod Res ; 34(1): 87-92, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30905174

RESUMO

This research is carried out in order to characterize the actual contamination by two ubiquitous environmental pollutants, plasticizers and Bisphenol A, in spices (black pepper, caraway and coriander) and aromatic herbs (fennel, laurel, mint, oregano, rosemary, thyme and verbena) from Algeria (n = 26), Tunisia (n = 65) and Italy (n = 53). Algerian samples seem to contain fewer residues than Italian and Tunisian samples. Among the Italian samples, only aromatic herbs, precisely mint, oregano, and laurel, were contaminated. In general, all Tunisian samples showed five plasticizers residues: the caraway, among the spices, and the rosemary, among the aromatic herbs, are found to contain more residues. Also, dietary intake of these contaminants by spices and aromatic herbs under analysis seems not to constitute a risk to the consumers.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Fenóis/análise , Plastificantes/análise , Especiarias/análise , Argélia , Carum/química , Foeniculum/química , Humanos , Itália , Origanum/química , Piper nigrum/química , Rosmarinus/química , Especiarias/normas , Thymus (Planta)/química , Tunísia
7.
Nat Prod Res ; 34(1): 167-171, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957566

RESUMO

Spices and aromatic herbs can be contaminated with mycotoxins, since of their preharvest, postharvest, and storage conditions. In this study, 112 samples of different spices and aromatic herbs were evaluated for their mycotoxins content by HPLC-MS/MS in order to highlight their possible risk linked with human use. The results showed that mycotoxins were occasionally detected only in samples of coriander, laurel, mint, rosemary, and verbena. In both geographical origins a different contamination was detected. Among the investigated mycotoxins, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2, T2 and HT2 were detected, whereas none of the samples contained AFB1 and FB1. The co-occurrence of two toxins were observed for some samples of rosemary and verbena. This study indicates that it is essential minimize the toxins in agriculture, industry, and food-product manufacturing for the consumer health protection.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Micotoxinas , Especiarias/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Humanos , Itália , Micotoxinas/análise , Rosmarinus/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Tunísia , Verbena/química
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644378

RESUMO

The increased risk to health by diverse pathologies, such as cancer, liver diseases, and endocrine alterations, caused by chemical residues in food, has led to the search for sustainable agricultural management alternatives, such as the use of essential oils for the development of natural and eco-friendly fungicides. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil (REO) against Aspergillus flavus Link. REO was obtained by hydrodistillation and its major components were identified as 1,8-cineole (eucalyptol, 52.2%), camphor (15.2%) and α-pinene (12.4%) by GC/MS and NMR. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were both 500 µg/mL. REO reduced the mycelial growth of A. flavus at a concentration of 250 µg/mL (15.3%). The results obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated a reduction in the size of conidiophores and in the thickness of hyphae in A. flavus caused by treatment with REO (250 µg/mL). The production of ergosterol and the biomass of mycelium were both reduced as the REO treatment concentration increased. The production of aflatoxins B1 and B2 was inhibited after treatment with 250 µg/mL REO, a concentration below the MIC/MFC, indicating that the antiaflatoxigenic effect of REO is independent of its antifungal effect and is likely due to its direct action upon toxin biosynthesis. The data demonstrated that REO may be used as an alternative to synthetic fungicides.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Aspergillus flavus/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Rosmarinus/química , Antifúngicos/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/análise
9.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(4): 1735-1740, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oxidation of food lipids occurs in the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in potential adverse health effects. Rosemary extract (RE), as one of the most popular naturally sourced antioxidants, is widely used in the food industry. However, the effect of RE on lipid oxidation during gastrointestinal digestion has not been well investigated. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of RE on lipid oxidation of cooked pork during simulated gastric digestion. RESULTS: Results showed that RE at 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 mg kg-1 pork effectively decreased the formation of malondialdehyde during simulated gastric digestion of cooked pork. RE also effectively mitigated the decline of fatty acids during the simulated gastric digestion of pork. The total phenolic content in RE was calculated to be 170.67 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) g-1 . RE dissolved in distilled water (pH 6.5) or potassium hydrogen phthalate-hydrochloric acid buffer solution (0.2 mol L-1 , pH 3.0) both exhibited strong 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activities as well as ferric reducing capacity. The inhibitory effects of RE on lipid oxidation of cooked pork during simulated gastric digestion may be attributed to the phenolic compounds with antioxidant properties. CONCLUSION: The results lend support to the possible application of rosemary or RE as a rich source of natural antioxidants to inhibit the oxidation of food lipids during gastrointestinal digestion. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos/química , Carne/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Rosmarinus/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Culinária , Digestão , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Oxirredução , Suínos
10.
J Appl Microbiol ; 128(2): 376-386, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448524

RESUMO

AIMS: This study evaluated the efficacy of essential oil from Origanum vulgare L. (oregano; OVEO) and Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary; ROEO) to inactivate sessile cells of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis 86 (SE86) in young and mature biofilms formed on stainless steel. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ultrastructural alterations and damage in different physiological functions caused by OVEO and ROEO in noncultivable sessile cells of SE86 were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and flow cytometry. OVEO (2·5 µl ml-1 ) and ROEO (40 µl ml-1 ) were effective to eradicate young and mature biofilms formed by SE86 sessile cells on stainless steel surfaces; however, the efficacy varied with exposure time. OVEO and ROEO caused alterations in morphology of SE86 sessile cells, inducing the occurrence of bubbles or spots on cell surface. OVEO and ROEO compromised membrane polarization, permeability and efflux activity in noncultivable SE86 sessile cells. These findings show that OVEO and ROEO act by a multitarget mechanism on SE86 membrane functions. CONCLUSIONS: ROEO and OVEO showed efficacy to eradicate SE86 sessile cells in preformed biofilms on stainless steel, displaying a time-dependent effect and multitarget action mode on bacterial cell membrane. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The study provides for the first time the effects of OVEO and ROEO on morphology and physiological functions of noncultivable sessile cells of S. Enteritidis biofilms preformed on stainless steel surfaces.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Origanum/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rosmarinus/química , Salmonella enteritidis/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella enteritidis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salmonella enteritidis/fisiologia , Aço Inoxidável/análise
11.
Food Chem ; 309: 125678, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670125

RESUMO

Significant quantities of several important herbs are processed and consumed from Norwegian commercial kitchens annually although surprisingly the contents of polyphenols have been scarcely characterized. We here report on the qualitative and quantitative content of polyphenolic compounds from ten of the most utilized herbs. From parsley (Petroselinum crispum) var. Darki, isorhamnetin 3-(6″-malonylglucoside)-7-glucoside (2) and diosmetin 7-(2″-apiosyl-6″-malonylglucoside) (8) are reported for the first time, in addition to seven known flavonoids, some of which are reported for the first time from this plant species. Oregano, rosemary and thyme contained the highest amounts of total phenolics with maximum levels of 23.8, 24.2 and 23.4 mg GAE g-1 dry matter, respectively. Fresh herbs contained significantly higher quantities of phenolics than processed, dried herbs. Parsley, coriander, dill and thyme were the richest sources of flavonoids among the investigated herbs.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/análise , Anethum graveolens/química , Coriandrum/química , Origanum/química , Petroselinum/química , Rosmarinus/química , Thymus (Planta)/química
12.
Food Chem ; 309: 125688, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732249

RESUMO

The antiradical power, at equal concentrations of active principles, of the following antioxidants were studied using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay: butylated-hydroxyanisole, butylated-hydroxytoluene, tert-butylhydroquinone, ascorbyl palmitate, tocopherol, grape seed extract, olive extract and five rosemary extracts with different concentrations of carnosic acid (CA) and carnosol (COL). The reaction kinetics of DPPH scavenging activity in each studied substance identified significant variations in the time needed to reach the steady state. Rosemary extracts were seen to be more effective than the other compounds. CA had higher antioxidant activity than COL, although COL seemed to react faster with DPPH. The relevance of the CA/COL ratio for the antioxidant activity of rosemary extracts was also analysed. The presence of COL in rosemary extracts increased the antioxidant activity with an optimal CA/COL ratio of 2.5-3.0. Olive extract and grape seed extract seem to be very promising additives for use as technological antioxidants.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rosmarinus/química , Abietanos/análise , Abietanos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Ácido Ascórbico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Hidroxianisol Butilado/análise , Hidroxianisol Butilado/farmacologia , Hidroxitolueno Butilado/análise , Hidroxitolueno Butilado/farmacologia , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Tocoferóis/análise , Tocoferóis/farmacologia
13.
Food Microbiol ; 86: 103348, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703879

RESUMO

The effects of the incorporation of the essential oils from Origanum vulgare L. (OVEO; 0.07 µL/g) and Rosmarinus officinalis L. (ROEO; 2.65 µL/g) in combination in Minas Frescal cheese on the counts of the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were evaluated during refrigerated storage (7 ±â€¯0.5 °C). The terpenes of OVEO and ROEO, survival of the probiotic strain during in vitro digestion, as well as the physicochemical and sensory aspects were also monitored in Minas Frescal cheese. All terpenes decreased in cheese when the storage time increased. The incorporation of OVEO and ROEO delayed the increase in L. acidophilus LA-5 counts in cheese, but did not affect its ability to survive in cheese under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The decreases in counts of E. coli O157:H7 observed in the first 15 days of refrigerated storage were strongly correlated (r ≥ 0.82) with the terpenes detected in cheese. Scores attributed for aroma, flavor, overall impression and purchase intention of cheese with OVEO and ROEO increased with the increase of the storage time. The incorporation of OVEO and ROEO in combination could be a strategy to control E. coli O157:H7 in probiotic Minas cheese during storage; however, the amounts of these substances should be cautiously selected considering possible negative sensory impacts in this product.


Assuntos
Queijo/microbiologia , Escherichia coli O157/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Lactobacillus acidophilus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Origanum/química , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Rosmarinus/química , Queijo/análise , Escherichia coli O157/efeitos dos fármacos , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacologia , Humanos , Lactobacillus acidophilus/efeitos dos fármacos , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Paladar
14.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol ; 48(1): 242-251, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851843

RESUMO

Nickel-ferrite (NiFe2O4) nanorods particles (NRP) was biosynthesised for the first time by the Rosemary Extract. The NRP was fully characterised, including the type, nanostructure and physicochemical properties of using XRD, HRTEM, FeSEM, XPS, FTIR and VSM. TEM confirmed rod-shaped nano-sized particles with average sizes ranging from 10 nm to 28 nm. The EDAX Analysis showed the presence of iron, nickel, oxygen, and carbon. XRD analysis confirmed the synthesis of NiFe2O4 crystals. XPS curves showed photoelectron for iron, oxygen and nickel. EDS showed the atomic, weight percentages ratios of Ni(12%): Fe(24%) and: O(48) are close to the theoretical value (Ni: Fe:O = 1:2:4), of bimetallic magnetic NiFe2O4 NRP. NiFe2O4 NRP had cytotoxicity effect on MCF-7 cells survival which suggests that NiFe2O4 NRP can be used as a new class of anticancer agent in design novel cancer therapy research.


Assuntos
Compostos Férricos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Nanotecnologia , Nanotubos/química , Níquel/química , Rosmarinus/química , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Química Verde , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo
15.
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci ; 1134-1135: 121854, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785534

RESUMO

Rosmarinus officinalis L., rosemary, is traditionally used to treat headache and improve cardiovascular disease partly due to its vasorelaxant activity, while the vasorelaxant ingredients remain unclear. In this study, chemical spectrum-pharmacological effect relationship (spectrum-effect relationship) was utilized for efficiently discovering the main vasorelaxant ingredients of rosemary. Ten kinds of rosemary extracts were prepared by different extracting solvents and macroporous resin purification, and their chemical components were analyzed by UPLC. At the same time, the vasorelaxant activities of the 10 kinds of rosemary extracts were estimated on isolated rat thoracic aorta, and three chemometrics named partial least squares regression (PLSR), grey correlation analysis (GRA), and the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) were applied to construct spectrum-effect relationship between the UPLC fingerprints and vasorelaxant activity of rosemary extracts. As a result, most rosemary extracts showed dose-dependent increase in vasorelaxant activity and five kinds of ingredients, including carnosol, carnosic acid, epirosmanol methyl ether, carnosol isomer, and augustic acid were screened as vasorelaxant ingredients. Further, the vasorelaxant activities of carnosic acid and carnosol were verified. Moreover, the increase of nitric oxide (NO) and the decrease of angiotensin-II (Ang-II) were thought to contribute to the vasorelaxant activity of rosemary.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Rosmarinus/química , Terpenos , Vasodilatadores , Animais , Aorta Torácica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Terpenos/análise , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/farmacologia , Vasodilatadores/análise , Vasodilatadores/química , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia
16.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2019: 2630537, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885523

RESUMO

Snails were fed with three medicinal plants belonging to the Lamiaceae family (rosemary, sage, and peppermint) in order to test their effects on those animals with high nutritive values. The media of raising were flour containing different percentages of the cited plants ranging from 1% to 9%. The feed had benefits on the raised snails depending on the plant and its percentage. Minerals in those aromatic plants, especially zinc and magnesium, had their effect on protein synthesis in snails fed with those plant percentages. Rosemary was the most profitable plant with the highest protein amount, the lowest mortality rate, and reduced microbial charge. Furthermore, it was a good regulator of the specific catalase activity which confirmed the role of the antioxidant activity of rosemary during raising snails.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Plantas Medicinais/química , Caramujos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura/métodos , Animais , Magnésio/análise , Mentha piperita/química , Rosmarinus/química , Salvia officinalis/química , Caramujos/fisiologia , Zinco/análise
17.
J Food Sci ; 84(12): 3614-3623, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769515

RESUMO

Some amino acids have strong antioxidant activity in frying oil. This study aimed to obtain further information including antioxidant activity at different concentrations and interactions with rosemary extract, green tea extract, and ascorbic acid. Antioxidant activity of arginine, cysteine, lysine, methionine, and tryptophan was examined by increasing the concentration in soybean oil (SBO) at 180 °C within the concentration range of 0 to 15 mM. These amino acids showed increased activity with increasing concentration without showing prooxidant activity at the given concentration range. Addition of 15 mM methionine did not inhibit the prooxidant activity of α-tocopherol at high concentrations in SBO while it significantly increased the activity at each concentration of α-tocopherol. Methionine showed an additive effect with a commercial rosemary extract while lysine had an antagonistic interaction in SBO at the total concentration of 5.5 mM. Mixtures of green tea extract and methionine did not show better activity than methionine alone in SBO and stripped SBO. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate, the major active component in green tea, showed a synergistic effect with methionine in stripped SBO but there was no significant interaction effect in SBO. Although ascorbic acid had a synergistic effect with methionine in stripped SBO, it showed a significant antagonistic effect in SBO. Methionine had strong antioxidant activity in six other vegetable oils showing a moderate correlation (R2 = 0.45 to 0.52) with the ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids indicating the effectiveness may be related to the fatty acid composition of oil. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Some amino acid such as methionine and lysine showed stronger antioxidant activity than the leading commercial natural antioxidant, rosemary extract. These amino acids showed great potential as a natural antioxidant in frying. The price of food-grade L-methionine is generally lower than rosemary extract and green tea extract. This paper provides information on the concentration effect and interactions with currently used antioxidants such as tocopherols, rosemary extract, green tea extract, and ascorbic acid.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Rosmarinus/química , Chá/química , Ácido Ascórbico/química , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Catequina/química , Culinária , Temperatura Alta , Óleo de Soja/química , Tocoferóis/química , alfa-Tocoferol/química
18.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 79(2): 209-219, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578646

RESUMO

Essential oils show promise as natural alternatives to synthetic tick repellents, but few studies have investigated their repellent efficacy in vivo or under field conditions. Here, blanket-drags and standardised walks were employed to evaluate tick acquisition by 1 m2 cotton blankets or cotton trousers, respectively, in woodland edge habitats of known high tick abundance. Blankets and trousers had been treated with one of 5% oregano, rosemary, spearmint or thyme oils, 20% DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) (positive control) or ethanol excipient-only (negative control). The number of ticks present on the blankets or trousers differed significantly between treatments: spearmint oil treatments resulted in significantly fewer ticks than the negative controls for both blankets and trousers and significantly fewer ticks were present on the oregano oil treated blankets. For ticks that did attach to the trousers, the rate of drop off within 3 min was significantly higher for trousers treated with spearmint oil or thyme oil than ethanol, oregano oil and rosemary oil. No reduction in repellence was detected over a 24 h period between treatment and testing. The results suggest that 5% oregano and spearmint oils exhibit potential as natural clothing repellents, with an effective equivalence to 20% DEET.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis , Substâncias Protetoras , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos , Carrapatos , Animais , Inglaterra , Mentha spicata/química , Origanum/química , Rosmarinus/química , Thymus (Planta)/química
19.
J Food Sci ; 84(11): 3147-3155, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599978

RESUMO

Oxidative stability of hempseed and soybean oils, was evaluated after heating at 180 °C, followed by a subsequent 14-day storage at 38 °C. Natural plant extracts (Rosemary, Sage, and Thyme) were added to oils, to evaluate the carry-over stabilizing potential. Heated oils exhibited a relatively faster (P < 0.05) onset of lipid oxidation, as depicted by the analysis of the peroxides and aldehydes formed during the lipid oxidation process, with hempseed oil being more susceptible to lipid oxidation than soybean oil. There were notable losses in ω-3 PUFA and ω-6-GLA during storage of heat treated hempseed oil (P < 0.05). Moreover, peroxide values measured from hempseed oil remained low after high-temperature heating but progressed at a relatively greater rate than that observed in soybean during storage (P < 0.05). The addition of different plant extracts to oils did not prevent oxidation due to heating, but effectively inhibited the generation of hydroperoxides during subsequent storage (P < 0.05). This stabilizing effect was attributed to retention of tocopherols, in particular, γ-tocopherol. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This research demonstrates the use of plant extracts like rosemary, sage and thyme, for improving the shelf-life and nutritional stability of hempseed and soybean oil. We demonstrate the deterioration of fatty acid profiles and vitamin E levels in the oil on heating and subsequent storage, and show the efficacy of using plant extracts in slowing down these deteriorations. This research will be applicable in food industries using or producing oils for use in food during cooking, and also as dressing on already processed food products.


Assuntos
Cannabis/química , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleo de Soja/química , Vitamina E/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Temperatura Alta , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Vegetais/química , Rosmarinus/química , Salvia officinalis/química , Sementes/química , Thymus (Planta)/química
20.
Food Funct ; 10(11): 7356-7365, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650134

RESUMO

Rosmarinus officinalis Linn. is a kind of medicinal and edible homologous plant, which is popular in the Mediterranean region with a significant effect on mind tranquilization, anti-oxidation, and metabolic improvement. However, the hypolipidemic effects and mechanism of rosemary ethanol extract (RO) and their metabolites are less known. In this study, the hypolipidemic effects of RO and its active compounds were clarified. The results showed that RO, rosmarinic acid (RA) and carnosic acid (CA) significantly reduced the contents of liver triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), free fatty acids (FFA) and improved cell hypertrophy, vacuolation, and cell necrosis in the liver of orotic acid induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) model rats. The mechanism and related pathways of RO and its main metabolites against lipid disorder were related to the up-regulation of the phosphorylation of adenosine 5'-monophosphate(AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the inhibition of the sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) cracking into the nucleus, following the down-regulation of fatty acid synthesis. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that RA and CA are active substances of RO, and provides scientific evidence to support functional food product development for improving NAFLD.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Orótico/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rosmarinus/química , Abietanos/química , Abietanos/farmacologia , Animais , Cinamatos/química , Cinamatos/farmacologia , Depsídeos/química , Depsídeos/farmacologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
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