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1.
Food Chem ; 327: 127095, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454283

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to analyze existing taro mucilage extraction techniques for extraction of a pure product with high emulsifying action to chemically characterize the mucilage. Five taro mucilage extraction techniques were analyzed which used room temperature, 4 °C, or 80 °C, with or without ethanol precipitation. Protein was detected in the mucilage extracted by each method and is ideal for the emulsifying action. Only mucilage extracted at low temperature and precipitated with ethanol did not contain starch, which is considered an impurity in the product. Therefore, from the tested techniques, cold extraction was found to provide mucilage with good emulsion activity and stability, making it possible to be used as a natural emulsifier. This mucilage is primarily formed by arabinogalactans connected to proteins which form AGP glycoprotein, a macro-molecule responsible for the emulsifying action.


Assuntos
Colocasia/química , Emulsificantes/química , Mucilagem Vegetal/química , Emulsões/química , Microscopia Eletroquímica de Varredura , Extratos Vegetais/química
2.
Chemistry ; 26(36): 8105-8114, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222045

RESUMO

Expeditious evolution of antimicrobial resistance in recent years has been identified as a growing concern by various health organizations around the world. Herein, facile and environmentally benign production of highly antibacterial carbonaceous nanomaterials from Colocasia esculenta and Nelumbo nucifera leaves is reported. After carbonization and oxidative treatment, smaller graphene domains are formed in Colocasia esculenta derivatives, whereas larger sheetlike structures are observed in the case of Nelumbo nucifera. Smaller particle size makes quantum confinement effects more prominent, as is evident in fine-tuning of the photoluminescence emission after each stage of treatment. The influence of precursor materials on the antibacterial properties of the nanosystems is also demonstrated. When microbiocidal activity was tested against model bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the nanocomposite derived from Colocasia esculenta leaves showed higher activity than the antibiotic drug clarithromycin (control) with a measured zone of inhibition of 40±0.5 mm. This is one of the highest values reported in comparison with plant-based carbon-silver nanosystems. Quantitative analysis revealed that the nanocomposite obtained from Colocasia esculenta leaves has antimicrobial efficacy equivalent to those of commercial antibiotic drugs and is able to eradicate bacteria at much lower concentrations than that obtained from Nelumbo nucifera leaves.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Colocasia/química , Nelumbo/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Antibacterianos/análise , Grafite , Nanoestruturas , Oxirredução , Compostos de Estanho
5.
J Plant Res ; 133(1): 49-56, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720886

RESUMO

Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) is cultivated primarily for its starchy underground stem (i.e., corm). It is adapted to both upland and wetland (i.e., flooded) conditions. Although taro is exposed to hypoxia that occurs in waterlogged soil, the mechanisms of its adaptation to hypoxia were unknown. To clarify the below-ground adaptation of taro to wetland conditions, we grew five taro cultivars/landraces hydroponically for 8 days under hypoxic conditions (n = 3) and analyzed: (1) the length of the longest root that emerged from the vegetative propagule; (2) aerenchyma (i.e., tissues containing air spaces); and (3) oxidation conditions around sides of root tips. Wild taro Aweu and the Chinese cultivar Bun-long had significantly longer roots than the Hawaiian cultivars/landraces Maui Lehua, Pi'i'ali'i, and Ele'ele Naioea (P < 0.05). Formation of aerenchyma, or air spaces that allow effective transportation of oxygen under hypoxic conditions, was observed consistently in roots of Aweu and Bun-long, but only occasionally in those of Hawaiian cultivars/landraces. In all cultivars/landraces, a pattern of radial oxygen leakage was detected only near root tips. In summary, taro appears to form aerenchyma and oxidize the rhizosphere around root tips under wetland conditions.


Assuntos
Colocasia , Inundações , Hawaii , Oxigênio , Raízes de Plantas , Solo
6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 139: 1191-1202, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415852

RESUMO

Taro corms mucilage (TCM)-alginate microspheres had been prepared using TCM and alginate as blend and coated form in various ratios through inotropic gelation approach. The prepared microspheres have been of sphere-formed having coarse surface with average particle size within the range 498 µm ±â€¯0.17 to 715 µm ±â€¯0.34. The drug entrapment efficiency was 74.33 ±â€¯0.04% to 89.63 ±â€¯0.01% and swelling of microspheres followed the pattern (blended >coated >plain). FTIR research showed that there had been no interactions among pregabalin and polymers used; these microspheres were further characterized by DSC and XRD. The in vitro drug release followed sustained release (Korsmeyer-Peppas model) pattern (R2 = 0.9552-0.9906) and value of n > 1 showed that drug released by means of anomalous (non-Fickian) diffusion. The in vivo research established that there were highly significant difference with p < 0.001 within the pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax, t½, AUC0-∞, Ke), while pregabalin microspheres in comparison to pure drug. Therefore, it is concluded that blended microspheres has greater bioavailability for pregabalin with sustained release effect. This evolved that TCM has been proved to be emerging potential pharmaceutical excipient for sustained release drug delivery systems.


Assuntos
Alginatos/química , Colocasia/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Microesferas , Mucilagem Vegetal/química , Pregabalina/química , Animais , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Masculino , Pregabalina/farmacocinética , Coelhos , Reologia , Distribuição Tecidual
7.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 137: 277-285, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260771

RESUMO

In this study, the octenylsuccinylated taro starches (OSTS) with different degree of substitution (DS, from 0.009 to 0.032) were prepared and their structural properties such as granule size, wettability and morphology were studied. The purpose of this work was to elucidate the OSTS with different DS using as particle stabilizers for Pickering emulsions, and the effect of DS on the stability, droplet size, microstructure and rheological properties of OSTS-stabilized emulsions were investigated. Octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA) modification had slight effects on the morphology or granule size of taro starch, but markedly increased the contact angle from 25.4° to 70.1°. Octenylsuccinylation significantly improved the emulsifying capacity of taro starch granules, and thus OSTS-stabilized emulsions formed at higher DS exhibited better stability. Droplet size distribution results and microscopic observations revealed that OSTS-emulsion prepared at DS of 0.032 had the smallest droplet size and most uniform distribution compared with the other emulsions. The rheological results indicated that both OSTS-emulsions (DS, from 0.009 to 0.032) showed shear-thinning behavior as a non-Newtonian fluid, and the viscosities of emulsions were progressively improved with the increase of DS. Moreover, the G' and G″ values of OSTS-emulsions increased with increasing DS, reflecting the enhanced viscoelastic properties and exhibiting an improved rigidity of the emulsions. The above results suggested that higher-DS favored the formation of superior OSTS-emulsions, and thus OSTS with a high DS (DS ≥ 0.018) can be used for preparing stable Pickering emulsions.


Assuntos
Colocasia/química , Emulsões/química , Amido/análogos & derivados , Fenômenos Químicos , Tamanho da Partícula , Reologia , Análise Espectral , Amido/química , Molhabilidade
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(26): 27385-27395, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325091

RESUMO

The environmental behavior of paclobutrazol in soil and its toxicity were studied by field investigation and an outdoor pot experiment, and the residue of paclobutrazol was detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Field investigation has found that the residual paclobutrazol in the former succession crop could severely inhibit the growth of succeeding crops of potato; with migration and transformation of residual paclobutrazol in the soil, the stems of potato were thickened with residual amount of 1.23 mg kg-1, the growth was slow, and the height of potato in soil with residual amount of 1.34 mg kg-1 and the control was significantly different. The degradation dynamics of paclobutrazol fits with the first-order degradation kinetics, although T1/2 of paclobutrazol of the taro planting soil was 30.14-46.21 days and the residual paclobutrazol remained detectable even on day 120 after application. Taro leaves were sensitive to the stress of paclobutrazol pollution; the taro leaf thickness increased, the leaf area decreased, the chlorophyll content per area unit of taro leaf showed an obvious increased trend, and SOD and CAT activities and MDA and proline content increased significantly. Paclobutrazol promoted the tillering of taro, and the taro seedlings were dwarfed by 58.01, 63.27, and 75.88% at different concentrations. It indicated that taro had strong stress response ability under paclobutrazol pollution.


Assuntos
Colocasia/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Solanum tuberosum/efeitos dos fármacos , Triazóis/toxicidade , Catalase/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Colocasia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Colocasia/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/química , Solanum tuberosum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Triazóis/análise , Triazóis/química
9.
Bioinspir Biomim ; 14(4): 046011, 2019 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121570

RESUMO

In this study we aim to show how the peltate leaves of Colocasia fallax Schott and Tropaeolum majus L., despite their compact design, achieve a rigid connection between petiole and lamina. We have combined various microscopy techniques and computed tomography (CT) scanning for the analysis of the basic structure of the plant's stabilization system. Mechanical tests yielded key mechanical parameters and allowed us to assess the mode of failure. The results of the tests were further processed in a finite element method (FEM) analysis. We were able to show that both plants are able to endure high loads irrespective of the different composition of the supporting structure. C. fallax forms many separate branched strands, whereas T. majus forms fewer strands of greater diameter interconnected in the centre of the transition area, forming a bundle of irregular orientation. This results in different ways to dissipate loads on the lamina. In C. fallax we observed the outer strands of the strengthening tissue under high stress while the inner bundle carries little load. In T. majus the load is distributed more evenly through the juncture in the middle of the transition area. Potential applications include the construction of biomimetical flying roofs.


Assuntos
Colocasia/ultraestrutura , Folhas de Planta/ultraestrutura , Tropaeolum/ultraestrutura , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
10.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(5): 1299-1305, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789325

RESUMO

A novel actinomycete, designated as strain H219T, was isolated from rhizosphere soil collected under an Elephant ear plant (Colocasiaesculenta) in Bangkok, Thailand. Strain H219T was characterised using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that this isolate was most closely related to Saccharopolyspora tripterygii JCM 32123T (97.6 %), Saccharopolyspora dendranthemae NBRC 108675T (97.5 %) and Saccharopolyspora flava NBRC 16345T (97.5 %). However, DNA-DNA hybridization analyses showed a low relatedness in the range of 39-48 % between the novel isolate and the above closely related strains. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of strain H219T contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The diagnostic whole-cell sugars consisted of arabinose and galactose. The cellular fatty acid profile mainly comprised iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, and 10-methyl C17 : 0. The major menaquinone was MK-9(H4). The detected phospholipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine-containing hydroxylated fatty acids and an unknown phospholipid. The DNA G+C content was 70.6 mol%. Strain H219T represented chemotaxonomic and morphological characteristics that were consistent with members of the genus Saccharopolyspora. However, strain H219T could be distinguished from closely related strains by several phenotypic properties. Based on the data from the polyphasic studies, we propose that strain H219T is a novel species within the genus Saccharopolyspora, Saccharopolysporarhizosphaerae sp. nov. The type strain is H219T (=TBRC 8564T=NBRC 113388T).


Assuntos
Colocasia/microbiologia , Filogenia , Rizosfera , Saccharopolyspora/classificação , Microbiologia do Solo , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácido Diaminopimélico/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Peptidoglicano/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Saccharopolyspora/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tailândia , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
11.
Molecules ; 24(3)2019 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30699910

RESUMO

The search for natural anticancer agents and nanocarrier uses are a part of the current strategies to overcome the side effects caused by chemotherapeutics. Liposomal nanocapsules loaded with purified tarin, a potential immunomodulatory and antitumoral lectin found in taro corms, were produced. Liposomes were composed by 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphoethanolamine, cholesterylhemisuccinate, and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[folate(polyethylene glycol)-2000 prepared by thin-film hydration. Small unilamellar vesicles were achieved by sonication and extrusion. Scanning electron microscopy evidenced round-shaped nanocapsules presenting a smooth surface, 150 nm diameter and polydispersity index <0.2, estimated by dynamic light scattering. Tarin entrapment rates were over 80% and leakage of ~3% under 40 days of storage at 4 °C. Entrapped tarin exhibited an 83% release after 6 h at pH 4.6⁻7.4 and 36 °C. Both free and encapsulated tarin exhibited no in vitro toxicity against healthy mice bone marrow and L929 cells but stimulated the production of fibroblast-like and large round-shaped cells. Encapsulated tarin resulted in inhibition of human glioblastoma (U-87 MG) and breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB-231) proliferation, with an IC50 of 39.36 and 71.38 µg/mL, respectively. The effectiveness of encapsulated tarin was similar to conventional chemotherapy drugs, such as cisplatin and temozolide. Tarin liposomal nanocapsules exhibited superior pharmacological activity compared to free tarin as a potential chemotherapy adjuvant.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Colocasia/química , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Globulinas/química , Lipossomos/química , Nanocápsulas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos
12.
J Plant Physiol ; 232: 100-106, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30537596

RESUMO

Taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) is an important staple food crop in tropical and developing countries, having high water requirements. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition (δ13C and δ15N) as a physiological indicator of taro response to drought, and elucidation of the relationship between the water use efficiency (WUE) under drought conditions and carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C). As an alternative to WUE determination, obtained by measuring plant growth and water loss during an entire vegetative cycle, we have used Δ13C to determine the tolerance of C3 taro plants to drought. Seven taro accessions from Madeira, Canary Islands and the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (Fiji) collections were grown under greenhouse conditions and subjected to different watering regimes during a one-year cycle. Total plant biomass (TPB), WUE and δ15N were determined at the whole-plant level (WP). Corms and shoots were evaluated separately for nitrogen content (N), δ13C, Δ13C and δ15N. WUE showed positive correlation with TPB (r = 0.4) and negative with Δ13C (r = -0.3); Corm δ15N showed positive correlations with WP δ15N (r = 0.6) and corm N (r = 0.3). Accordingly, the taro plants with enhanced WUE exhibited low Δ13C and δ15N values as a physiological response to drought stress. The approach used in the present study has developed new tools that could be used in further research on taro response to environmental stresses.


Assuntos
Isótopos de Carbono/metabolismo , Colocasia/metabolismo , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Biomassa , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Colocasia/química , Colocasia/fisiologia , Desidratação , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/embriologia , Brotos de Planta/química , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo
13.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 31(5(Supplementary)): 2143-2148, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30393226

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to explore on the possible protective effects of the saponins and alkaloid-rich fractions of Colocasia esculenta L. Schott leaves on high-fat diet-induced changes in rats. High-fat diet (HFD)-fed rats were treated orally with 10mg/kg b.wt of saponin-rich fraction [SPF], 10mg/kg bw of alkaloid-rich fraction [ALF] and 400mg/kg bw of Crude aqueous extract of C. esculenta [CEAE] for 28 days. The effects of the treatments on body weight, wet white adipose (WAT) tissue, liver marker enzymes and liver histomorphology were studied. High-fat diet induced body weight gain and increased the serum levels of liver enzymes, cholesterol and triglycerides in rats. Increased body weight changes were observed in HFD-control while the alkaloid and CEAE treatments significantly decreased the weight gain of treated rats. Oral treatment with CEAE and fractions significantly decreased all the biochemical parameters (p<0.05) except cholesterol levels. Microscopical examination of the WAT showed decreased adipocyte sizes upon treatments with CEAE and fractions while the liver histoarchitecture showed a better preservation upon treatments with SPF and CEAE. The outcomes from the present study suggest that C. esculenta leaves significantly reduced fat accumulation in adipose tissues and ameliorated HFD-induced liver damage. The alkaloids and saponins present in the plant product may be the phytoconstituents responsible for the weight attenuating and hepatoprotection activities respectively.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colocasia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Animais , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/patologia , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho do Órgão/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
14.
Biopreserv Biobank ; 16(5): 361-367, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30325671

RESUMO

This review article gives an account of the origin, domestication, and dispersal of taro, a staple food crop in many countries in the humid tropics and subtropics. Genetic diversity studies indicated that distinct gene pools exist in all the regions where taro may be naturally distributed-the Indian subcontinent, China, Southeast Asia, and in Oceania. The Asian gene pool presented the highest genetic diversity. Diploid taro is prevalent in the Pacific Islands, while both diploids and triploids are found in mainland Asia. Triploids are thought to provide better adaptability and enhanced hardiness to higher altitudes and latitudes where sexual reproduction is not viable. The Centre for Pacific Crops and Trees (CePaCT) conserves in vitro close to 70% of the taro genetic resources held ex situ and is therefore considered the world center for taro genetic resources. Phytophthora colocasiae or taro leaf blight (TLB) is the most severe disease of taro' causing 25%-50% yield losses and postharvest decay of corms. The CePaCT genebank supported the participatory TLB breeding program in Samoa through the provision of diverse taro germplasm from the Asian gene pool. However, CePaCT not only serves taro producers in the Pacific but also shares new allelic diversity of taro globally. More recent distributions of taro genetic diversity to West and Central Africa were in response to an outbreak and spread of TLB in West Africa. Global dissemination of taro genetic diversity is assisting producer countries in the process of adaptation to emerging biotic and abiotic stresses, exacerbated by climate change.


Assuntos
Colocasia/genética , Banco de Sementes/organização & administração , Cromossomos de Plantas , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Domesticação , Variação Genética , Ilhas do Pacífico
15.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 119: 1090-1097, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30099042

RESUMO

Mucilage (represented as CEM) is abundantly present in Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott or taro and is a water-soluble neutral polysaccharide that can act as a binder, thickening agent, and matrix agent in the pharmaceutical fields of research. Presence of hydroxyl groups on its surface structure allows chemical modification. This study describes in details the synthesis and characterization of its graft copolymer with polylactide (CEM-g-PLA). The polymerization has performed using both the microwave irradiation and conventional methods. Ring opening polymerization of lactide onto the mucilage carried out in presence of stannous octoate as catalyst in chloroform medium produced CEM-g-PLA copolymer under optimum condition. The structure of CEM-g-PLA copolymers obtained from both the methods were comprehensively characterized for their physicochemical and thermal properties by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning colorimetric (DSC), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA/DTG) and Dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. Grafting of lactide onto CEM backbone has changed its water absorption capacity, solubility and swelling power, morphology, crystalline structure, and thermal property of the mucilage. The newly synthesized CEM-g-PLA copolymer may find potential applications in wastewater treatment and for sustained and controlled drug delivery systems.


Assuntos
Colocasia/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Micro-Ondas , Mucilagem Vegetal/química , Poliésteres/química , Catálise , Polimerização , Solubilidade , Propriedades de Superfície , Temperatura , Água/química
16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 120(Pt A): 237-244, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30138662

RESUMO

Taro starch spherical aggregates have been considered as wall material for the microencapsulation of bioactive compounds. The distribution of particle size, morphology, stability, glass transition temperature, ζ-potential, physical properties and flowability and compression indexes, and functional properties (water, oil and dye retention capacity) were measured. The average diameter was 17.5 ±â€¯0.3 µm. Aggregates formed by a relatively high number of starch granules were observed. The residual protein in the aggregates was in the periphery of the starch granules, favoring the aggregation and the stability under aqueous stirring conditions. The ζ-potential was -21.8 ±â€¯0.3 mV. The value of the glass transition temperature was in the range from 176.8 to 75.4 °C, with 5% and excess water, respectively. The Hausner ratio and Carr index were 1.06 and 14.7, respectively. The oil holding capacity was 1.2 ±â€¯0.01 g of oil·g-1 of dry solid. Overall, the functional, physical and thermal properties of the spherical aggregates of taro starch granules showed that this material offers good potential for the microencapsulation of bioactive compounds.


Assuntos
Colocasia/química , Amido/química , Cápsulas
17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 118(Pt B): 2032-2039, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30021133

RESUMO

In this research, Pickering emulsion stabilized by taro starch nanoparticles was successfully prepared, and the potential application of encapsulating tea polyphenols was investigated. The nanoparticle size (about 460 nm) and contact angle (81.5°) of taro starch indicate that it is suitable for adsorbing on the oil-water interface and forming a dense interfacial layer. Emulsion stability at different particle concentrations, oil-water ratios, and sodium chloride concentrations has been systematically studied. By considering the particle size, zeta potential, and stability index of Pickering emulsion, it is considered that the emulsion has the best stability when the particle concentration is 7% and the oil fraction is 0.5. Low concentration of salt ions (0.04 mM NaCl) will cause a slight flocculation to improve the stability, but adding high concentration of salt will make emulsion break. In addition, we found that this Pickering emulsion could encapsulate the tea polyphenols greatly with a retention rate of up to 67%. The findings may have great significance for the design and fabrication of native starch particle stabilized emulsion.


Assuntos
Colocasia/química , Emulsões/química , Nanopartículas/química , Polifenóis/química , Amido/química , Chá/química , Óleos/química , Concentração Osmolar , Tamanho da Partícula , Eletricidade Estática
18.
Food Chem ; 264: 157-163, 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29853360

RESUMO

The absence of gluten in gluten-free flours presents a challenge to their application in baking. Enzymatic modification of the protein and polysaccharides may result in a network that mimics gluten. In the current study, the effects of laccase on the rheological properties of amadumbe dough were investigated. Thiol and total phenolic contents of dough decreased by up to 28% and 93%, respectively, as laccase activity was increased (0-3 U/g flour). Both G' and G″ of laccase-treated dough increased significantly due to laccase-catalysed cross-linking of proteins and polysaccharides esterified with phenolics, as demonstrated by relevant model reactions. Tan δ decreased with increase in laccase activity indicating an increase in the elastic character of the dough. The improvement in dough viscoelasticity may enable the retention of adequate carbon dioxide during proofing and production of more acceptable gluten-free bread.


Assuntos
Colocasia/química , Farinha , Lacase/química , Pão , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/química , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/metabolismo , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Farinha/análise , Lacase/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Reologia , Compostos de Sulfidrila/análise , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Viscosidade
19.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0198333, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29870533

RESUMO

Taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott, is a vegetable and starchy root crop cultivated in Asia, Oceania, the Americas, Africa, and the Mediterranean. Very little is known about its early history in the Mediterranean, which previous authors have sought to trace through Classical (Greek and Latin) texts that record the name colocasia (including cognates) from the 3rd century BC onwards. In ancient literature, however, this name also refers to the sacred lotus, Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. and its edible rhizome. Like taro, lotus is an alien introduction to the Mediterranean, and there has been considerable confusion regarding the true identity of plants referred to as colocasia in ancient literature. Another early name used to indicate taro was arum, a name already attested from the 4th century BC. Today, this name refers to Arum, an aroid genus native to West Asia, Europe, and the Mediterranean. Our aim is to explore historical references to taro in order to clarify when and through which routes this plant reached the Mediterranean. To investigate Greek and Latin texts, we performed a search using the Thesaurus Linguae Graecae (TLG) and the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae (TLL), plus commentaries and English and French translations of original texts. Results show that while in the early Greek and Latin literature the name kolokasia (Greek κολοκάσια) and its Latin equivalent colocasia refer to Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn., after the 4th century AD a poorly understood linguistic shift occurs, and colocasia becomes the name for taro. We also found that aron (Greek ἄρον) and its Latin equivalent arum are names used to indicate taro from the 3rd century BC and possibly earlier.


Assuntos
Colocasia , Produtos Agrícolas/história , Grécia Antiga , História Antiga , Idioma , Região do Mediterrâneo , Terminologia como Assunto , Vocabulário Controlado
20.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 118(Pt A): 397-405, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29935240

RESUMO

The objective of the present work is to study the physicochemical and functional properties of taro starch (Colocasia esculenta) and to further modify the starch by treating with citric acid to obtain a novel functional material. DSC, FTIR and SEM studies were performed along with physicochemical analysis. The disintegrant efficiency ratio and dissolution efficiency were determined on paracetamol tablets prepared by wet granulation taking the starch as a binder-disintegrant. The moisture content and ash values of taro and citrate taro starches were about 13% and 0.5% respectively. The average particle size of taro starch was found to be 1.53 µm and citration was not found to cause significant changes in the particle size. Results from disintegration efficiency study showed that both the taro and citrate modified taro starch showed tablet disintegrant property and even performed better than the standard corn starch. The reduced disintegration time was also found to enhance dissolution of the model drug from the tablet.


Assuntos
Química Farmacêutica , Ácido Cítrico/química , Colocasia/química , Amido/química , Ácido Cítrico/uso terapêutico , Composição de Medicamentos , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Solubilidade , Amido/uso terapêutico , Comprimidos/química
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