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1.
Phytochemistry ; 176: 112398, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450381

RESUMO

This work presents the study of the roots of the Macaronesian paleoendemism Persea indica (L.) Spreng. The root biomass of this protected tree species has been produced by soil-less aeroponic culture under controlled environment. This system has important advantages over traditional plant production techniques because it provides opportunities to optimize the yield of metabolite production under well-controlled conditions, thereby facilitating commercial-scale production of bioactive compounds. Thus, for the first time a study of this type has permitted the isolation from the roots of seven undescribed dextrorotatory lactones: the alkane-γ-lactones (+)-majoranolide and (+)-dihydromajorenolide, the alkene-γ-lactones (+)-majorenolide and (+)-majorenolide acetate, and the alkyne-γ-lactones, (+)-majorynolide, (+)-majorynolide acetate and (+)-isomajorynolide. In addition, thirteen known compounds were also isolated including two possible avocadofurane precursors, avocadynone acetate and avocadenone acetate, the monoterpene esters cis- and trans-p-coumarate of (-)-borneol, and the ryanoid diterpenes cinnzeylanone, anhidrocinnzeylanine, cinnzeylanine, cinnzeylanol, epiryanodol, perseanol, cinncassiol E, perseaindicol and secoperseanol. The configuration at C-14 de two ryanodane diterpenes has also been revised in this work. Furthermore, (-)-borneol cis-p-coumarate has showed to be insecticidal to S. littoralis and cytotoxic to insect (Sf9) cells, (+)-majorenolide antifeedant to aphids and cytotoxic to Sf9, cinnceylanol antifeedant and insecticidal to S. littoralis, and (+)-majorynolide (2), insecticidal against S. littoralis, cytotoxic to Sf9 and nematicidal, suggesting a defensive role for these compounds.


Assuntos
Diterpenos , Persea , Alcanos , Alcenos , Alquinos , Animais , Lactonas , Raízes de Plantas
2.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231215, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267901

RESUMO

Plants interact with a great variety of microorganisms that inhabit the rhizosphere or the epiphytic and endophytic phyllosphere and that play critical roles in plant growth as well as the biocontrol of phytopathogens and insect pests. Avocado fruit damage caused by the thrips species Scirtothrips perseae leads to economic losses of 12-51% in many countries. In this study, a screening of bacteria associated with the rhizosphere or endophytic phyllosphere of avocado roots was performed to identify bacterial isolates with plant growth-promoting activity in vitro assays with Arabidopsis seedlings and to assess the biocontrol activity of the isolates against Scirtothrips perseae. The isolates with beneficial, pathogenic and/or neutral effects on Arabidopsis seedlings were identified. The plant growth-promoting bacteria were clustered in two different groups (G1 and G3B) based on their effects on root architecture and auxin responses, particularly bacteria of the Pseudomonas genus (MRf4-2, MRf4-4 and TRf2-7) and one Serratia sp. (TS3-6). Twenty strains were selected based on their plant growth promotion characteristics to evaluate their potential as thrips biocontrol agents. Analyzing the biocontrol activity of S. perseae, it was identified that Chryseobacterium sp. shows an entomopathogenic effect on avocado thrips survival. Through the metabolic profiling of compounds produced by bacteria with plant growth promotion activity, bioactive cyclodipeptides (CDPs) that could be responsible for the plant growth-promoting activity in Arabidopsis were identified in Pseudomonas, Serratia and Stenotrophomonas. This study unravels the diversity of bacteria from the avocado rhizosphere and highlights the potential of a unique isolate to achieve the biocontrol of S. perseae.


Assuntos
Controle de Insetos/métodos , Persea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Persea/microbiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Tisanópteros/microbiologia , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Árvores/microbiologia , Animais , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Técnicas de Cocultura , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Filogenia , Pseudomonas/metabolismo , Rizosfera , Plântula/metabolismo , Serratia/metabolismo , Stenotrophomonas/metabolismo
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 724: 138153, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251884

RESUMO

The use of biochar in avocado orchard soils has not yet been investigated in rigorous scientific experiments. We determine the effect of wood biochar on avocado growth, fruit production and economic benefit. Biochar was applied at 0%, 5%, 10% and 20% volume by volume basis. Biochar significantly improved the growth of avocado seedlings and increased fruit yield in the first three years after planting. There was an overall increase in soil carbon, fruit yield, tree diameter and height in all biochar treatments relative to the control over the seasons. Trees planted with biochar had 18-26% greater growth rates (in terms of height and stem diameter) than the control. Tree diameter was significantly greater with biochar (145.4 ± 3.3 mm) relative to the control treatment (125.0 ± 2.7 mm). Tree height was also significantly greater with biochar (3.7 ± 0.1 m) relative to the control treatment (3.4 ± 0.1 m). The fruit count from the biochar row was significantly greater (97%) in 2018. Heavy bearing trees typically have a lower yield in the subsequent year but despite this, the 2019 fruit counts were higher in aggregate for the biochar amended trees (20%) relative to the control. A cost-benefit analysis indicated that if yield surplus of fruit trees continued for three years, and assuming avocado prices remain at similar levels, then the discounted net benefit over a hectare would amount to US$8581, or US$105 per metric tonne of biochar applied.


Assuntos
Persea , Solo , Carbono , Carvão Vegetal
4.
Food Chem ; 317: 126384, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078997

RESUMO

This study investigated the capability of selected autochthonous lactic acid bacteria to enrich the portfolio of bioactive compounds of avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill.), with the perspective of producing dietary supplements or pharmaceutical preparations. Fermented avocado puree resulted in high levels of total free amino acids. Fermentation also led to a marked increase of antioxidant activity, with the highest levels found in water and hexane soluble extracts. Bio-converted phenolic compounds and fatty acids derivatives resulting from bacterial metabolism were likely responsible for the increased antioxidant activity. Fermentation caused the fortification of avocado puree with some hydroxy fatty acids, which deserved marked attention due to their health-promoting activities. Oleic and linoleic acids were highly metabolized by Lactobacillus plantarum AVEF17, leading to high levels of mono, di-, and tri-hydroxy-octadecenoic acids.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Persea/química , Fenóis/química , Fermentação , Frutas/química , Ácido Linoleico/metabolismo , Ácido Oleico/metabolismo , Ácidos Oleicos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química
5.
Phytother Res ; 34(6): 1282-1290, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989713

RESUMO

Obesity is a worldwide epidemic and is one of the factors involved in the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Obesity induces low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress. The treatment for obesity involves changes in diet, physical activity, and even medication and surgery. Currently, the use of nutraceutical compounds is associated with health benefits. Ginger and avocado are used for many people all around the world; however, its effect as a nutraceutical compound is less known by the general population. For this reason, we searched information of the literature to point its effects on distinct mechanisms of defense against the obesity its comorbidities. The present review aimed showing that these nutraceuticals may be useful in obesity treatment. Reports have shown that ginger and avocado induce antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects by improving enzymatic activity and modulating obesity-related impairments in the anti-inflammatory system in different tissues, without side effects. Furthermore, ginger and avocado were found to be effective in reversing the harmful effects of obesity on blood lipids. In conclusion, on the basis of the positive effects of ginger and avocado in in vitro, animal, and human studies, these nutraceuticals may be useful in obesity treatment.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Gengibre/química , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Persea/química , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Humanos
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 703: 134779, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710846

RESUMO

The search for natural substances such as plant extracts with antimicrobial properties has considerably increased, given that biofilms constitute a barrier against antifungal therapy, where these can be formed on any surface, such as acrylic resin prosthesis. The objective of this study was to identify the chemical composition of the Persea americana Mill. leaf ethanol extract (EEFPa) using the UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS technique, to verify its antifungal activity through a sensitivity test according to the conditions described in the documents in M27-A3 (CLSI, 2008) and M60 (CLSI, 2017), to induce biofilm formation in acrylic resin discs and quantify their formation using tetrazolium salt reduction (MTT), as well as to treat these with the extract and fluconazole. Ten of the twelve compounds present in the extract were identified. In the sensitivity test the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration observed was 512 µg/mL, while fluconazole concentrations ranged from 64 to 1 µg/mL. During biofilm induction, all the isolates were able to form biofilms within 48 h. During biofilm treatment, the extract was less effective at biofilm reduction than Fluconazole. The EEFPa showed significant antifungal activity against some of the strains in this study, however the extract showed lower effect when compared to fluconazole against the biofilm formation.


Assuntos
Persea , Resinas Acrílicas , Antifúngicos , Biofilmes , Produtos Biológicos , Candida , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Folhas de Planta , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Árvores
8.
Physiol Plant ; 168(2): 394-405, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490553

RESUMO

Radiation frost events, which have become more common in the Mediterranean Basin in recent years, inflict extensive damage to tropical/subtropical fruit crops. During radiation frost, sub-zero temperatures are encountered in the dark, followed by high light during the subsequent clear-sky day. One of the key processes affected by these conditions is photosynthesis, which, when significantly inhibited, leads to the enhanced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and damage. The use of 'chemical priming' treatments that induce plants' endogenous stress responses is a possible strategy to improve their coping with stress conditions. Herein, we studied the effects of priming with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a donor of hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), on the response of photosynthesis to overnight frost and day high-light conditions in 'Hass' avocado (Persea americana Mill). We found that priming with a single foliar application of NaHS had positive effects on the response of grafted 'Hass' plants. Primed plants exhibited significantly reduced inhibition of CO2 assimilation, a lower accumulation of hydrogen peroxide as well as lower photoinhibition, as compared to untreated plants. The ability to maintain a high CO2 assimilation capacity after the frost was attained on the background of considerable inhibition in stomatal conductance. Thus, it was likely related to the lower accumulation of ROS and photodamage observed in primed 'Hass' plants. This work contributes toward the understanding of the response of photosynthesis in a subtropical crop species to frost conditions and provides a prospect for chemical priming as a potential practice in orchards during cold winters.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Persea/fisiologia , Fotossíntese , Sulfetos/farmacologia , Frutas , Luz , Persea/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Phytother Res ; 34(2): 254-269, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657094

RESUMO

The use of vegetable butters and oils shows promising results in the treatment of skin wounds, as they have an effective impact on the phases of the wound-healing process through their antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative activities and by promoting cell proliferation, increasing collagen synthesis, stimulating dermal reconstruction, and repairing the skin's lipid barrier function. In this article, in vitro and in vivo studies of argan (Argania spinosa), avocado (Persea americana), black cumin (Nigella sativa), calophyllum (Calophyllum inophyllum), coconut (Cocos nucifera), cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon), grape (Vitis vinifera), green coffee (Coffea arabica), lentisk (Pistacia lentiscus), linseed (Linum usitatissimum), lucuma (Pouteria lucuma), mango (Mangifera indica), olive (Olea europaea), pomegranate (Punica granatum), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo), rapeseed (Brassica napus), sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides), and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) oils were reviewed. In many cases, vegetable oils proved to be more effective than synthetic wound-healing compounds used as controls. The fatty-acid components of vegetable oils are assumed to play a major role in the wound-healing process, in particular polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid. Evidence shows that oils with a higher linoleic to oleic acid ratio are more effective for lipid barrier repair. However, in depth studies are needed to gain knowledge about vegetable oils' effects on the skin and vice versa.


Assuntos
Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Cicatrização , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Calophyllum , Cucurbita , Dermatologia , Ácidos Graxos/química , Linho , Humanos , Ácido Linoleico/química , Óleo de Semente do Linho , Mangifera , Ácido Oleico/química , Persea , Pele , Dermatopatias , Vaccinium macrocarpon , Verduras
10.
J Food Prot ; 83(1): 75-81, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851548

RESUMO

Hass avocados may become contaminated with Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes at the farm and the packing facility or later during transportation and at retail. In Mexico, avocados are frequently sold in bulk at retail markets, where they are stored at room temperature for several hours or days and exposed to potential sources of microorganisms. These conditions may favor the entry, adhesion, survival, and biofilm formation of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of Salmonella, L. monocytogenes, and other Listeria species and the levels of indicator microorganisms on the surface of avocados sold at retail markets. A total of 450 samples (Persea americana var. Hass) were acquired from retail markets located in Guadalajara, Mexico. One group of 225 samples was evaluated for the presence of Salmonella and for enumeration of aerobic plate counts, yeasts and molds, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, and Escherichia coli. The other 225 samples were processed for isolation of L. monocytogenes and other Listeria species. Microbial counts (log CFU per avocado) were 4.3 to 9.0 for aerobic plate counts, 3.3 to 7.1 for yeasts and molds, 3.3 to 8.2 for Enterobacteriaceae, 3.3 to 8.4 for coliforms, and 3.3 to 6.2 for E. coli. Eight samples (3.5%) were positive for Salmonella. Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes were detected in 31 (13.8%) and 18 (8.0%) of 225 samples, respectively. Listeria innocua, Listeria welshimeri, and Listeria grayi were isolated from 7.6, 1.3, and 0.9% of samples. These results indicate that avocados may carry countable levels of microorganisms and could be a vehicle for transmission of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Frutas/microbiologia , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Persea/microbiologia , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Listeria/isolamento & purificação , México
11.
Food Chem ; 306: 125635, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606637

RESUMO

The production of commercial cold pressed avocado oil (CPAO) generates large quantity of organic wastes such as pomace, seeds, peels and wastewater. During the early harvest season, for every 1000 kg of avocado fruits processed, roughly 80 kg of oil is produced and wastewater accounted for the highest proportion (500 kg). Therefore, it is important to find an alternative application for this wastewater rather than its direct disposal into landfills. Proximate analysis, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant assays were conducted on the avocado wastes. Avocado wastewater (AWW) was spray dried into powder at different temperatures from 110 °C to 160 °C, which concomitantly increased the TPC and antioxidant capacities of the AWW powder. The powder was further applied as a preservative in pork sausages and was found to be effective in preventing lipid oxidation.


Assuntos
Conservantes de Alimentos , Resíduos Industriais , Persea/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Frutas/química , Produtos da Carne , Oxirredução , Fenóis/química , Sementes/química , Suínos
12.
Molecules ; 24(24)2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835535

RESUMO

Avocado (a fruit that represents a billion-dollar industry) has become a relevant crop in global trade. The benefits of eating avocados have also been thoroughly described as they contain important nutrients needed to ensure biological functions. For example, avocados contain considerable amounts of vitamins and other phytonutrients, such as carotenoids (e.g., ß-carotene), which are fat-soluble. Hence, there is a need to assess accurately these types of compounds. Herein we describe a method that chromatographically separates commercial standard solutions containing both fat-soluble vitamins (vitamin A acetate and palmitate, Vitamin D2 and D3, vitamin K1, α-, δ-, and γ-vitamin E isomers) and carotenoids (ß-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, lutein, ß-carotene, and lycopene) effectively (i.e., analytical recoveries ranging from 80.43% to 117.02%, for vitamins, and from 43.80% to 108.63%). We optimized saponification conditions and settled at 80 °C using 1 mmol KOH L-1 ethanol during 1 h. We used a non-aqueous gradient that included methanol and methyl tert-butyl ether (starting at an 80:20 ratio) and a C30 chromatographic column to achieve analyte separation (in less than 40 min) and applied this method to avocado, a fruit that characteristically contains both types of compounds. We obtained a method with good linearity at the mid to low range of the mg L-1 (determination coefficients 0.9006-0.9964). To determine both types of compounds in avocado, we developed and validated for the simultaneous analysis of carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins based on liquid chromatography and single quadrupole mass detection (LC/MS). From actual avocado samples, we found relevant concentrations for cholecalciferol (ranging from 103.5 to 119.5), δ-tocopherol (ranging from 6.16 to 42.48), and lutein (ranging from 6.41 to 15.13 mg/100 g dry weight basis). Simmonds cultivar demonstrated the higher values for all analytes (ranging from 0.03 (zeaxanthin) to 119.5 (cholecalciferol) mg/100 g dry weight basis).


Assuntos
Carotenoides/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas , Persea/química , Vitaminas/análise , Carotenoides/química , Química Verde , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Solubilidade , Vitaminas/química
13.
BMC Pulm Med ; 19(1): 234, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exogenous lipoid pneumonia is a rare disease resulting from intra-alveolar accumulation of lipids of mineral, vegetal, or animal origin, that induce a foreign body type of inflammatory reaction in the lungs. Gastroesophageal reflux disease and other esophageal abnormalities have often been associated with this disease. CASE PRESENTATION: We herein report the case of an 83-year-old patient in whom a follow-up chest computed tomography scan, for a lingular consolidation, showed multifocal ground glass and consolidative opacities with areas of low attenuation, suggestive of exogenous lipid pneumonia. The patient had been on piascledine capsules (avocado/soybean unsaponifiables) for 20 years and had a hiatal hernia with documented gastroesophageal reflux disease. After thorough history taking, no other predisposing factors were found. The diagnosis was confirmed using oil red staining of bronchoalveolar lavage showing lipid-laden macrophages and extracellular lipid droplets. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first case of ELP secondary to avocado/soybean unsaponifiables in the literature.


Assuntos
Persea , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Lipoide/induzido quimicamente , Soja , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos
14.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 1016, 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: White root rot disease caused by Rosellinia necatrix is one of the most important threats affecting avocado productivity in tropical and subtropical climates. Control of this disease is complex and nowadays, lies in the use of physical and chemical methods, although none have proven to be fully effective. Detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying white root rot disease has the potential of aiding future developments in disease resistance and management. In this regard, this study used RNA-Seq technology to compare the transcriptomic profiles of R. necatrix during infection of susceptible avocado 'Dusa' roots with that obtained from the fungus cultured in rich medium. RESULTS: The transcriptomes from three biological replicates of R. necatrix colonizing avocado roots (RGA) and R. necatrix growing on potato dextrose agar media (RGPDA) were analyzed using Illumina sequencing. A total of 12,104 transcripts were obtained, among which 1937 were differentially expressed genes (DEG), 137 exclusively expressed in RGA and 160 in RGPDA. During the root infection process, genes involved in the production of fungal toxins, detoxification and transport of toxic compounds, hormone biosynthesis, gene silencing and plant cell wall degradation were overexpressed. Interestingly, 24 out of the 137 contigs expressed only during R. necatrix growth on avocado roots, were predicted as candidate effector proteins (CEP) with a probability above 60%. The PHI (Pathogen Host Interaction) database revealed that three of the R. necatrix CEP showed homology with previously annotated effectors, already proven experimentally via pathogen-host interaction. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of the full-length transcriptome of R. necatrix during the infection process is suggesting that the success of this fungus to infect roots of diverse crops might be attributed to the production of different compounds which, singly or in combination, interfere with defense or signaling mechanisms shared among distinct plant families. The transcriptome analysis of R. necatrix during the infection process provides useful information and facilitates further research to a more in -depth understanding of the biology and virulence of this emergent pathogen. In turn, this will make possible to evolve novel strategies for white root rot management in avocado.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Persea/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Xylariales/genética , Xylariales/fisiologia , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , RNA-Seq
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 458, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: White root rot (WRR) disease caused by Rosellinia necatrix is one of the most important threats affecting avocado orchards in temperate regions. The eradication of WRR is a difficult task and environmentally friendly control methods are needed to lessen its impact. Priming plants with a stressor (biotic or abiotic) can be a strategy to enhance plant defense/tolerance against future stress episodes but, despite the known underlying common mechanisms, few studies use abiotic-priming for improving tolerance to forthcoming biotic-stress and vice versa ('cross-factor priming'). To assess whether cross-factor priming can be a potential method for enhancing avocado tolerance to WRR disease, 'Dusa' avocado rootstocks, susceptible to R. necatrix, were subjected to two levels of water stress (mild-WS and severe-WS) and, after drought-recovery, inoculated with R. necatrix. Physiological response and expression of plant defense related genes after drought-priming as well as the disease progression were evaluated. RESULTS: Water-stressed avocado plants showed lower water potential and stomatal limitations of photosynthesis compared to control plants. In addition, NPQ and qN values increased, indicating the activation of energy dissipating mechanisms closely related to the relief of oxidative stress. This response was proportional to the severity of the water stress and was accompanied by the deregulation of pathogen defense-related genes in the roots. After re-watering, leaf photosynthesis and plant water status recovered rapidly in both treatments, but roots of mild-WS primed plants showed a higher number of overexpressed genes related with plant defense than severe-WS primed plants. Disease progression after inoculating primed plants with R. necatrix was significantly delayed in mild-WS primed plants. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that mild-WS can induce a primed state in the WRR susceptible avocado rootstock 'Dusa' and reveal that 'cross-factor priming' with water stress (abiotic stressor) is effective for increasing avocado tolerance against R. necatrix (biotic stressor), underpinning that plant responses against biotic and abiotic stress rely on common mechanisms. Potential applications of these results may involve an enhancement of WRR tolerance of current avocado groves and optimization of water use via low frequency deficit irrigation strategies.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Secas , Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Persea/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Resistência à Doença/fisiologia , Persea/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
16.
J Immunol Res ; 2019: 7083491, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612151

RESUMO

Bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs) are capable of initiating an innate immune response (IIR) to invading bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus is not classically an intracellular pathogen, although it has been shown to be internalized into bMECs. S. aureus internalizes into nonprofessional phagocytes, which allows the evasion of the IIR and turns antimicrobial therapy unsuccessful. An alternative treatment to control this pathogen is the modulation of the innate immune response of the host. The Mexican avocado (Persea americana var. drymifolia) is a source of molecules with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. Hence, we analyze the effect of a lipid-rich extract from avocado seed (LEAS) on S. aureus internalization into bMECs and their innate immunity response. The effects of LEAS (1-500 ng/ml) on the S. aureus growth and bMEC viability were assessed by turbidimetry and MTT assays, respectively. LEAS did not show neither antimicrobial nor cytotoxic effects. S. aureus internalization into bMECs was analyzed by gentamicin protection assays. Interestingly, LEAS (1-200 ng/ml) decreased bacterial internalization (60-80%) into bMECs. This effect correlated with NO production and the induction of the gene expression of IL-10, while the expression of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α was reduced. These effects could be related to the inhibition of MAPK p38 (∼60%) activation by LEAS. In conclusion, our results showed that LEAS inhibits the S. aureus internalization into bMECs and modulates the IIR, which indicates that avocado is a source of metabolites for control of mastitis pathogens.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/citologia , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mastite Bovina/tratamento farmacológico , Persea , Sementes , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(42): 11616-11626, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542929

RESUMO

Avocado peel, a byproduct from the avocado pulp industry, is a promising source of polyphenolic compounds. We evaluated the effect of a proanthocyanidin-rich avocado peel polyphenol extract (AvPPE) on the composition and metabolic activity of human fecal microbiota cultured for 24 h in a bioreactor in the presence of high protein (HP) amounts and the effect of the resulting culture supernatants (CSs) on HT-29Glc-/+ and Caco-2 cells. AvPPE decreased the HP-induced production of ammonia, H2S, propionate, and isovalerate and increased that of indole and butyrate. Microbiota composition was marginally affected by HP, whileAvPPE increased the microorganisms/abundance of phylum Actinobacteria, families Coriobacteriaceae and Ruminococcaceae, and genus Faecalibacterium. AvPPE failed to prevent the HP-induced decrease of HT-29Glc-/+ cell viability and energy efficiency but prevented the HP-induced alterations of barrier function in Caco-2 cells. Additionally, the genotoxic effect of the CSs upon HT-29Glc-/+ was attenuated by AvPPE. Therefore, AvPPE may be considered as a promising product for improving colonic homeostasis.


Assuntos
Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Persea/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Amônia/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Butiratos/metabolismo , Células CACO-2 , Colo/microbiologia , Dieta Rica em Proteínas , Fezes/microbiologia , Frutas/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Proantocianidinas/análise
18.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0221827, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532782

RESUMO

Chloroplasts significantly influence species phylogenies because of their maternal inheritance and the moderate evolutionary rate of their genomes. Avocado, which is a member of the family Lauraceae, has received considerable attention from botanists, likely because of its position as a basal angiosperm. However, there is relatively little avocado genomic information currently available. In this study, six complete avocado chloroplast genomes from three ecological races were assembled to examine the sequence diversity among the three avocado ecological races. A comparative genomic analysis revealed that 515 simple sequence repeat loci and 176 repeats belonging to four other types were polymorphic across the six chloroplast genomes. Three highly variable regions (trnC-GCA-petN, petN-psbM, and petA-psbJ) were identified as highly informative markers. A phylogenetic analysis based on 79 common protein-coding genes indicated that the six examined avocado accessions from three ecological races form a monophyletic clade. The other three genera belonging to the Persea group clustered to form a sister clade with a high bootstrap value. These chloroplast genomes provide important genetic information for future attempts at identifying avocado races and for the related biological research.


Assuntos
Cloroplastos/genética , Genoma de Cloroplastos , Persea/classificação , Proteínas de Cloroplastos/genética , Evolução Molecular , Persea/genética , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
19.
Nature ; 573(7775): 563-567, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554978

RESUMO

(+)-Perseanol is an isoryanodane diterpene that is isolated from the tropical shrub Persea indica1 and has potent antifeedant and insecticidal properties. It is structurally related to (+)-ryanodine, which is a high-affinity ligand for and modulator of ryanodine receptors-ligand-gated ion channels that are critical for intracellular Ca2+ signalling in most multicellular organisms2. Ryanodine itself modulates ryanodine-receptor-dependent Ca2+ release in many organisms, including mammals; however, preliminary data indicate that ryanodane and isoryanodane congeners that lack the pyrrole-2-carboxylate ester-such as perseanol-may have selective activity in insects3. Here we report a chemical synthesis of (+)-perseanol, which proceeds in 16 steps from commercially available (R)-pulegone. The synthesis involves a two-step annulation process that rapidly assembles the tetracyclic core from readily accessible cyclopentyl building blocks. This work demonstrates how convergent fragment coupling, when combined with strategic oxidation tactics, can enable the concise synthesis of complex and highly oxidized diterpene natural products.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Sintética , Diterpenos/síntese química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/química , Persea/química
20.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 27: e20180602, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508794

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of avocado/soybean unsaponifiables (ASU) on periodontal repair in rats with induced periodontitis and arthritis. METHODOLOGY: Forty-five rats were submitted to periodontitis induction by insertion of ligatures into the upper second molars, maintained for 15 days. These animals were randomly allocated to 3 groups according to the presence of induced arthritis (ART) and the application of the ASU: Control (CTR) group-healthy animals, where saline solution was administered; ART-animals with induced arthritis, where saline solution was administered; ART/ASU-animals with induced arthritis, where ASU (0.6 mg/ kg) was administered. The drugs were administered daily by gavage and the animals were euthanized after 7, 15 and 30 days of the ligature removal. Bone resorption, inflammatory infiltrate composition and marker proteins expression of the differentiation and formation of osteoclasts (RANKL and TRAP) were assessed. RESULTS: The ART/ASU group presented higher bone volume than the ART group at 7 and 30 days after the ligature removal. Furthermore, the ART group presented higher quantity of inflammatory cells and expression of TRAP and RANKL than the other groups. CONCLUSION: ASU administration improves the repair of periodontal tissues in an experimental periodontitis model in rats with induced arthritis.


Assuntos
Artrite/tratamento farmacológico , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Persea/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Soja/química , Animais , Artrite/patologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Periodontite/patologia , Ligante RANK/análise , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fosfatase Ácida Resistente a Tartarato/análise , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Microtomografia por Raio-X
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