Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 75
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Filtros aplicados

Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Planta Med ; 86(6): 395-404, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168547

RESUMO

Echinodorus grandiflorus is a semiaquatic plant native to Brazil and belongs to the Alismataceae family. Infusion preparations of the leaves of this plant are often used due to its diuretic, blood pressure lowering, and anti-inflammatory properties. Our aim was to investigate the effects of chronic treatment with the crude hydroalcoholic extract of E. grandiflorus on central and peripheral microvascular changes induced in a model of hypertension and diabetes. The hemodynamic and microvascular effects of E. grandiflorus extract (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg/day for 28 days) or the isolated major diterpene from E. grandiflorus (3 to 10 mg/kg i. v.) were evaluated in spontaneously hypertensive rats using tail plethysmography and intravital fluorescence videomicroscopy, respectively, and were compared to vehicle-treated normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats. We also investigated the protective effects of chronic treatment with E. grandiflorus (100 mg/kg/day) in brain capillary density and leukocyte-endothelium interactions on the brain vessels of DM-spontaneously (DM: diabetes mellitus) hypertensive rats. Chronically treating spontaneously hypertensive rats with increasing doses of crude hydroalcoholic E. grandiflorus extract resulted in significant dose-dependent reductions in systolic blood pressure and an anti-inflammatory effect on the brain microcirculation of DM-spontaneously hypertensive rat animals. Using laser speckle contrast imaging, we observed that intravenous administration of the major isolated clerodane diterpene metabolite (1 - 10 mg/kg) increased microvascular blood flow by 25% in spontaneously hypertensive rat skeletal muscle. The results of this study show that E. grandiflorus extracts can be useful in the prevention and reduction of microcirculatory damage in arterial hypertension and other diseases that involve microvascular dysfunction.


Assuntos
Alismataceae , Hipertensão , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea , Brasil , Microcirculação , Extratos Vegetais , Folhas de Planta , Ratos
2.
Int J Phytoremediation ; 22(5): 534-539, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718242

RESUMO

Cadmium tolerant plant, Echinodorus osiris Rataj, was selected to study its root adaptive mechanism under Cd stress. The change of root porosity, radial oxygen loss (ROL), and iron plaque formation was investigated. Results suggested that Cd treatment decreased 28.6-49.9% of ROL and reduced 13.5-23.3% of root porosity but increased 63.4-147.2% of iron plaque after 21 days, respectively. Under different Cd treatments, the uptake of Cd in root presented quick and mild models while it showed relatively consistent increase in shoot. Correlation analysis demonstrated that Cd concentrations in plant were related negatively with root porosity but had no significant correlation with ROL. There was significant positive correlation between root porosity and ROL; however, they both related negatively with root iron plaque. Moreover, the scanning electron microscopy indicates a barrier to the movement of Cd in endodermis layers.


Assuntos
Alismataceae , Cádmio , Biodegradação Ambiental , Ferro , Oxigênio , Raízes de Plantas
3.
Genetica ; 147(5-6): 381-390, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654262

RESUMO

Caldesia is a genus in the family Alismataceae mainly found in the tropical and temperate regions of the Northern hemisphere. In China, two species, Caldesia parnassifolia, and Caldesia grandis are recorded as critically endangered in sporadic regions. Available protection of the genetic resource of these threatened species has been impeded due to limited genomic information. Here, we sequence the whole chloroplast (cp) genome of the two Caldesia species using high throughput sequencing technology. The whole cp genomes of C. parnassifolia and C. grandis were 167,647 bp and 168,500 bp, respectively with a typical quadripartite structure. There were 115 unique genes with 81 protein-coding genes, 31 tRNA genes, and four rRNA genes. Both species showed a GC content of 37.1%. A duplication of two tRNA genes and a ~ 6 kb inversion region in the LSC was noted in both species. Mononucleotide simple sequence repeats (SSRs) A/T were most abundant for both Caldesia species. High nucleotide variability was recorded in ycf1 gene and trnK-UUU/rps16 intergenic spacer region. All RNA editing conversions were C-U in 23 and 24 protein-coding genes for C. parnassifolia and C. grandis, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis placed both Caldesia species as sister to Sagittaria lichuanensis. This study will be useful for further evolutionary, systematic researches and conservation of the genus Caldesia.


Assuntos
Alismataceae/genética , Genoma de Cloroplastos , Alismataceae/classificação , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Repetições de Microssatélites , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 686: 538-545, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185401

RESUMO

The wetland-microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a novel electricity generating technology. However, these systems can generate only limited electric energy. Since nitrification is a key mechanism driving electrical power in wetland-MFC systems, an effective nitrifying bacteria, Bacillus thuringiensis, was used to inoculate a wetland-MFC to enhance the maximum power density of the system. B. thuringiensis effectively enhanced the maximum power density, producing about 20-35 mW m-2 of maximum power density. Interestingly, over the first 120 days of operation, the wetland-MFC system with only B. thuringiensis generated more power than a system containing an Echinodosus cordifolius plant in addition to B. thuringiensis, because E. cordifolius can took up nitrate (NO3-) and phosphate (PO43-) in system's solution. Nitrate and PO43- act as important anions driving electric current in the system. After 120 days of operation though, the combined E. cordifolius and B. thuringiensis system maintained 20-35 mW m-2 maximum power density and the maximum power density of the system only inoculated with B. thuringiensis decreased continuously. Gene (16S rRNA) copy numbers for B. thuringiensis showed that when E. cordifolius was presented, the bacterium was able to continue growing after 120 days of operation. B. thuringiensis did not grow as well after 120 days in the system that did not contain a plant. This study presents a strategy for enhancing electric power output from a wetland-MFC by inoculating the system with B. thuringiensis and maintaining the bacterium's population with the support of an E. cordifolius plant. The result clearly show that B. thuringiensis can enhance electric power generation in the presence of the plant and the system can self-sustain for longer than 180 days of operation while producing 20-35 mW m-2 maximum power density.


Assuntos
Alismataceae/fisiologia , Bacillus thuringiensis/fisiologia , Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Áreas Alagadas
5.
J Med Food ; 22(9): 919-927, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233372

RESUMO

Echinodorus grandiflorus is an important medicinal plant species that is native to South America. Despite extensive popular usage as a hypolipidemic drug, its effects as an atheroprotective agent remain unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an ethanol-soluble fraction that was obtained from E. grandiflorus (ESEG) leaves against the development of atherosclerosis in rabbits. Male rabbits received a diet that was supplemented with 1% cholesterol (cholesterol-rich diet [CRD]) for 60 days. After 30 days of the CRD, the animals were divided into five groups (n = 6) and treated with ESEG (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg), simvastatin (2.5 mg/kg), or vehicle once daily for 30 days. The negative control group was fed a cholesterol-free diet and treated orally with vehicle. At the end of 60 days, serum lipids, oxidized low-density lipoprotein, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, nitrotyrosine, and serum interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß), IL-6, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) levels were determined. Samples from the aortic arch and thoracic segment were also collected to investigate the tissue antioxidant defense system and perform histopathological analysis. Oral ESEG administration significantly reduced serum lipid levels in CRD-fed rabbits. This treatment also modulated the arterial antioxidant defense system by reducing lipid and protein oxidation. Similarly, serum IL-1ß, IL-6, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 levels significantly decreased, accompanied by a reduction of atherosclerotic lesions in all arterial branches. These findings suggest that ESEG may be a new herbal medicine that can be directly applied for the treatment and prevention of atherosclerotic disease.


Assuntos
Alismataceae/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/genética , Colesterol/sangue , Humanos , Hipolipemiantes/administração & dosagem , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Masculino , Folhas de Planta/química , Coelhos , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/sangue , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/genética
6.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(15): 3257-3268, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089788

RESUMO

It has been demonstrated that triterpenes in Alismatis rhizoma (Zexie in Chinese, ZX) contributed to the lipid-lowering effect on high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia. Alisol B 23-acetate, one of the abundant triterpenes in ZX, was used as the marker of quality control for ZX in Chinese Pharmacopoeia, while it could not reflect the lipid-lowering effect because other triterpenes in ZX also had prominent medicinal efficacy. To identify the significantly bioactive triterpenes in ZX, a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-based characteristic chemical profile (CCP)-support vector machine (SVM) model was used to explore the relationship between triterpenes and lipid-lowering effect of ZX. Firstly, the content of 87 targeted triterpenes was quantified by the MRM-based CCP using UHPLC-QTRAP-MS/MS. Secondly, the lipid-lowering effect of 30 ZX samples was assessed by 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Thirdly, 9 of the 87 triterpenes possessing high mean impact value were identified to have significant lipid-lowering effect via the particle swarm-optimized SVM model. The new SVM model constructed by the 9 triterpenes showed good prediction performance and the overall prediction accuracy reached 81.94%. Finally, the real activity of these triterpenes was partly confirmed and was consistent with the prediction of SVM. These results showed that the method for discovery of triterpenes with prominent lipid-lowering activity in ZX was reliable. The proposed method is expected to provide an efficient and rapid approach for screening of active component and drug discovery in traditional herbs. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Alismataceae/química , Hipolipemiantes/química , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Rizoma/química , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos/análise , Camundongos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
7.
Planta Med ; 84(17): 1271-1279, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29929207

RESUMO

Excess weight and dyslipidemia are among the most serious health problems in Western societies. These conditions enhance the risk of cardiac disease and have been linked with a higher prevalence of cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death. The present study investigated the cardioprotective effects of Echinodorus grandiflorus on ventricular remodeling in rabbits that were fed a 1% cholesterol-rich diet. We first obtained an ethanol-soluble fraction of E. grandiflorus and performed a detailed phytochemical study by liquid chromatography-DAD/ESI-MS. For 60 days, male rabbits were fed the cholesterol-rich diet or a diet without the addition of cholesterol. After 30 days, different groups of rabbits were treated with the ethanol-soluble fraction of E. grandiflorus (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg, p. o.), simvastatin (2.5 mg/kg), or vehicle once daily for 30 days. At the end of 60 days, the serum lipoprotein ratio, electrocardiographic profile, histopathological alterations, and the cardiac antioxidant defense system were investigated. Echocardiographic analysis showed morphological and functional alterations in cholesterol-rich diet-fed animals, indicating left ventricle hypertrophy. The total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein ratio and low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein ratio were significantly higher in cholesterol-rich diet-fed rabbits. Myocardial flaccidity, fatty degeneration, and concentric left ventricular hypertrophy were observed. An increase in lipid peroxidation levels, a decrease in superoxide dismutase activity, and a decrease in reduced glutathione levels were observed in the myocardium of all cholesterol-rich diet-fed rabbits. Treatment with the ethanol-soluble fraction of E. grandiflorus, especially the highest dose, significantly reduced all of these alterations, thus demonstrating the cardioprotective effect of the ethanol-soluble fraction of E. grandiflorus on cardiac changes that are induced by a cholesterol-rich diet.


Assuntos
Alismataceae , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Colesterol na Dieta/antagonistas & inibidores , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Aterosclerose/patologia , Colesterol na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Colesterol na Dieta/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eletrocardiografia , Coração/anatomia & histologia , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Masculino , Coelhos
8.
J Environ Manage ; 213: 11-19, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29477846

RESUMO

In this study, Echinodorus cordifolius was the best plant for arsenic removal compared to Cyperus alternifolius, Acrostichum aureum and Colocasia esculenta. Under arsenic stress, the combination of E. cordifolius with microbes (Bacillus subtilis and Arthrobacter creatinolyticus) was investigated. It was found that A. creatinolyticus, a native microbe, can endure arsenic toxicity, produce higher indole-3 acetic acid (IAA) and ammonium production better than B. subtilis. Interestingly, E. cordifolius-endophytic A. creatinolyticus interactions showed that dipping plant roots in A. creatinolyticus suspension for 5 min had the highest arsenic removal efficiency compared to dipping plant roots in A. creatinolyticus suspension for 2 h and inoculating A. creatinolyticus with E. cordifolius directly. Our findings indicated that under this inoculation condition, the inoculum could colonize from the roots to the shoots of the host tissues in order to avoid arsenic toxicity and favored arsenic removal by the host through plant growth-promoting traits, such as IAA production. Highest levels of IAA were found in plant tissues and the plants exhibited higher root elongation than other conditions. Moreover, low level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was related to low arsenic stress. In addition, dipping E. cordifolius roots in A. creatinolyticus for 5 min was applied in a constructed wetland, the result showed higher arsenic removal than conventional method. Therefore, this knowledge can be applied at a real site for improving plant tolerance stress, plant growth stimulation, and enhancing arsenic remediation.


Assuntos
Alismataceae , Arsênico/isolamento & purificação , Arthrobacter , Áreas Alagadas , Raízes de Plantas , Poluição da Água
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(13): 12507-12514, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29464599

RESUMO

To better monitor and remediate environments contaminated by cadmium (Cd), plants are used as hyperaccumulators or biomonitors; however, few have been identified for aquatic Cd pollution. In our study, two aquatic ornamental plants, Microsorum pteropus (Blume) Copel. and Echinodorus grisebachii Small, were studied for their Cd accumulation capacity, morphological characteristics, and leaf physiological indexes. Microsorum pteropus (Blume) Copel. leaf has the potential to hyperaccumulate Cd (166 mg/kg dry weight for 1 mg/L exposure), with no significant physiological difference under exposure. Echinodorus grisebachii Small had sensitive diagnostic responses to Cd toxicity, such as significant decreases in Chl (a + b) and Chl-a/b, increased peroxidase (POD) activity, greater malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and increased soluble sugar content. These results suggest that Microsorum pteropus (Blume) Copel. could have the potential to be a Cd hyperaccumulator, while Echinodorus grisebachii Small could serve as a biomonitor for Cd-contaminated water bodies.


Assuntos
Alismataceae/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Polypodiaceae/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Alismataceae/anatomia & histologia , Alismataceae/fisiologia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Polypodiaceae/anatomia & histologia , Polypodiaceae/fisiologia
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 24(27): 21859-21866, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28776297

RESUMO

Physiological responses of Echinodorus osiris Rataj plant under cadmium (Cd) stress (5 and 15 mg L-1) were studied by researching the change of non-enzymatic antioxidants and the exudation of root organic acids. There was a significant increase of ascorbic acid, glutathione, and non-protein thiols in the plant, and the increment was much obvious in roots than that in leaves with increased Cd stress. The accumulation of Cd was associated with mitochondrial structural damages in roots, while the organelle structure, such as chloroplast, in leaves remains intact. In exudates collected from the plants in the treatment with 15 mg L-1 Cd, oxalate, citric, and succinic acids responded intensively than other organic acids.


Assuntos
Alismataceae/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Inativação Metabólica , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico , Glutationa/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Áreas Alagadas
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 601-602: 812-820, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28578239

RESUMO

Information regarding the bioaccumulation behaviour of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in aquatic plants is limited. The present study involved controlled hydroponic experiments to assess uptake and elimination rate constants (ku, ke), bioconcentration factors (BCFs) and translocation factors (TFs) of several PhACs and EDCs in two aquatic macrophyte species, including one submerged species (Echinodorus horemanii) and one free-floating species (Eichhornia crassipes). The results revealed that the studied compounds are readily taken up in these aquatic plants. While bioconcentration factors (BCFs) and translocation factors (TFs) of the test compounds varied substantially, no discernible relationship with physicochemical properties such as octanol-water distribution coefficient (Dow), membrane-water distribution coefficient (Dmw) and organic carbon-water partition coefficient (Koc). Diphenhydramine and triclosan exhibited the highest degree of uptake and bioaccumulation potential. For example, the whole-plant BCF of triclosan in E. horemanii was 4390L/kg, while the whole-plant BCF of diphenhydramine in E. crassipes was 6130L/kg. BCFs of 17ß-estradiol (E2), 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), estrone (E1) and bisphenol A (BPA) were relatively low (2-150L/kg). BCFs were generally higher in free-floating aquatic macrophyte species compared to the submerged species. For the free-floating species, E. crassipes, the majority of PhACs and EDCs were more allocated in roots compared to leaves, with TFs<1. However, some compounds such as caffeine, atrazine, diphenhydramine, E2 and carbamazepine were more allocated in leaf tissue (TFs>1). The study findings may be useful for design and implementation of phytoremediation systems, as well as aid future modeling and risk assessment initiatives for these emerging organic contaminants.


Assuntos
Alismataceae/parasitologia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Eichhornia/fisiologia , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Hidroponia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Atrazina/análise , Atrazina/metabolismo , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Compostos Benzidrílicos/metabolismo , Carbamazepina/análise , Disruptores Endócrinos/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estradiol/análise , Estradiol/metabolismo , Estrona/análise , Estrona/metabolismo , Etinilestradiol/análise , Etinilestradiol/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/metabolismo , Triclosan/análise , Triclosan/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
12.
Water Res ; 117: 167-174, 2017 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28391121

RESUMO

Studies investigating the bioaccumulation behavior of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in aquatic macrophytes are limited. The present study involved controlled mesocosm experiments to assess uptake and elimination rate constants (ku,ke), bioconcentration factors (BCFs) and translocation factors (TFs) of several perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) in two aquatic plant species, including one submerged species (Echinodorus horemanii) and one free-floating species (Eichhornia crassipes). The results indicated all PFASs were readily accumulated in these aquatic macrophytes. ku and BCFs increased with increasing perfluoroalkyl chain length. For PFCAs and PFSAs with identical perfluoroalkyl chain length, the corresponding PFSA exhibited higher bioaccumulation potential. On a whole-plant basis, the bioaccumulation potential of PFASs in submerged and free-floating macrophytes were comparable, indicating sorption to plant biomass is similar in the different species. Conversely, when considering accumulation in foliage, BCFs in the free-floating macrophyte were substantially lower compared to submerged species, especially for longer-chain PFASs. Compounds with shorter perfluoroalkyl chain length (PFBS, PFPeA and PFHxA) exhibited preferential translocation to leaf tissue (TFs >1). BCFs exhibited a sigmoidal relationship with pefluoroalkyl chain length, membrane-water distribution coefficients (Dmw), protein-water distribution coefficients (Dpw) and organic-water partition coefficients (Koc). For these trends, maximum BCF values were exhibited by long-chain PFCAs, with a log Dmw, log Dpw and log Koc of 6.47, 5.72 and 5.04, respectively. These findings are useful for future design and implementation of phytoremediation systems, as well for future develop of mechanistic models for predicting the environmental fate and distribution of these contaminants of concern.


Assuntos
Eichhornia , Fluorcarbonetos , Alismataceae , Cinética , Ácidos Sulfônicos , Poluentes Químicos da Água
13.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 203: 191-199, 2017 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28342859

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Echinodorus scaber, Alismataceae, is popularly known in Brazil as "chapéu-de-couro". The plant leaves are used by the population as decoction, infusion, or maceration in bottled spirits, to treat inflammatory respiratory diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of the hydroethanolic extract of leaves of Echinodorus scaber (HEEs) in allergic asthma. A phytochemical analysis of the extract was performed as well. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The leaves of Echinodorus scaber were prepared by maceration in 75% ethanol. Preliminary phytochemical analysis was carried out using basic classical methods, and the secondary metabolites detected in HEEs were analyzed and confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of HEEs was evaluated in Swiss male albino mice sensitized and challenged by OVA. The HEEs (1, 5 and 30mg/kg, p.o.) was administered to mice twice a day, 1h before the challenge, from days 19 through 24. The mechanism of action of HEEs was studied by evaluating the levels of TH2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and IgE production in blood plasma. Histopathological changes triggered by OVA-sensitization/challenge in the lung tissue were also investigated. RESULTS: HEEs reduced total leukocyte, eosinophil, neutrophil, and mononuclear cell counts at all doses tested, with maximum effect at 30mg/kg (73.9%, 75.9%, 75.5%, and 65.2% reduction, p<0.001, respectively). Increases in TH2 cytokine secretion (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13) and in IgE levels were also attenuated by HEEs. Preliminary phytochemical screening seems to indicated the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and alkaloids. HPLC analyses evidenced the presence of phenolic compounds, such as gallic acid, rutin and vitexin. CONCLUSION: Our findings provided pharmacological preclinical evidence for the popular use of the leaves of Echinodorus scaber in allergic inflammation. Its anti-inflammatory effect was dependent on the decrease in migratory inflammatory cells, and both TH2 cytokines and IgE levels. It is suggested that vitexin, gallic acid and rutin, known anti-inflammatory compounds, may participate in the anti-asthamtic effect of the HEEs, by acting jointly along with other components present in the extract.


Assuntos
Alismataceae/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Asma/imunologia , Brasil , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Ovalbumina/imunologia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Folhas de Planta
14.
Amino Acids ; 49(5): 821-869, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28299478

RESUMO

Plants are a rich source of amino acids and their individual abundance in plants is of great significance especially in terms of food. Therefore, it is of utmost necessity to create a database of the relative amino acid contents in plants as reported in literature. Since in most of the cases complete analysis of profiles of amino acids in plants was not reported, the units used and the methods applied and the plant parts used were different, amino acid contents were converted into relative units with respect to lysine for statistical analysis. The most abundant amino acids in plants are glutamic acid and aspartic acid. Pearson's correlation analysis among different amino acids showed that there were no negative correlations between the amino acids. Cluster analysis (CA) applied to relative amino acid contents of different families. Alismataceae, Cyperaceae, Capparaceae and Cactaceae families had close proximity with each other on the basis of their relative amino acid contents. First three components of principal component analysis (PCA) explained 79.5% of the total variance. Factor analysis (FA) explained four main underlying factors for amino acid analysis. Factor-1 accounted for 29.4% of the total variance and had maximum loadings on glycine, isoleucine, leucine, threonine and valine. Factor-2 explained 25.8% of the total variance and had maximum loadings on alanine, aspartic acid, serine and tyrosine. 14.2% of the total variance was explained by factor-3 and had maximum loadings on arginine and histidine. Factor-4 accounted 8.3% of the total variance and had maximum loading on the proline amino acid. The relative content of different amino acids presented in this paper is alanine (1.4), arginine (1.8), asparagine (0.7), aspartic acid (2.4), cysteine (0.5), glutamic acid (2.8), glutamine (0.6), glycine (1.0), histidine (0.5), isoleucine (0.9), leucine (1.7), lysine (1.0), methionine (0.4), phenylalanine (0.9), proline (1.1), serine (1.0), threonine (1.0), tryptophan (0.3), tyrosine (0.7) and valine (1.2).


Assuntos
Alismataceae/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Cactaceae/metabolismo , Capparaceae/metabolismo , Cyperaceae/metabolismo , Alismataceae/classificação , Aminoácidos/isolamento & purificação , Cactaceae/classificação , Capparaceae/classificação , Análise por Conglomerados , Cyperaceae/classificação , Filogenia , Análise de Componente Principal , Especificidade da Espécie
15.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 109(Pt 2): 1032-1047, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28322968

RESUMO

Echinodorus grandiflorus (Cham. & Schltdl.) Micheli is a native Brazilian species used in traditional practices for the treatment of several conditions such as inflammatory diseases, arthritis and hypertension. Through a systematic review of the accumulated knowledge about the species E. grandiflorus, the botanical, phytochemistry, ethnobotanical and pharmacological properties of this medicinal plant demonstrates its potential to naturally provide anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant with a special emphasis on anti-hypertensive and cardioprotective effects. The body of literature reports that the chemical composition of crude E. grandiflorus extracts are notably composed of diterpenoids and flavonoids metabolites. Pharmacological studies have shown that oral treatments using the hydroalcoholic extracts of leaves from this plant has a significant anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive, diuretic and cardioprotective effects in rats with no toxicity. The holistic activities of complex extracts are corroborated by the individuals mechanisms of action, as well as, synergistic benefits attributed to the isolated chemical major constituents in this species. In light of the serious health concerns ascribed, it is important to investigate medicinal plant species with histories of traditional use for circulatory problems to meet the growing demands by scientifically validating their use and safety.


Assuntos
Alismataceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/química , Anti-Hipertensivos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Brasil , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
16.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 38(8): 3312-3318, 2017 Aug 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29964939

RESUMO

To investigate the rhizosphere microbial community structure characteristics in varying combinations of plants and filter materials in the process of aquaculture pond water treatment, six types of wetland microcosms were established using two kinds of plants (Zizania latifolia Turcz. and Sagittaria graminea) and two types of filter materials (garnet and magnetite). High-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the microbial structural features and composition diversity of the wetland rhizosphere. The results were as follows. The microorganisms recovered belonged to 52 phyla, 118 classes, 455 families, 905 genera, and 1426 species. Based on the Shannon index, Zizania latifolia Turcz. (average value: 5.77) had a higher capacity than Sagittaria graminea(average value: 5.29) in terms of microbial enrichment. However, the rate of Proteobacteria in the rhizosphere microorganism communities of the Sagittaria graminea and Zizania latifolia Turcz. microcosms were 61.97% and 51.78%, respectively, further showing that the roots of Sagittaria graminea in the wetland microcosms better enriched the Proteobacteria during the experimental period. The major bacterial groups of different plant roots were enriched with ß-Proteobacteria in the experiment. The results of this study provide a theoretical basis for species optimization in artificial wetland systems and best combination of wetland construction that will be useful for future investigations.


Assuntos
Proteobactérias/classificação , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Microbiologia da Água , Áreas Alagadas , Alismataceae , Poaceae
17.
Chemosphere ; 167: 188-192, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27721129

RESUMO

Phytoremediation has received increased attention over the recent decades, as an emerging and eco-friendly approach that utilizes the natural properties of plants to remediate contaminated water, soils or sediments. The current study provides information about a pilot-scale experiment designed to evaluate the potential of the anchored aquatic plant Limnocharis flava for phytoremediation of water contaminated with mercury (Hg), in a constructed wetland (CW) with horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF). Mine effluent used in this experiment was collected from a gold mining area located at the Alacran mine in Colombia (Hg: 0.11 ± 0.03 µg mL-1) and spiked with HgNO3 (1.50 ± 0.09 µg mL-1). Over a 30 day test period, the efficiency of the reduction in the heavy metal concentration in the wetlands, and the relative metal sorption by the L. flava, varied according to the exposure time. The continued rate of removal of Hg from the constructed wetland was 9 times higher than the control, demonstrating a better performance and nearly 90% reduction in Hg concentrations in the contaminated water in the presence of L. flava. The results in this present study show the great potential of the aquatic macrophyte L. flava for phytoremediation of Hg from gold mining effluents in constructed wetlands.


Assuntos
Alismataceae/química , Biodegradação Ambiental , Ouro/química , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Mineração , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Áreas Alagadas , Mercúrio/isolamento & purificação , Poluentes do Solo/isolamento & purificação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Purificação da Água/métodos
18.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 82: 32-38, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27793745

RESUMO

This study evaluates the toxicological, genotoxic, mutagenic and apoptotic potential of an in vivo assay from Echinodorus macrophyllus extract (EEM). The acute toxicity test used 02 groups (n = 5) of female Wistar rats: negative control group (saline) and experimental group (2000 mg/kg b.w. EEM), both orally administered (gavage) at single doses and monitored for 14 days. To assess the genotoxic, mutagenic and apoptotic potential, 50 male Swiss mice were divided into 5 groups (n = 10): Group I: negative control (saline solution 0.1 ml/10 g b.w.); Group II: positive control (cyclophosphamide 100 mg/kg b.w.) intraperitoneally administered; groups III-V received EEM at 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg b.w., respectively. Groups I, III-V received oral administrations (gavage). The results showed that there was no acute lethality or any signs of acute toxicity, indicating that LD50 is greater than 2000 mg/kg b.w. The groups treated with EEM showed no genotoxic or mutagenic activity and did not induce apoptosis in the liver and kidney. Therefore, EEM showed no acute toxicity and at doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg b.w. absence of genotoxicity, mutagenicity and no apoptotic events were observed.


Assuntos
Alismataceae/toxicidade , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol/química , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/toxicidade , Solventes/química , Toxicocinética , Administração Oral , Alismataceae/química , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ensaio Cometa , Feminino , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Rim/patologia , Dose Letal Mediana , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Testes para Micronúcleos , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Plantas Medicinais , Ratos Wistar , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
19.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 68(12): 1584-1596, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27726146

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Echinodorus macrophyllus (Kunth) Micheli (Alismataceae) is popularly used as an infusion to treat inflammatory diseases. This work fractionated the aqueous extract of E. macrophyllus (AEEm) to improve its anti-inflammatory effects. METHODS: Aqueous extract of E. macrophyllus was fractionated by Sephadex LH-20 and analysed by HPLC-DAD. Anti-inflammatory action was evaluated, in vivo, by air pouch model (total leucocyte, protein and leukotriene B4 (LTB4 )), and, in vitro, by neutrophil migration (transwell assay) and its Mac1 expression (flow cytometry), and RAW 264.7 nitric oxide (NO) production (Griess reaction). KEY FINDINGS: Fr20 reduced total leucocyte at 2.5 mg/kg (29.7%) while ethanolic extract of E. macrophyllus (EAEm) increased it (94.0%). Fr20 showed higher (P < 0.05) inhibition (89.8%) of LTB4 in exudate than EAEm (75.0%). Fr20 and EAEm decreased exudate protein and inflammatory infiltrate in pouch tissues, in-vitro neutrophil migration, and NO production. Otherwise, Fr40 did not reduce leucocytes and exudate protein (until 50 mg/kg) nor tissue inflammation, and increased in-vitro NO production. The inhibition of neutrophil migration by EAEm, but not Fr20, was dependent on reduced Mac-1 expression. CONCLUSIONS: The fractionation of AEEm provided a more potent anti-inflammatory fraction containing flavonoids (Fr20) that reduces the migration of neutrophils and LTB4 release, probably contributing to its mechanism of action.


Assuntos
Alismataceae/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Leucotrieno B4/metabolismo , Antígeno de Macrófago 1/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Infiltração de Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Plantas Medicinais , Células RAW 264.7 , Solventes/química
20.
Chemosphere ; 160: 149-54, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27372264

RESUMO

Within the agriculturally-intensive Mississippi River Basin of the United States, significant conservation efforts have focused on management practices that reduce nutrient runoff into receiving aquatic ecosystems. Only a small fraction of those efforts have focused on phytoremediation techniques. Each of six different aquatic macrophytes were planted, in monoculture, in three replicate mesocosms (1.2 m × 0.15 m × 0.65 m). Three additional unvegetated mesocosms served as controls for a total number of 21 mesocosms. Over two years, mesocosms were amended once each summer with sodium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, and potassium phosphate dibasic to represent nitrogen and phosphorus in agricultural runoff. System retention was calculated using a simple aqueous mass balance approach. Ammonium retention in both years differed greatly, as Panicum hemitomon and Echinodorus cordifolius retentions were significantly greater than controls in the first year, while only Myriophyllum aquaticum and Typha latifolia were significantly greater than controls in the second year. Greater soluble reactive phosphorus retention was observed in T. latifolia compared to controls in both years. Several other significant differences were observed in either the first or second year, but not both years. In the first year's exposure, P. hemitomon was significantly more efficient than the control, Saururus cernuus, and T. latifolia for overall percent nitrate decrease. Results of this novel study highlight inherent variability within and among species for nutrient specific uptake and the temporal variations of species for nutrient retention. By examining this natural variability, scientists may design phytoremediation systems with greater impact on improving agricultural runoff water quality.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio/química , Nitratos/química , Fósforo/química , Plantas/metabolismo , Agricultura , Alismataceae/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Ecossistema , Poluentes Ambientais , Mississippi , Nitrogênio/química , Panicum/metabolismo , Rios , Typhaceae/metabolismo , Microbiologia da Água , Qualidade da Água
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA