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1.
J Chromatogr A ; 1609: 460438, 2020 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447207

RESUMO

Plants are an important source of natural iridoids. This study demonstrates for the first time the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity of iridoids belonging to the class of antirrhinosides. As iridoids distinguish the chemical composition of most species of the Plantaginaceae family, the active AChE inhibitors were investigated in the hydro-alcoholic extract of Anarrhinum pubescens Fresen. High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) in combination with the AChE inhibition assay is a time and material saving methodology, and thus was employed to directly point to the individual enzyme inhibitors occurring in the plant. The effect-directed screening successfully discovered three active metabolites. These were characterized as antirrhinoside-derived iridoids. Two of these are here reported as newly isolated natural compounds. Identification of the two new metabolites was based on analysis of their collected spectroscopic data (HRMS, 1D and 2D NMR). Their structures were elucidated to be 6-O-, 6'-O-di-trans-cinnamoyl-antirrhinoside (1) and 5-O-, 6-O-difoliamenthoyl-antirrhinoside (3), while the previously known compound 6-O-foliamenthoyl-(6'-O-cinnamoyl)-antirrhinoside (2) was assigned by extensive analysis of its HRMS and HRMS/MS data. The activity of the isolated compounds was referred to the known AChE inhibitor rivastigmine, i.e. their activity were calculated and expressed as values equivalently to rivastigmine. This neuroprotective potential of iridoids mediated through AChE inhibition promote them to compete as natural curatives for neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/análise , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada/métodos , Ensaios Enzimáticos/métodos , Glucosídeos Iridoides/isolamento & purificação , Plantaginaceae/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear de Carbono-13 , Inibidores da Colinesterase/análise , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Fluorescência , Glucosídeos Iridoides/farmacologia , Metaboloma , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética
2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112250, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586694

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora (Pennell) Hong is important medicinal plant that is native to the eastern Himalayas and Hengduan mountains in China. It is also distributed in Nepal, north east India, Bhutan and northern Myanmar. Plant parts are traditionally used against different kinds of diseases and various compounds present in different plant parts are also effective against many diseases. Thus, N. scrophulariiflora has a high potential to maintain human health. AIM OF THE REVIEW: Although N. scrophulariiflora is very important and widely studied plant species but there is no comprehensive up-to-date review of published and unpublished literature. So, in the present article we have compiled and critically commented on the botanical characteristics, traditional uses, plant growth and cultivation, micropropagation, conservation status, secondary metabolites, pharmacology and toxicity of the plant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Extensive literature searches both electronic online databases (Google Scholar, Scopus, Springer Link, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, ResearchGate, PubMed, ChemSpider, USPTO, Google patents and Espacenet) and library visits in Nepal were carried out to collect the literature on information published prior to April 2019. RESULTS: N. scrophulariiflora was traditionally used for 82 ailments/diseases. There are 124 major phytochemicals extracted from the plant. Several compounds are effective in bioactivity. Pharmacologically, the plant is proved to be anti-atherosclerotic, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory in-vivo studies, and antimicrobial, antimalarial, antioxidative, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory and nerve growth factor potentiating from in-vitro studies. Renal improvement activities were confirmed from both in-vivo and in-vitro studies. Toxicological tests and a single clinical trial in human beings have supported the notion that the plant is not poisonous but beneficial for curing wide ranges of diseases. CONCLUSION: N. scrophulariiflora is valuable medicinal plant that can serve as promising source of non-harmful and potential medicinal herbal remedies for human beings.


Assuntos
Etnofarmacologia , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantaginaceae/química , Butão , China , Humanos , Índia , Mianmar , Nepal , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
3.
Acta Pharm ; 69(4): 533-540, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639086

RESUMO

A short review of our recent research on the essential oil phytochemical composition of Petasites albus (L.) Gaertn. and Petasites hybridus (L.) G. Gaertn., B. Mey. & Scherb. (Asteraceae) as well as on the oils of Globularia cordifolia L., Globularia meridionalis (Podp.) O. Schwarz and Globularia punctata Lapeyr. (Plantaginaceae) is presented. All essential oils contained a variety of oxygenated sesquiterpenes among their major constituents, including a bakkane type sesquiterpene fukinanolid (bakkenolide A). The paper is focused on: i) a short overview of the abundance of major terpenes in the essential oils of Petasites and Globularia species from Croatia; ii) possible biosynthetic pathways of major identified sesquiterpenes; and iii) biological activities (literature data) of major sesquiterpenes from Petasites and Globularia species.


Assuntos
Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Terpenos/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Petasites/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Plantaginaceae/química
4.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219527, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291331

RESUMO

We performed a greenhouse experiment to assess how differences in AM fungal community composition affect competitive response of grassland plant species. We used a full factorial design to determine how inoculation with natural AM fungal communities from different habitats in Western Estonia affects the growth response of two grassland forbs (Leontodon hispidus L., Plantago lanceolata L.) to competition with a dominant grass (Festuca rubra L.). We used AM fungal inocula that were known to differ in AM fungal diversity and composition: more diverse AM fungal communities from open grasslands and less diverse AM fungal communities from former grassland densely overgrown by pines (young pine forest). The presence of AM fungi balanced competition between forb and grass species, by enhancing competitive response of the forbs. The magnitude of this effect was dependent on forb species identity and on the origin of the AM fungal inoculum in the soil. The grassland inoculum enhanced the competitive response of the forb species more effectively than the forest inoculum, but inoculum-specific competitive responses varied according to the habitat preference of the forb species. Our findings provide evidence that composition and diversity of natural AM fungal communities, as well as co-adaptation of plant hosts and AM-fungal communities to local habitat conditions, can determine plant-plant interactions and thus ultimately influence plant community structure in nature.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/fisiologia , Festuca/fisiologia , Micobioma/fisiologia , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Plantaginaceae/fisiologia , Asteraceae/microbiologia , Estônia , Festuca/microbiologia , Pradaria , Dispersão Vegetal , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Plantaginaceae/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo
5.
Molecules ; 24(10)2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31137813

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major inflammatory lung disease characterized by irreversible and progressive airflow obstruction. Although corticosteroids are often used to reduce inflammation, steroid therapies are insufficient in patients with refractory COPD. Both serum amyloid A (SAA) and IL-33 have been implicated in the pathology of steroid-resistant lung inflammation. Picroside II isolated from Pseudolysimachion rotundum var. subintegrum (Plantaginaceae) is a major bioactive component of YPL-001, which has completed phase-2a clinical trials in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. In this study, we investigated whether picroside II is effective in treating steroid refractory lung inflammation via the inhibition of the SAA-IL-33 axis. Picroside II inhibited LPS-induced SAA1 expression in human monocytes, which are resistant to steroids. SAA induced the secretion of IL-33 without involving cell necrosis. Picroside II, but not dexamethasone effectively inhibited SAA-induced IL-33 expression and secretion. The inhibitory effect by picroside II was mediated by suppressing the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38, ERK1/2, and nuclear factor-κB pathways. Our results suggest that picroside II negatively modulates the SAA-IL-33 axis that has been implicated in steroid-resistant lung inflammation. These findings provide valuable information for the development of picroside II as an alternative therapeutic agent against steroid refractory lung inflammation in COPD.


Assuntos
Cinamatos/isolamento & purificação , Cinamatos/farmacologia , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Interleucina-33/metabolismo , Glucosídeos Iridoides/isolamento & purificação , Glucosídeos Iridoides/farmacologia , Plantaginaceae/química , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica/metabolismo , Cinamatos/química , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Glucosídeos Iridoides/química , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Pulmão/citologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Células THP-1 , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Environ Entomol ; 48(3): 533-539, 2019 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034548

RESUMO

The summer phenology and survivorship of the stem-mining weevil, Mecinus janthiniformis Tosevski and Caldara, a biocontrol agent of Dalmatian toadflax, Linaria dalmatica (L.) Miller, was studied in 2015-2016 as it developed within host plant stems at a low elevation, open rangeland site in northern Utah. Hatching from eggs in spring and early summer, weevils occurred as larvae within stems in June. Earliest maturing adults occurred in mid-July, and the majority of individuals had completed pupal development by early August. Survivorship within stems was high, with two-thirds or more of individuals surviving from egg hatch to adulthood as assessed in mid-September. Mortality rates within stems were highest during larval development, with parasitism accounting for the majority of deaths. At least three parasitoid species (Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae and Eupelmidae), including both endoparasitoids and ectoparasitoids, were found attacking weevils within stems. Although most surviving weevils remained as adults within stems to overwinter, some adults were found to have chewed exit holes, and in some cases had exited from stems, beginning in July; the fate of these prematurely exiting adults is unknown. Low summer mortality rates within stems should promote weevil establishment under the hot, dry conditions of northern Utah, but parasitism and premature exiting of adults from host stems merit further investigation concerning their potential to reduce biocontrol efficacy. The results presented here for M. janthiniformis phenology within host stems will contribute to the development of standardized, summer monitoring for this biocontrol agent by stem dissection.


Assuntos
Besouros , Lamiales , Linaria , Plantaginaceae , Gorgulhos , Animais , Óvulo , Sobrevivência , Utah
7.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(5): 1029-1040, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659326

RESUMO

In this study, a sample preparation method involving microwave irradiation followed by dispersive solid-phase extraction was used to extract and separate flavonoids from Veronicastrum latifolium (Hemsl.) Yamazaki. Ethyl lactate was selected as the extraction solvent during microwave irradiation. Zinc oxide and ethanol were used as the adsorbents and the eluent, respectively, in dispersive solid-phase extraction. Several experimental parameters affected the extraction performance, such as the extraction solvent and method, the microwave irradiation time, temperature, and solid-to-liquid ratio, the type of adsorbent, the amount of sample solution, the adsorption time and method, and the type and volume of the eluent, and were investigated by single-factor and Box-Behnken design experiments in the pretreatment process. The recommended method was applied to extract flavonoids in Veronicastrum latifolium (Hemsl.) Yamazaki. The enriched flavonoids were analyzed for the first time by high-performance liquid chromatography, and seven flavonoids-vitexin, luteolin, wogonoside, apigenin, chrysoeriol, acacetin, and pectolinarigenin-were identified. Additionally, the method exhibited good linearity (r2 ≥ 0.9992) for flavonoids under the optimum conditions. Moreover, the relative standard deviation of the intraday and interday precision was less than 3.97%. The mean recoveries for flavonoids were more than 98.10%. This work is the first to report a method to extract, separate, and analyze flavonoids from Veronicastrum latifolium (Hemsl.) Yamazaki. Graphical Abstract Microwave irradiation followed by ZnO-based dispersive solid-phase extraction for the pretreatment of Veronicastrum latifolium (Hemsl.) Yamazaki samples, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for analysis of enriched flavonoids.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Micro-Ondas , Plantaginaceae/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Óxido de Zinco/química , Adsorção , Calibragem , Flavonoides/normas , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Químicos , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
Phytomedicine ; 55: 105-118, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neutrophils have a short live in circulation and accelerate greatly local immune responses via increased granulopoiesis and migration at high numbers to infected or inflamed tissue. HYPOTHESIS: Since neutrophils produce a variety of factors with destructive and pro-inflammatory potential the regulation of their homeostasis and functions might be eventually beneficial in inflammation-related pathological conditions. Herein we investigated the effect of natural-derived verbascoside (Verb) and its positional isomer isoverbascoside (IsoVerb) on neutrophil functions. METHODS: We used purified murine bone marrow (BM) neutrophils to study cell responsiveness to priming or activation via Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4. The expression of CD11b, chemokine (CXC motif) receptor 2 (CXCR2), the intracellular level of phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in neutrophils were determined by flow cytometry while the release of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 in culture supernatant was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: We found that Verb appeared less powerful inhibitor of TLR2 and TLR4-mediated apoptosis than IsoVerb. However at concentrations below 16 µM and in LPS priming conditions Verb was more selective inhibitor of CD11b and CXCR2 expression than IsoVerb. Both compounds showed similar activity on integrin/chemokine receptor expression when neutrophils were stimulated with ZY or were activated with LPS. Verb sustained CXCR2 expression and turnover via regulation of the cell responsiveness to its ligand KC (CXCL1) and via the release of MIP-2 (CXCL2). Both Verb and IsoVerb increased TNF-α production and inhibited p38 phosphorylation in TNF-α+ cells. We fail to discriminate sharply between Verb's and IsoVerb's efficacy when studying p38 phosphorylation in LPS stimulated neutrophils. The multi-parametric analysis provides critical insight on the range of on-target effects of Verb and IsoVerb. CONCLUSION: The strength and selectivity of Verb and IsoVerb depended on the degree of activation and functional state of neutrophils, and both compounds are with potential to affect neutrophil-related pathologies/conditions in heterogenic populations.


Assuntos
Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/farmacologia , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Antígeno CD11b/metabolismo , Quimiocina CXCL2/metabolismo , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Ativação de Neutrófilo/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/fisiologia , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantaginaceae/química , Receptores de Interleucina-8B/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Verbascum/química
9.
Phytochem Anal ; 30(2): 237-252, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30511497

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In the quest for new sources of biologically-active compounds, the chemical, and biological profiles of two Globularia species (G. trichosantha Fisch. & C. A. Mey and G. orientalis L.) were investigated. METHODOLOGY: Chemical profiles were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS), as well as by their total phenolic, flavonoids, and phenolic acids contents. The antioxidant abilities of the investigated extracts were done using different assays including free radical scavenging [1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS)], reducing power (cupric reducing antioxidant capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power), phosphomolybdenum, and metal chelating. Inhibitory potential against key enzymes involved in neurodegenerative diseases (cholinesterases; AChE, and BChE), diabetes (α-glucosidase and α-amylase), hyperpigmentation (tyrosinase) and obesity (pancreatic lipase) were evaluated. RESULTS: Globularia trichosantha and G. orientalis extracts showed remarkable antioxidant properties, with the water extracts being a better source of antioxidant compounds. Both species showed remarkable inhibitory effects against the target enzymes. However, for both species, only the acetyl acetate and methanolic extracts were potent against cholinesterases and lipase. CONCLUSION: HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS analysis revealed the presence of 107 compounds from G. trichosantha and G. orientalis, among which, 43 compounds have been preliminarily characterised for the first time from the Globulariaceae family. To date, this study can be considered as the most comprehensive research focused on the characterisation of G. trichosantha and G. orientalis. Results amassed from this study tend to show that these plants represent a rich source of biologically active compounds which can be further explored and validated for their therapeutic potential.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Plantaginaceae/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Quelantes/química , Flavonoides/química , Medicina Herbária , Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantaginaceae/classificação , Especificidade da Espécie
10.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 123: 335-342, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419328

RESUMO

A sulfated polysaccharide from Globularia alypum L. (GASP) was extracted with a yield of 14.2%. GASP is composed mostly of sulfate and total sugars (13.29% and 71.56%, respectively) with small amount of proteins and lipids. The chemical and structural characterization was studied by Infra-Red spectroscopic and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). GASP composed of eight carbohydrates where galactose, glucose, and mannose are the major compounds (33.47%, 26.71% and 18.21%, respectively). The in vitro and in vivo anticoagulant activities in rats were tested using the standard coagulation assays activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombine time (TT) and thrombin time (PT) tests. Both doses of GASP (200 and 500 mg/kg b.w) displayed a significant in vitro (1.22 and 1.33-fold, 1.17 and 1.27-fold, and 1.21 and 1.26-fold, respectively) and in vivo (1.47 and 2.52-fold; 1.20 and 1.43-fold; 1.21 and 1.40-fold, respectively) compared with the control. Toxicity studies on liver performed by the catalytic activity of transaminases in plasma, oxidative stress markers and hepatic morphological changes indicated that GASP at both doses are not toxics. The important pharmacological and toxicological profile of GASP revealed that this compound may be used as a novel and effective drug.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantaginaceae/química , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anticoagulantes/química , Anticoagulantes/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea , Cromatografia Gasosa , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Tempo de Tromboplastina Parcial/métodos , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Sulfatos/química , Tempo de Trombina/métodos
11.
Nat Prod Res ; 33(21): 3057-3064, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30468078

RESUMO

Six metabolites (1-6) were isolated from the aerial parts of Anarrhinum pubescens Fresen. (Plantaginaceae) growing in Saint Catherine region in Egypt; two of them (1 and 4) are here reported to be newly identified naturally occurring iridoids. The isolated metabolites were identified as 6-O-foliamenthoyl-(6'-O-cinnamoyl)-antirrhinoside (1), 6'-O-cinnamoyl-antirrhinoside (2), the iridoid dimer, pubescensoside (4), antirrhinoside (5), 10-hydroxy-antirrhinoside (6), and the flavonoid, diosmin (3). Identification of the new metabolites was based on analysis of their collected spectroscopic data (NMR and HR-ESI-MS). Furthermore, compounds (1, 4, and 5) were subjected to cytotoxic testing against the human lung carcinoma cell line (A-549); compound 4 showed better cytotoxic activity as indicated by the obtained (IC50).


Assuntos
Glicosídeos Iridoides/isolamento & purificação , Plantaginaceae/química , Células A549 , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Egito , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Iridoides/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas , Estrutura Molecular
12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 231: 386-393, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30471377

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: A folk herb Adenosma buchneroides found in the previous ethnobotanical investigation plays an important role as an insect repellent among the Aini people in southwest of China, but the active compounds responsible for repellent activity of the plant have not yet been investigated. AIM OF THE STUDY: The main purpose of the study is to identify the active components of the essential oil which responsible for its repellent activity against Aedes albopictus to support the usage of the plant as mosquito repellent by Aini people. In addition, to supply a class of potential alternatives characterized carvacrol analogues to develop natural repellent products. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The essential oil from aerial part of Ad. buchneroides was extracted by hydrodistillation. A systematic bioassay-guided isolation of repellent compounds from the essential oil was conducted through chromatographic fractionation combined with in-cage mosquito repellent bioassay. The identification of the essential oil components was accomplished by GC-MS and GC-FID techniques. The structural elucidation of compounds was performed on the basis of IR, HR-ESI-MS and NMR. Larvicidal activity and cytotoxicity of all repellent compounds also tested by larval bioassays and MTS assays, respectively. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) of carvacrol analogues was investigated by in-cage mosquito repellent bioassay. RESULTS: The essential oil of the plant showed strong mosquito repellent activity with minimum effective dosage (MED) of 0.019 ±â€¯0.007 mg/cm2, compared to reference standard N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) (0.031 ±â€¯0.014 mg/cm2). 26 compounds representing 97.8% of the essential oil were identified. Carvacrol, carvacrol methyl ether and a new fragrant compound, adenosmin A (1) were found to be repellent compounds by systematic bioassay-guided isolation, with MEDs in the range of 0.011-0.125 mg/cm2. An investigation on SAR of carvacrol analogues led to the discover of three analogues with further lower MEDs (0.002-0.009 mg/cm2) than that of DEET, and other three compounds with similar MEDs (0.029-0.039 mg/cm2) to that of DEET. Carvacrol (LD50 of 24.8 ppm) was the best larvicide among tested repellent compounds. The essential oil and repellent compounds against seven mammalian cell lines revealed low or no cytotoxicity. CONCLUSIONS: Scientific evidences reported here validate the plant's traditional use as insect repellent and imply promising application of the essential oil and carvacrol analogues as natural mosquito repellents.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Repelentes de Insetos/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Plantaginaceae/química , Animais , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Repelentes de Insetos/farmacologia , Masculino , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química
13.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 14(1): 79, 2018 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30577802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fleagrass, Adenosma buchneroides, is an aromatic perennial herb that occupies an important position in the life of the Akha people. They regard it as a tribal symbol and a gift of love. Fleagrass also has many medicinal uses, and there is considerable potential for its development as an insect repellent. Traditionally, Akha people plant it in swidden fields, but there are few swidden fields in China now. Therefore, the first question this study aims to answer is as follows: how is fleagrass planted and utilized now? At present, fleagrass is only reported to be used by Akha people in Mengla. We also try to understand the following questions: Is fleagrass used in nearby area? If so, how is fleagrass used in nearby area? Furthermore, why is fleagrass used in that way? METHODS: From August 2016 to July 2018, field surveys were conducted six times. The ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological uses of A. buchneroides in 13 Akha villages were investigated by means of semi-structured interviews. We assessed the responses of a total of 64 interviewees (32 men and 32 women; mean age, 58.6) from the Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, southwest China, and from Phongsaly Province, Laos. To explain the bases for the ethnobotanical uses of fleagrass, we used Google Scholar, Web of Science, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure to review the bioactivities of the chemical constituents of A. buchneroides. RESULTS: With the vanishing of swidden agriculture and the development of modern products, fleagrass cultivation is disappearing in China. However, most Akha people in Xishuangbanna still remember and yearn for its traditional uses, and Akha people in a nearby area (northern Laos) continue to plant and utilize it. We documented ten uses of A. buchneroides within five discrete categories. The whole plant of fleagrass has a distinct strong aroma, of which Akha villagers are particularly fond. Akha villagers mostly use this aromatic property as a decoration, perfume, and insect repellent. A. buchneroides is also used as a condiment and for medicinal and ritual purposes, including its use as a cure for insect bites, headaches, influenza, and diarrhoea, and as a part of pray ritual for a bumper harvest. From our literature review, we identified many major chemical compounds contained in the essential oil of A. buchneroides, including thymol, carvacrol, 3-carene, and p-cymene, which have insecticidal or insect-repellent, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties. CONCLUSION: Fleagrass is an aromatic plant that is widely used by Aka people. Its chemical composition also has a variety of biological activities. With the vanishing of swidden agriculture and the development of modern products, fleagrass utilization in China is disappearing and its cultural importance is reduced. However, its economic and medicinal value is assignable.


Assuntos
Etnobotânica , Repelentes de Insetos , Plantaginaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adulto , Idoso , Comportamento Ritualístico , China , Feminino , Humanos , Laos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plantaginaceae/química
14.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 18079, 2018 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30591708

RESUMO

The Balearic Islands, Corsica and Sardinia (BCS) constitute biodiversity hotspots in the western Mediterranean Basin. Oligocene connections and long distance dispersal events have been suggested to cause presence of BCS shared endemic species. One of them is Cymbalaria aequitriloba, which, together with three additional species, constitute a polyploid clade endemic to BCS. Combining amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting, plastid DNA sequences and morphometrics, we inferred the phylogeography of the group and evaluated the species' current taxonomic circumscriptions. Based on morphometric and AFLP data we propose a new circumscription for C. fragilis to additionally comprise a group of populations with intermediate morphological characters previously included in C. aequitriloba. Consequently, we suggest to change the IUCN category of C. fragilis from critically endangered (CR) to near threatened (NT). Both morphology and AFLP data support the current taxonomy of the single island endemics C. hepaticifolia and C. muelleri. The four species had a common origin in Corsica-Sardinia, and two long-distance dispersal events to the Balearic Islands were inferred. Finally, plastid DNA data suggest that interspecific gene flow took place where two species co-occur.


Assuntos
Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Dispersão Vegetal , Plantaginaceae/classificação , Plantaginaceae/genética , Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados , Biodiversidade , DNA de Plantas , França , Variação Genética , Itália , Plastídeos/genética , Espanha
15.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 43(17): 3595-3603, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30347931

RESUMO

Potential xanthine oxidase (XOD) inhibitors in Lagotis brevituba were captured by using affinity and ultrafiltration. The structures of the captured components were identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with Q-TOF mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). The binding intensity and binding mechanism between the captured components and XOD were analyzed by using molecular docking software Autodock 4.2. A total of 17 compounds were identified, including 9 flavonoids, 5 phenolic acids and 3 triterpenes. Molecular docking results showed that all the captured components could be spontaneously bound with XOD mainly via hydrogen bond, Van der Waals' force and hydrophobic interaction. From the perspective of binding energy and scoring function, the collected fractions all had potential prospects for XOD inhibitors, and the flavonoid luteolin-3',7 glucuronide had the best effect. The results also showed that affinity and ultrafiltration, ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) and molecular docking technology can provide a powerful tool for the analysis of XOD inhibitor components in natural products.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Plantaginaceae/química , Xantina Oxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Inibidores Enzimáticos/análise , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
16.
J Chem Ecol ; 44(11): 1051-1057, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30175378

RESUMO

The checkerspot butterfly, Euphydryas anicia (Nymphalidae), specializes on plants containing iridoid glycosides and has the ability to sequester these compounds from its host plants. This study investigated larval preference, performance, and sequestration of iridoid glycosides in a population of E. anicia at Crescent Meadows, Colorado, USA. Although previous studies showed that other populations in Colorado use the host plant, Castilleja integra (Orobanchaceae), we found no evidence for E. anicia ovipositing or feeding on C. integra at Crescent Meadows. Though C. integra and another host plant, Penstemon glaber (Plantaginaceae), occur at Crescent Meadows, the primary host plant used was P. glaber. To determine why C. integra was not being used at the Crescent Meadows site, we first examined the host plant preference of naïve larvae between P. glaber and C. integra. Then we assessed the growth and survivorship of larvae reared on each plant species. Finally, we quantified the iridoid glycoside concentrations of the two plant species and diapausing caterpillars reared on each host plant. Our results showed that E. anicia larvae prefer P. glaber. Also, larvae survive and grow better when reared on P. glaber than on C. integra. Castilleja integra was found to contain two primary iridoid glycosides, macfadienoside and catalpol, and larvae reared on this plant sequestered both compounds; whereas P. glaber contained only catalpol and larvae reared on this species sequestered catalpol. Thus, although larvae are able to use C. integra in the laboratory, the drivers behind the lack of use at the Crescent Meadows site remain unclear.


Assuntos
Borboletas/fisiologia , Orobanchaceae/química , Plantaginaceae/química , Animais , Borboletas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Herbivoria , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosídeos Iridoides/análise , Glucosídeos Iridoides/isolamento & purificação , Glucosídeos Iridoides/farmacologia , Glicosídeos Iridoides/análise , Glicosídeos Iridoides/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos Iridoides/farmacologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Orobanchaceae/metabolismo , Orobanchaceae/parasitologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Plantaginaceae/metabolismo , Plantaginaceae/parasitologia
17.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 18(6): 1492-1499, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30010236

RESUMO

Phylogeny reconstruction is a key instrument in numerous biological analyses, ranging from evolutionary and ecology research, to conservation and systems biology. The increasing accumulation of genomic data makes it possible to reconstruct phylogenies with both high accuracy and at increasingly finer resolution. Yet, taking advantage of the enormous amount of sequence data available requires the use of computational tools for efficient data retrieval and processing, or else the process could quickly become an error-prone endeavour. Here, we present OneTwoTree (http://onetwotree.tau.ac.il/), a Web-based tool for tree reconstruction based on the supermatrix paradigm. Given a list of taxa names of interest as the sole input requirement, OneTwoTree retrieves all available sequence data from NCBI GenBank, clusters these into orthology groups, identifies the most informative set of markers, searches for an appropriate outgroup, and assembles a partitioned sequence matrix that is then used for the final phylogeny reconstruction step. OneTwoTree further allows users to control various steps of the process, such as the merging of sequences from similar clusters, or phylogeny reconstruction based on markers from a specific genome type. By comparing the performance of OneTwoTree to a manually reconstructed phylogeny of the Antirrhineae tribe, we show that the use of OneTwoTree resulted in substantially higher data coverage in terms of both taxon sampling and the number of informative markers assembled. OneTwoTree provides a flexible online tool for species-tree reconstruction, aimed to assist researchers ranging in their level of prior expertise in the task of phylogeny reconstruction.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Filogenia , Internet , Plantaginaceae/classificação , Plantaginaceae/genética
18.
Ann Bot ; 122(4): 605-615, 2018 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29893789

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Leaf tissue CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) shows contrasting dynamics over a diurnal cycle in C3 and Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) plants. However, simultaneous and continuous monitoring of pCO2 and pO2 in C3 and CAM plants under the same conditions was lacking. Our aim was to use a new CO2 microsensor and an existing O2 microsensor for non-destructive measurements of leaf pCO2 and pO2 dynamics to compare a C3 and a CAM plant in an aquatic environment. Methods: A new amperometric CO2 microsensor and an O2 microsensor elucidated with high temporal resolution the dynamics in leaf pCO2 and pO2 during light-dark cycles for C3Lobelia dortmanna and CAM Littorella uniflora aquatic plants. Underwater photosynthesis, dark respiration, tissue malate concentrations and sediment CO2 and O2 were also measured. Key Results: During the dark period, for the C3 plant, pCO2 increased to approx. 3.5 kPa, whereas for the CAM plant CO2 was mostly below 0.05 kPa owing to CO2 sequestration into malate. Upon darkness, the CAM plant had an initial peak in pCO2 (approx. 0.16 kPa) which then declined to a quasi-steady state for several hours and then pCO2 increased towards the end of the dark period. The C3 plant became severely hypoxic late in the dark period, whereas the CAM plant with greater cuticle permeability did not. Upon illumination, leaf pCO2 declined and pO2 increased, although aspects of these dynamics also differed between the two plants. Conclusions: The continuous measurements of pCO2 and pO2 highlighted the contrasting tissue gas compositions in submerged C3 and CAM plants. The CAM leaf pCO2 dynamics indicate an initial lag in CO2 sequestration to malate, which after several hours of malate synthesis then slows. Like the use of O2 microsensors to resolve questions related to plant aeration, deployment of the new CO2 microsensor will benefit plant ecophysiology research.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Plantaginaceae/fisiologia , Ritmo Circadiano , Escuridão , Malatos/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Plantaginaceae/efeitos da radiação
19.
Protoplasma ; 255(6): 1763-1776, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29862424

RESUMO

The self-incompatible flowers of Linaria vulgaris have developed a range of mechanisms for attraction of insect visitors/pollinators and deterrence of ineffective pollinators and herbivores. These adaptive traits include the flower size and symmetry, the presence of a spur as a "secondary nectar presenter," olfactory (secondary metabolites) and sensual (scent, flower color, nectar guide-contrasting palate) signals, and floral rewards, i.e. pollen and nectar. Histochemical tests revealed that the floral glandular trichomes produced essential oils and flavonoids, and pollen grains contained flavonoids, terpenoids, and steroids, which play a role of olfactory attractants/repellents. The nectary gland is disc-shaped and located at the base of the ovary. Nectar is secreted through numerous modified stomata. Nectar secretion began in the bud stage and lasted to the end of anthesis. The amount of produced nectar depended on the flower age and ranged from 0.21 to 3.95 mg/flower (mean = 1.51 mg). The concentration of sugars in the nectar reached up to 57.0%. Both the nectar amount and sugar concentration demonstrated a significant year and population effect. Pollen production was variable between the years of the study. On average, a single flower of L. vulgaris produced 0.31 mg of pollen. The spectrum of insect visitors in the flowers of L. vulgaris differed significantly between populations. In the urban site, Bombus terrestris and Apis mellifera were the most common visitors, while a considerable number of visits of wasps and syrphid flies were noted in the rural site.


Assuntos
Flores/anatomia & histologia , Flores/citologia , Plantaginaceae/anatomia & histologia , Plantaginaceae/citologia , Flores/fisiologia , Flores/ultraestrutura , Metaboloma , Néctar de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantaginaceae/ultraestrutura , Pólen/metabolismo , Açúcares/análise , Tricomas/citologia , Tricomas/ultraestrutura
20.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 20(4): 691-697, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29577528

RESUMO

The performance of seedlings is crucial for the survival and persistence of plant populations. Although drought frequently occurs in floodplains and can cause seedling mortality, studies on the effects of drought on seedlings of floodplain grasslands are scarce. We tested the hypotheses that drought reduces aboveground biomass, total biomass, plant height, number of leaves, leaf area and specific leaf area (SLA), and increases root biomass and root-mass fraction (RMF) and that seedlings from species of wet floodplain grasslands are more affected by drought than species of dry grasslands. In a greenhouse study, we exposed seedlings of three confamilial pairs of species (Pimpinella saxifraga, Selinum carvifolia, Veronica teucrium, Veronica maritima, Sanguisorba minor, Sanguisorba officinalis) to increasing drought treatments. Within each plant family, one species is characteristic of wet and one of dry floodplain grasslands, confamilial in order to avoid phylogenetic bias of the results. In accordance with our hypotheses, drought conditions reduced aboveground biomass, total biomass, plant height, number of leaves and leaf area. Contrary to our hypotheses, drought conditions increased SLA and decreased root biomass and RMF of seedlings. Beyond the effects of the families, the results were species-specific (V. maritima being the most sensitive species) and habitat-specific. Species indicative of wet floodplain grasslands appear to be more sensitive to drought than species indicative of dry grasslands. Because of species- and habitat-specific responses to reduced water availability, future drought periods due to climate change may severely affect some species from dry and wet habitats, while others may be unaffected.


Assuntos
Apiaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pradaria , Plantaginaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rosaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Apiaceae/fisiologia , Secas , Ecossistema , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Plantaginaceae/fisiologia , Rosaceae/fisiologia , Sanguisorba
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