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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(4): 1890-1894, 2020 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937663

RESUMO

The rapid removal of rain droplets at the leaf apex is critical for leaves to avoid damage under rainfall conditions, but the general water drainage principle remains unclear. We demonstrate that the apex structure enhances water drainage on the leaf by employing a curvature-controlled mechanism that is based on shaping a balance between reduced capillarity and enhanced gravity components. The leaf apex shape changes from round to triangle to acuminate, and the leaf surface changes from flat to bent, resulting in the increase of the water drainage rate, high-dripping frequencies, and the reduction of retention volumes. For wet tropical plants, such as Alocasia macrorrhiza, Gaussian curvature reconfiguration at the drip tip leads to the capillarity transition from resistance to actuation, further enhancing water drainage to the largest degree possible. The phenomenon is distinct from the widely researched liquid motion control mechanisms, and it offers a specific parametric approach that can be applied to achieve the desired fluidic behavior in a well-controlled way.


Assuntos
Alocasia/anatomia & histologia , Alocasia/fisiologia , Drenagem , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Chuva , Água/fisiologia
2.
Int J Radiat Biol ; 95(11): 1529-1542, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314632

RESUMO

Evaluation of the modulatory effect of ethanolic extract of Alocasia indica tuber (EEAIT) against γ-irradiation induced ovarian and uterine toxicity. Extract preparation was done by 80% hydro-ethanol using Soxhlet apparatus. EEAIT was administered to female Swiss albino mice (n = 5) daily (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/d) for 7 days before γ-irradiation exposure (2.9 Gy). FSH, LH, estrogen, progesterone, cytokine levels, and oxidative stress parameters were measured after 24 hours of γ-irradiation. Histology, folliculogenesis, viability of granulosa cells, ROS measurement by flow cytometry, western blot of P450scc, P45017A1, 3ß HSD and SF 1 were also performed. In addition, fertility status was assessed by fecundability and fecundity. The results showed that EEAIT exhibit a strong radioprotective activity by reducing the oxidative stress and thereby restored the ovarian and uterine alterations. EEAIT also improved the abnormality in follicle development, restored altered gonadal hormones and cytokines levels, increase the fertility status, reducing ROS level of granulosa cells with increasing granulosa cells viability and steroidogenic enzyme activity as compared to control. So EEAIT showed a radioprotective effect on γ-irradiation induced ovarian and uterine damage. Our results suggested that Alocasia indica tuber can be a potential radioprotector to prevent female infertility.


Assuntos
Alocasia/química , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Lesões por Radiação/prevenção & controle , Protetores contra Radiação/farmacologia , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Citocinas/metabolismo , Etanol/química , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos da radiação , Raios gama , Células da Granulosa/efeitos da radiação , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Ovário/efeitos da radiação , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Útero/efeitos da radiação
3.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 113: 681-691, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29505868

RESUMO

Protease inhibitors from plants play major role in defensive mechanism against various pathogenic organisms. AMTIN from the tubers of Alocasia macrorrhiza has been purified and characterized as multi-functional Kunitz type protease inhibitor. AMTIN is varied from other KTIs by having three different loops specific for binding to trypsin/amylase and subtilisin that are located approximately 30Ǻ away from one another as evidenced from crystallographic efforts. Biochemical studies on AMTIN reveal simultaneous binding of protease/amylase and have been cross validated using in-silico tools to model Amylase - AMTIN - Trypsin complex without any steric clashes. Apart from multi functionality, the remarkable structural and functional stability of AMTIN at high temperature, presence of many phosphorylation, myristoylation and glycosylation sites and molecular docking studies with dengue viral protease (NS2B-NS3) makes this protein interesting. Hence AMTIN can be considered as a template to design effective antivirals against dengue virus.


Assuntos
Alocasia/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteases/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , Serina Endopeptidases/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo
4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 213: 359-365, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29180042

RESUMO

Alocasia cucullata, a Chinese herb, has been used as an anticancer treatment in southern China. Phosphatase and tensin (PTEN), is a tumor suppressor gene and the loss of PTEN expression may activate the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathway which play a key role in tumors formation and progression. In this study, we evaluated the anti-melanoma effect and the underlying mechanism of 50% ethanolic extract of A. cucullata (EAC) in vitro and in vivo. Using MTT, wound healing, and transwell assays, we found that EAC suppressed the proliferation, migration, and invasion of melanoma cells (B16-F10, A375 and A2058) in a dose-dependent manner. We also found that EAC suppresses B16-F10 tumor growth in a xenografted mouse model. Western blot analysis revealed that the expression level of PTEN was up-regulated, and phosphorylation of PI3K and AKT reduced in B16-F10 cells and tumor tissues after EAC treatment. No significant differences were observed in PI3K and AKT expression. Moreover, immunohistochemistry showed that the number of PTEN-positive cells in tumor tissues increased and that of p-AKT-positive cells decreased with EAC treatment, corroborating the western blot results. Our data reveal that EAC can inhibit malignant melanoma in vitro and in vivo and suggest that its anti-tumor effect is associated with modulation of the PTEN/ PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. In summary, our findings highlight a promising herbal remedy for the treatment of malignant melanoma, which warrants further study.


Assuntos
Alocasia/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/biossíntese , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fitoterapia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Regulação para Baixo , Humanos , Camundongos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Fosforilação , Raízes de Plantas/química , Transdução de Sinais , Regulação para Cima , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
5.
Phytochemistry ; 143: 81-86, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28780427

RESUMO

Six previously undescribed piperidine alkaloids were isolated from the rhizomes of Alocasia macrorrhiza (L.) Schott. Their structures were elucidated based on 1D and 2D NMR, IR, HR-ESI-MS spectroscopic analysis and the application of a modified Mosher method. All isolated alkaloids were evaluated for cytotoxicity against five human cancer cell lines (CNE-1, Detroit 562, Fadu, MGC-803, and MCF-7) using the MTT method. Only one compound exhibited cytotoxic effects against Detroit 562, Fadu, and MCF-7 cell lines with IC50 values less than 10 µM.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Alocasia/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Piperidinas/isolamento & purificação , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Estrutura Molecular , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Piperidinas/química , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Rizoma/química
6.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 58(1): 32-35, 2017.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28260730

RESUMO

Kuwazuimo (Alocasia odora) and shimakuwazuimo (Alocasia cucullata) are evergreen perennial plants that originated in East Asia. Although inedible, they are occasionally eaten by mistake because they resemble satoimo (Colocasia esculenta), and this has caused food poisoning in Japan. It is not easy to determine the cause of a food poisoning outbreak from the shape or chemical composition when the available sample is small. Therefore, we developed a new primer pair for PCR to identify kuwazuimo and shimakuwazuimo in small samples, based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA. Using PCR with the developed primer pair, we detected all samples of kuwazuimo obtained from the market, while excluding 17 other kinds of crops. The samples were identified as shimakuwazuimo by DNA sequencing of the PCR products. The present PCR method showed high specificity and was confirmed to be applicable to the identification of kuwazuimo and shimakuwazuimo from various crops.


Assuntos
Alocasia/química , Alocasia/genética , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Alocasia/envenenamento , DNA Ribossômico , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/etiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Análise de Sequência de DNA
7.
Fitoterapia ; 117: 126-132, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28161134

RESUMO

Five new lignanamides (1-5), and one new monoindole alkaloid (6), along with eight known compounds (7-14) were isolated and identified from the rhizomes of Alocasia macrorrhiza (giant taro). All purified compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 cells, and the antiproliferative activities against human nasopharyngeal carcinoma epithelial (CNE-1), human gastric carcinoma (MGC-803), and human breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines by MTT method. Compounds 2, 4, 7 and 8 exhibited significant inhibitory effects on NO production with the IC50 values of 2.35±0.38, 9.20±0.94, 3.45±0.39 and 7.96±0.56µM, respectively. The results suggested the lignanamides and monoindoles might be responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of giant taro and might be potential anti-inflammatory candidates.


Assuntos
Alocasia/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Indóis/química , Lignanas/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Indóis/isolamento & purificação , Lignanas/isolamento & purificação , Lipopolissacarídeos , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Rizoma/química
8.
Z Naturforsch C J Biosci ; 72(1-2): 21-25, 2017 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27497869

RESUMO

An indole alkaloid, 2-(5-hydroxy-1H-indol-3-yl)-2-oxo-acetic acid (1) isolated for the first time from nature, in addition to the nine known compounds 5-hydroxy-1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester (2), alocasin B (3), hyrtiosin B (4), α-monopalmitin (5), 1-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(2S, 3R, 4E, 8Z)-2-[(2(R)-hydroctadecanoyl) amido]-4,8-octadecadiene-1,3-diol (6), 3-epi-betulinic acid (7), 3-epi-ursolic acid (8), ß-sitosterol (9) and ß-sitosterol 3-O-ß-D-glucoside (10) were isolated from the rhizomes of Alocasia macrorrhiza (Araceae). Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. Of these compounds, 6 exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity against the four tested human cancer cell lines (IC50 of about 10 µM against Hep-2 larynx cancer cells).


Assuntos
Alocasia/química , Citotoxinas/análise , Alcaloides Indólicos/análise , Alocasia/toxicidade , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/análise , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citotoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Alcaloides Indólicos/isolamento & purificação , Alcaloides Indólicos/farmacologia , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Espectrometria de Massas , Estrutura Molecular , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Rizoma/química
9.
J Nat Med ; 70(3): 602-9, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27120176

RESUMO

Ten steroids and iridoids were isolated from the tubers of Alocasia cucullata (Lour.) G. Don. Among them, alocasgenin A (1) and alocasgenoside B-C (2-3) were new compounds and the aglycone of compound 1, obtained from the acid hydrolysis of 1, was named alocasgenol (1a). Also, for the first time, tenacigenin B (4), 17ß-tenacigenin-B (5), 3-O-6-deoxy-3-O-methyl-ß-D-allopyranosyl-(1→4)-ß-D-oleandropyranosyl-tenacigenin C (6), marsdenoside A-B (7-8) and tenacigenoside A-B (9-10) were isolated from the genus Alocasia. The chemical structures were elucidated by the extensive analysis of spectral data and compared with the literature. By evaluation of the cytotoxic and tyrosine kinase inhibition, compounds 1-10, 1a and compound 2 showed significant growth inhibition against two tumour cell lines, MGC-803 and HT-29, while compounds 1, 1a, 3, 6 and 8 presented moderate inhibition. Furthermore, compound 2 had the inhibitory property against the enzyme activity biochemically.


Assuntos
Alocasia/química , Iridoides/química , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Esteroides/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular
10.
Bioresour Technol ; 217: 252-6, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26897473

RESUMO

The study was carried out to investigate the use of a high biomass plant, Pennisetum hydridum, to treat municipal sewage sludge (MSS). An experiment composed of plots with four treatments, soil, fresh sludge, soil-sludge mixture and phyto-treated sludge, was conducted. It showed that the plant could not survive directly in fresh MSS when cultivated from stem cuttings. The experiment transplanting the incubated cutting with nurse medium of P. hydridum in soil and fresh MSS, showed that the plants grew normally in fresh MSS. The pilot experiment of P. hydridum and Alocasia macrorrhiza showed that the total yield and nutrient amount of P. hydridum were 9.2 times and 3.6 times more than that of A. macrorrhiza. After plant treatment, MSS was dried, stabilized and suitable to be landfilled or incinerated, with a calorific value of about 5.6MJ/kg (compared to the initial value of 1.9MJ/kg fresh sludge).


Assuntos
Alocasia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Pennisetum , Esgotos/química , Alocasia/química , Alocasia/metabolismo , Pennisetum/química , Pennisetum/metabolismo
11.
Arch Virol ; 161(4): 1079-82, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26744062

RESUMO

The complete genome of an Australian isolate of zantedeschia mild mosaic virus (ZaMMV) causing mosaic symptoms on Alocasia sp. (designated ZaMMV-AU) was cloned and sequenced. The genome comprises 9942 nucleotides (excluding the poly-A tail) and encodes a polyprotein of 3167 amino acids. The sequence is most closely related to a previously reported ZaMMV isolate from Taiwan (ZaMMV-TW), with 82 and 86 % identity at the nucleotide and amino acid level, respectively. Unlike the amino acid sequence of ZaMMV-TW, however, ZaMMV-AU does not contain a polyglutamine stretch at the N-terminus of the coat-protein-coding region upstream of the DAG motif. This is the first report of ZaMMV from Australia and from Alocasia sp.


Assuntos
Alocasia/virologia , Vírus do Mosaico/genética , Austrália , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Viral , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo
12.
Mitochondrial DNA A DNA Mapp Seq Anal ; 27(5): 3464-5, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26258514

RESUMO

The complete chloroplast sequence of Alocasia macrorrhizos is 154 995 bp in length, containing a pair of inverted repeats of 25 944 bp separated by a large single-copy (LSC) region and a small single-copy (SSC) region of 87 366 bp and 15 741 bp, respectively. The chloroplast genome encodes 132 predicted functional genes, including 87 protein-coding genes, four ribosomal RNA genes, and 37 transfer RNA genes, 18 of which are duplicated in the inverted repeat regions. In these genes, 16 genes contained single intron and two genes comprising double introns. A maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis using complete chloroplast genome revealed that A. macrorrhizos does not belong to Araceae family, which infers that the A. macrorrhizos is distant from the species in Araceae family.


Assuntos
Alocasia/genética , Cloroplastos/genética , Genoma de Cloroplastos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Composição de Bases , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Ordem dos Genes , Tamanho do Genoma , Filogenia , RNA de Transferência/genética
13.
J Nat Prod ; 78(12): 3080-2, 2015 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26625266

RESUMO

Herein is reported a synthesis of alocasin A (1), an alkaloid component of Alocasia macrorrhiza, a herbaceous plant used in folk medicine throughout southern Asia. A double Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction between a 3-borylindole and 2,5-dibromopyrazine was used to assemble the heteroaromatic framework of the natural product. Removal of the protecting groups gave a synthetic sample of 1, the spectroscopic data of which matched those in the isolation report of this compound.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/síntese química , Alocasia/química , Produtos Biológicos/síntese química , Alcaloides/química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Medicina Tradicional , Estrutura Molecular
14.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 176: 258-67, 2015 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26519202

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: A. denudata is traditionally used to treat various skin disorders, including wounds. It is widely used by the traditional healers as an effective wound treatment. AIM OF STUDY: This study was done to determine A. denudata treatment effects on open wound healing activities in Wistar rat's skin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 120 Wistar rats (250-300 g) were divided into four main groups, 1.5% and 3% A. denudata stem juice treated group, 10% Solcoseryl® gel treated group as positive control and phosphate buffer saline (PBS) treated group as negative control. Six full thicknesses wounds (6mm) were induced bilaterally on the dorsal of the rat's skin. Rats were sacrificed on day 1, 3, 6, 10 and 14. The percentage of wound contraction, biochemical estimations, macroscopic observation and histological examinations were done to evaluate the wound healing activities. RESULTS: Results showed wounds treated with A. denudata stem juice possess a significant higher rate of wound contraction (p<0.001), total protein concentration (p<0.05), hexosamine concentration (p<0.001) and uronic acid concentration (p<0.001). Moreover, cathepsin B (p<0.05) and hydroxyproline (p<0.05) level showed lower concentration in wounds treated with A. denudata stem juice. Histological observation of wounds treated with A. denudata stem juice displayed organized epithelial layer with dense and compact collagen fibers. CONCLUSION: Both doses of A. denudata stem juice were found to enhance wound healing process. However, wounds treated with 3% A. denudata stem juice were reported to be more effective as a wound healing agent thus support its traditional usage.


Assuntos
Alocasia , Fármacos Dermatológicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Catepsina B/metabolismo , Fármacos Dermatológicos/farmacologia , Hexosaminas/metabolismo , Hidroxiprolina/metabolismo , Masculino , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Caules de Planta , Ratos Wistar , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia , Ácidos Urônicos/metabolismo
15.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 15: 33, 2015 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25888009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alocasia cucullata (Lour.) G. Don was applied in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of cancer in Chinese Southwest area. Its antitumor effect was scrutinized in vitro and in vivo. And for the first time, the mechanism of extract of A. cucullata (EAC) against human gastric cancer cell was well examined. METHODS: To detect the most effective fraction, the antiproliferation efficacy of four fractions (namely derivatives by adding EAC to n-BuOH, petroleum ether, EtOAc and water until dissolve fully) against five cancer cell lines were screened by MTT assay. Among four fractions, the IC50s of n-BuOH fraction of EAC (EAC-B) against the five cell lines and time-dependent inhibition to gastric cancer cell line (MGC-803) were further investigated (MTT assay). In vivo antitumor efficacy of EAC-B was examined by MGC-803 bearing tumor nude mice. Especially, the paper focused on the relevant mechanism study of EAC-B against MGC-803 included cell cycle distribution (flow cytometry) and cyclin D1 expression (RT-PCR and western blot), apoptosis (Hoechst 33342 stain and flow cytometry), apoptosis-related protein expression (Akt, p-Akt, ERK, p-ERK, Bcl-2, Bax) by western blot, and caspase3/7 activity assay. RESULTS: EAC-B showed its cytotoxicity against various tumor cell lines, particularly against gastric cancer cells with IC50 value of 18.8 µg/mL in vitro. Tumor weight was significantly reduced by EAC-B in vivo. In the mechanism study, EAC-B increased cell ratio at G0/G1 phase and reduced cyclin D1 expression both at protein and mRNA level on MGC-803. Chromatin condensation and apoptosis were also observed. EAC-B down-regulated p-Akt, p-ERK expression and up-regulated Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Further, caspase 3/7 activation was enhanced as well. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that EAC-B had potent antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. Its mechanism is primarily via antiproliferation of G0/G1 arrest and cell pro-apoptosis, including PI-3 K/Akt pathway, ERK activity, stimulated cytochrome C release and caspase 3/7 activity accompanied with an increase of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. EAC-B may be a potential source of novel compounds for gastric cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Alocasia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Caspases/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ciclina D1/genética , Ciclina D1/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Fase G1 , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo
16.
J Complement Integr Med ; 12(2): 171-4, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25868001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conventional plant-based therapies act as an important therapeutic tool for the treatment of worm infections all over the world and continuous evaluation of medicinal plants to find new potential lead compounds should be carried out. METHODS: In-vitro analysis was conducted to evaluate the probable anthelmintic effect of crude aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of Ananas sativus leaves, Erythrina variegata barks and Alocasia indica rootstocks, against adult Paramphistomum cervi (Trematoda) and Haemonchus contortus (Nematode). RESULTS: Among all three concentrations (25, 50, and 100 mg/mL), the hydroalcoholic leaf extract of A. sativus exhibited paralysis and death time ranged between 7.26 to 26.76 min and 15.40 to 35.55 min respectively for P. cervi while that for H. contortus was 14.70 to 42.43 min and 23.43 to 56.34 min, respectively. Moreover, aqueous extract exhibited paralysis and death time ranged between 7.66 to 28.72 min and 18.30 to 33.00 min, respectively, for P. cervi whereas paralysis and death time ranged between 23.34 to 37.88 min and 31.08 to 58.30 min respectively for H. contortus. Both extracts of E. variegata bark and A. indica tuber showed comparatively less significant anthelmintic activity. All results were statistically significant (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A. sativus leaf displayed favorable anthelmintic activity on both P. cervi and H. contortus, whereas E. variegata barks and A. indica rootstocks showed insignificant result.


Assuntos
Alocasia , Ananas , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Erythrina , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Paramphistomatidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Bovinos , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Estruturas Vegetais , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia
17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2014: 349074, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24977149

RESUMO

The possible protective role of ethanolic extract of A. indica tuber (EEAIT) in hepatotoxicity and apoptosis of liver caused by alcohol in rats was investigated. Treatment of rats with alcohol (3 g ethanol per kg body weight per day for 15 days intraperitoneally) produced marked elevation of liver biomarkers such as serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT), and total bilirubin levels which were reduced by EEAIT in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, EEAIT improved antioxidant status (MDA, NO, and GSH) and preserved hepatic cell architecture. Simultaneous supplementation with EEAIT significantly restored hepatic catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity levels towards normal. The studies with biochemical markers were strongly supported by the histopathological evaluation of the liver tissue. EEAIT also attenuated apoptosis and necrosis features of liver cell found in immunohistochemical evaluation. HPLC analysis of the extract showed the presence of three major peaks of which peak 2 (RT: 33.33 min) contains the highest area (%) and UV spectrum analysis identified it as flavonoids. It is therefore suggested that EEAIT can provide a definite protective effect against chronic hepatic injury caused by alcohol in rats, which may mainly be associated with its antioxidative effect.


Assuntos
Alocasia/química , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Falência Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Bilirrubina/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Glutationa/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Fígado/enzimologia , Falência Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Tubérculos/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , gama-Glutamiltransferase/metabolismo
18.
Int J Phytoremediation ; 16(1): 1-13, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24912211

RESUMO

High concentrations of heavy metals and organic pollutants in municipal sewage sludge are key factors limiting its use in agriculture. The objectives of this study were to decrease the heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in sewage sludge by phytotreatment and to determine, in a field experiment, whether co-planting is more effective than using a mono-crop of Sedum alfredii. Four treatments were used in the plot experiment: no sludge, no plants, S. alfredii and co-planting S. alfredii and Alocasia marorrhiza. The results showed that co-planting produced tubers and shoots of A. marorrhiza that were suitable as a safe animal feed and good organic K fertilizer, respectively. Co-planting was more effective than mono-planting at reducing concentrations of total Zn and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Zn, Cd, and Cu in the sludge. Co-planting decreased the concentrations of DTPA-extractable heavy metals and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in the sludge significantly compared with the unplanted sludge. Decreases of 87, 75, 85, 31, and 64% were obtained for B[a]P and DTPA-extractable Zn, Cd, Cu, and Pb, respectively, compared with the fresh sludge. These results indicate that co-planting can reduce significantly the environmental risks associated with heavy metals and B[a]P in sewage sludge for further disposal.


Assuntos
Alocasia/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Sedum/metabolismo , Esgotos/química , Alocasia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Benzo(a)pireno/análise , Benzo(a)pireno/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , China , Metais Pesados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Sedum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
19.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 55(1): 55-63, 2014.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24598227

RESUMO

In the present study, we reviewed food poisoning data published by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan from 1961 to 2010 in Japan to analyze the trends of plant toxin food poisonings (PTFPs). The annual number of incidents of PTFPs has gradually increased since 1995. PTFPs were predominantly caused by Datura spp., Veratrum spp. and Aconitum spp. Although PTFPs frequently occurred in April and May, poisonings caused by some plants occurred in all seasons, e.g. Datura spp. The major location of PTFPs was "at home", and most of the patients had accidentally harvested poisonous plants. During the past decade, the numbers of incidents of PTFPs caused by Veratrum spp., Narcissus spp., Solanum tuberosum and Alocasia odora were especially increased. Consumer advice to prevent PTFPs associated with certain plants that are cultivated in gardens and contain toxic substances is needed, because PTFPs caused by such plants are increasing. In addition, education of elementary school teachers and children about the potential risks of natural toxins in plants, particularly Solanum tuberosum, is desirable.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Plantas/epidemiologia , Aconitum/envenenamento , Alocasia/envenenamento , Datura/envenenamento , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Narcissus/envenenamento , Intoxicação por Plantas/mortalidade , Estações do Ano , Solanum tuberosum/envenenamento , Fatores de Tempo , Veratrum/envenenamento
20.
Environ Technol ; 34(13-16): 2221-9, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24350476

RESUMO

Land application of sewage sludge usually leads to increased levels of heavy metals in soil, plants and groundwater. Pre-treatment using plants has been proposed to reduce the contents of heavy metals and water in sludge prior to land application. This study quantified the transfer of Zn, Cd, Pb and major nutrients in a sludge-soil-plant-leachate system during the treatment of sewage sludge. To accomplish this, a two year pot experiment was carried out to collect leachate, mono- and co-cropping of Sedum alfredii and feed crops was conducted in sludge with an under-layer soil support. Sludge phyto-treatment increased Zn and Cd concentrations in the under-layer soil, but not Pb. Specifically, 70%, 70% and 80% of the original Zn, Cd and Pb, respectively, remained in the sludge, while about 40%, 70% and 60% of the original N, P and K remained. Only 3% to 5% of Cd and Zn and < 1% of Pb were transferred into the under-layer soils or leachates, while more than 12% of the N and P were transferred. Co-planting S. alfredii and feed crops led to a significant reduction of heavy metals in leachates when compared with sludge without planting. Overall, sludge leachate is more appropriate than whole sludge for recycling in agriculture since it reduces the chance of heavy metal contamination in the agro-ecosystem; therefore, co-cropping phytotreatment of sludge can be coupled with sludge leachate recycling for crop production and re-collection of the sludge residue for landfilling.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Plantas/química , Plantas/metabolismo , Esgotos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Alocasia/química , Alocasia/metabolismo , Biomassa , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Sedum/química , Sedum/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Zea mays/química , Zea mays/metabolismo
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