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1.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(4): 637-641, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773792

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To summarize the initial clinical experience and follow-up results of the treatment for ureteroileal anastomotic stricture after radical cystectomy with Allium coated metal ureteral stent. METHODS: From September 2018 to September 2019, 8 patients with ureteroileal anastomotic stricture after radical cystectomy underwent Allium ureteral stent insertion in Peking University People's Hospital and People's Hospital of Daxing District. The preoperative renal pelvis width under ultrasound was collected to evaluate the postoperative hydronephrosis, creatinine and urea nitrogen (BUN) before and after surgery, perioperative infection, and stent-related complications. The serum creatinine and BUN, renal pelvis width under ultrasound, urography and abdominal plain film (KUB) were reviewed at the end of 1, 3, and 6 months and annually postoperatively to observe the stent position and morphology. The long-term stent patency rate, complication rate, renal function and hydronephrosis were followed up and analyzed. The t-test or rank-sum test was used to compare the measurement data of the matched sample from the preoperative to the last follow-up. RESULTS: In the study, 6 cases (7 sides) were ureteral ileal conduit stricture, and 2 cases (3 sides) ureteral orthotopic neobladder stricture. Before surgery, 5 patients underwent long-term indwelling of a single J ureteral stent, with an average indwelling time of (20.6±8.8) months and an average replacement frequency of (3.6±1.3) months/time. The mean width of renal pelvis was (26.5±9.1) mm on preoperative renal ultrasonography. Among them, 6 patients were successfully indwelled with Allium coated metal ureteral stent by retrograde approach, and 2 patients by combination of double-endoscopy and ante-retrograde approach. No surgery-related complications during perioperative period were observed. The mean follow-up period was 9.8 months and Allium stent and ureter remained unobstructed in all the patients at the last follow-up without replacement or removal. Compared with preoperative data, the mean width of renal pelvis and mean blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in the last follow-up period were significantly reduced [(26.5±9.1) mm vs. (13.4±2.5) mm, P=0.008; (11.6±2.3) mmol/L vs. (10.2±2.2) mmol/L, P=0.017], however, there were no significant differences in the average serum creatinine or hemoglobin (P>0.05). Ureteroileal anastomotic re-stricture and other stent-related complications were not observed in all the patients by antegrade urography. CONCLUSION: Allium coated metal ureteral stent could be used for the treatment for ureteroileal anastomotic stricture, which could maintain relatively long-term patency rate and protect renal function. The indwelling time was longer and it could improve quality of life of patients.


Assuntos
Ureter , Obstrução Ureteral , Derivação Urinária , Allium , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Constrição Patológica , Cistectomia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Metais , Qualidade de Vida , Stents , Resultado do Tratamento , Obstrução Ureteral/cirurgia
2.
Chemosphere ; 253: 126675, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278918

RESUMO

The carbamazepine (CBZ) is one of the most frequently detected anticonvulsant drugs in water bodies. Although there are reports of its ecotoxicological effects in the scientific literature, toxicity studies have not focused on establishing the mechanism by which CBZ produces its effect at environmentally relevant concentrations. The objective of this work was to evaluate cyto-genotoxicity and its relationship with oxidative stress produced by carbamazepine in the Allium cepa model. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, as well as the biomarkers of oxidative stress were analyzed in the roots of A. cepa, exposed to 1 and 31.36 µg L-1 after 2, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. The results show that genotoxic capacity of this drug in the roots of A. cepa is related to the generation of oxidative stress, in particular with production of hydroperoxides and oxidized proteins. Also, the cytotoxic effect has a high correlation with DNA damage. The results of the present study clearly indicate that bioassays with sensitive plants such as A. cepa are useful and complementary tools to evaluate the environmental impact of emerging contaminants.


Assuntos
Carbamazepina/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Cebolas/fisiologia , Allium , Bioensaio , Dano ao DNA , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Cebolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Ann Bot ; 125(7): 1039-1055, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The genus Allium L., one of the largest monocotyledonous genera and one that includes many economically important crops with nutritional and medicinal value, has been the focus of classification or phylogeny studies for centuries. Recent studies suggested that the genus can be divided into 15 subgenera and 72 sections, which were further classified into three evolutionary lineages. However, the phylogenetic relationships reconstructed by one or two loci showed weaker support, especially for the third evolutionary lineage, which might not show the species relationships very clearly and could hinder further adaptive and evolutionary study. METHODS: In this study, a total of 39 complete chloroplast genomes of Allium (covering 12 Allium subgenera) were collected, and combining these with 125 species of plastomes from 19 other families of monocots, we reconstructed the phylogeny of the genus Allium, estimated the origin and divergence time of the three evolutionary lineages and investigated the adaptive evolution in this genus and related families. RESULTS: Our phylogenetic analysis confirmed the monophyly and three evolutionary lineages of Allium, while new species relationships were detected within the third evolutionary lineage. The divergence time of the three evolutionary lineages was estimated to be in the early Eocene to the middle Miocene, and numerous positive selected genes (PSGs) and PSGs with high average Ka/Ks values were found in Allium species. CONCLUSIONS: Our results detected a well-supported phylogenetic relationship of Allium. The PSGs and PSGs with high Ka/Ks values, as well as diversified morphologies, complicated chromosome characteristics and unique reproductive modes may play important roles in the adaptation and evolution of Allium species. This is the first study that conducted phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses on the genus Allium combined with the plastome and morphological and cytological data. We hope that this study can contribute to further analysis of Allium for other researchers.


Assuntos
Allium/genética , Amaryllidaceae , Genoma de Cloroplastos , Evolução Molecular , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 725: 138387, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298898

RESUMO

With the exponential growth of nanomaterial production in the last years, nano copper (Cu)-based compounds are gaining more consideration in agriculture since they can work as pesticides or fertilizers. Chinese scallions (Allium fistulosum), which are characterized by their high content of the antioxidant allicin, were the chosen plants for this study. Spectroscopic and microscopic techniques were used to evaluate the nutrient element, allicin content, and enzyme antioxidant properties of scallion plants. Plants were harvested after growing for 80 days at greenhouse conditions in soil amended with CuO particles [nano (nCuO) and bulk (bCuO)] and CuSO4 at 75-600 mg/kg]. Two-photon microscopy images demonstrated the particulate Cu uptake in nCuO and bCuO treated roots. In plants exposed to 150 mg/kg of the Cu-based compounds, root Cu content was higher in plants treated with nCuO compared with bCuO, CuSO4, and control (p ≤ 0.05). At 150 mg/kg, nCuO increased root Ca (86%), root Fe (71%), bulb Ca (74%), and bulb Mg (108%) content, compared with control (p ≤ 0.05). At the same concentration, bCuO reduced root Ca (67%) and root Mg (33%), compared with control (p ≤ 0.05). At all concentrations, nCuO and CuSO4 increased leaf allicin (56-187% and 42-90%, respectively), compared with control (p ≤ 0.05). The antioxidant enzymes were differentially affected by the Cu-based treatments. Overall, the data showed that nCuO enhances nutrient and allicin contents in scallion, which suggests they might be used as a nanofertilizer for onion production.


Assuntos
Allium , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanopartículas , Cobre , Nutrientes , Cebolas , Raízes de Plantas , Ácidos Sulfínicos
5.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228747, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092058

RESUMO

Alliinase is the key enzyme in allicin biosynthesis pathway. In the current study, the identification and sequencing of alliinase genes along with determination of allicin contents were reported for Allium species with a novel report for Iranian endemic species. The presence of different isoforms in the Allium being discovered for the first time. In bulbs tissue, the highest allicin concentration was in Allium sativum, A. umbilicatum, and A. fistolosum (1.185%, 0.367%, and 0.34%, respectively), followed by A. spititatum (0.072%), A. lenkoranicum (0.055%), A. atroviolaseum (0.36%), A. rubellum (0.041%), and A. stamineum (0.007%). The highest allicin content in the leaves and roots were in A. sativum (0.13%), and A. stamineum (0.195%), respectively. The ORFs length ranged from 1416 in A. sativum (iso-alliinase2; ISA2) to 1523 bp in A. sativum (alliinase); the identity with A. sativum (alliinase) varies from 95% to 68% for A. ampeloprasum, and A. sativum (iso-alliinase1, ISA1) respectively. These data suggested that both ISA1 and ISA2 had a high expression in the roots and bulbs compared to A. sativum as the control in all species. Note that ISA1 and ISA2 were not expressed in the leaves. The results showed that isoforms expression patterns among different tissues in Allium species were variable. The presence of various isoforms is a possible explanation for the difference between the species in terms of obtained results, especially the amount of allicin.


Assuntos
Allium/genética , Allium/metabolismo , Cisteína/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Liases/genética , Ácidos Sulfínicos/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Isoenzimas/química , Isoenzimas/genética , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Liases/química , Liases/metabolismo
6.
Chemosphere ; 249: 126193, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086064

RESUMO

Propanil can produce methemoglobinemia, hemolytic anemia, hepatotoxicity, metabolic disorder and nephrotoxicity. It also has a genotoxic effect, although it is not listed as a carcinogen and it continues to be applied excessively throughout the world. Consequently, in this study the cytogenotoxic effect of propanil was evaluated, using apical root cells of Allium cepa and Lens culinaris. In which, L. culinaris seeds and A. cepa bulbs were subjected to 6 treatments with propanil (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 mg L-1) and to distilled water as control treatment. Subsequently, the root growth was measured every 24 h for 3 days. Next, the mitotic index and cellular anomalies were determined. Whereby, decreased root development was observed in all treatments. Likewise, greater inhibition of mitosis was evidenced in L. culinaris compared to A. cepa. In addition, chromosomal abnormalities, such as nucleus absence, sticky chromosomes in metaphase and binucleated cells, were present in most of the treatments. Thus, the presence of micronuclei and the results of L. culinaris, indicate the high cytogenotoxicity of propanil and the feasibility of this species as bioindicator.


Assuntos
Herbicidas/toxicidade , Lens (Planta)/efeitos dos fármacos , Cebolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Propanil/toxicidade , Allium , Núcleo Celular , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Dano ao DNA , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Mitose , Índice Mitótico , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade
7.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 149: 170-177, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070910

RESUMO

With the aim to investigate the mechanisms of action of nano plastics (nano PS) on plants, seeds of Allium cepa were germinated for 72 h in the presence of polystyrene nano PS (50 nm size, at concentrations of 0.01, 0.1 and 1 g L-1) and, subsequently, roots were analysed by a multifaceted approach. No effect was induced by any concentration of nano PS on the percentage of seed germination while root growth was inhibited by 0.1 and 1 g L-1 nano PS. Cytological analysis of the root meristems indicated cytotoxicity (reduction of mitotic index) and genotoxicity (induction of cytogenetic anomalies and micronuclei) starting from the lowest dose. Moreover, the biochemical and histochemical analysis of oxidative stress markers gave evidence of stress induction, especially at the highest doses. Damages reported could be due to mechanical surface contact in root external layers, as evidenced by histological localization, and to the internalization of nano PS in different cellular compartments, observed under TEM. The present research underlines the hazardous nature of nano PS, that for their ability to be internalized into crop plants, can enter into different trophic levels of the food chain.


Assuntos
Allium , Germinação , Cebolas , Estresse Oxidativo , Raízes de Plantas , Plásticos , Poliestirenos , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Índice Mitótico , Cebolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Cebolas/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plásticos/metabolismo , Plásticos/toxicidade , Poliestirenos/metabolismo , Poliestirenos/toxicidade
8.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 104(2): 215-221, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932906

RESUMO

Silicon nanoparticles gained a great interest due to its use in biomedical research. It is considered as safe and has been used in nanomedicine. But literature still states its toxicity depending upon the size and dose of silicon nanoparticles. So, current study was aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of silicon dioxide nanoparticles (SiO2NPs) by Allium anaphase-telophase and Comet tests. Characterization of SiO2NPs showed the particle size as 16.12 ± 3.07 nm. The mean diameter of SiO2NPs was having range of 404.66 ± 93.39 nm in solution. Highest total anomalies (18.80 ± 0.45) were observed at 100 µg/mL, whereas least (11.2 ± 0.84) were observed by the 12.5 µg/mL concentration. There was concentration-response association in increased CAs and DNA damage. The highest concentration (100 µg/mL) of SiO2NPs induced the significant DNA damage (149.67 ± 1.15), whereas the least was observed by the negative control (2.67 ± 0.58). The current study revealed the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of SiO2NPs on the root meristem cells of A. cepa.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Cebolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Dióxido de Silício/toxicidade , Allium , Ensaio Cometa/métodos , Dano ao DNA , Meristema/citologia , Meristema/efeitos dos fármacos , Meristema/genética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Testes de Mutagenicidade/métodos , Cebolas/citologia , Cebolas/genética , Tamanho da Partícula , Raízes de Plantas/citologia , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/genética
9.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226833, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923247

RESUMO

Healthy food promotes beneficial bacteria in the gut microbiome. A few prebiotics act as food supplements to increase fermentation by beneficial bacteria, which enhance the host immune system and health. Allium hookeri is a healthy food with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. A. hookeri is used as a feed supplement for broiler chickens to improve growth performance. Although the underlying mechanism is unknown, A. hookeri may alter the gut microbiome. In the current study, 16S rRNA sequencing has been carried out using samples obtained from the cecum of broiler chickens exposed to diets comprising different tissue types (leaf and root) and varying amounts (0.3% and 0.5%) of A. hookeri to investigate their impact on gut microbiome. The microbiome composition in the groups supplemented with A. hookeri leaf varied from that of the control group. Especially, exposure to 0.5% amounts of leaf resulted in differences in the abundance of genera compared with diets comprising 0.3% leaf. Exposure to a diet containing 0.5% A. hookeri leaf decreased the abundance of the following bacteria: Eubacterium nodatum, Marvinbryantia, Oscillospira, and Gelria. The modulation of gut microbiome by leaf supplement correlated with growth traits including body weight, bone strength, and infectious bursal disease antibody. The results demonstrate that A. hookeri may improve the health benefits of broiler chickens by altering the gut microbiome.


Assuntos
Allium/química , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/microbiologia , Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Biodiversidade
10.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 146: 106737, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982455

RESUMO

Allium L. is one of the largest monocotyledonous genera with extensive distribution in the Northern Hemisphere. The fundamental phylogenies of Allium have been investigated using many morphological and molecular characters. However, the morphological characters may not agree with the molecular results in some Allium groups or sections (such as the Chinese Allium section Daghestanica), which may result in ambiguous species relationships and hinder further evolutionary and adaptive researches. Here, transcriptome sequences of the six Chinese endemics from Allium section Daghestanica were collected, with their single-copy genes (SCGs) were extracted. The interspecies relationships were analyzed using concatenation and coalescent methods. The branch-site model (BSM) was conducted to detect the positively selected genes (PSGs) in five highland species of this section. Based on 1644, 1281 and 1580 SCGs in flowers, leaves, and flowers-leaves combination respectively, a robust consistent and well-resolved phylogeny was generated from the concatenation method. Strong conflicts among individual gene trees were detected in the coalescent method, and morphological characters were incongruent with molecular relationships to some degree. Many PSGs were involved in responses of various stresses and stimuli (e.g. hypoxia, low temperature, aridity), DNA repair, metabolism, nutrient or energy intake, photosynthesis, and signal transduction. Our study revealed a clear interspecies relationship of Chinese endemics in Allium section Daghestanica and suggested that the discordance between morphological characters and molecular relationships might result from that the former are more susceptible to convergence compared with the latter. PSGs detected in our study may provide some insights into highland adaptation in Allium species.


Assuntos
Allium/classificação , Aclimatação , Allium/anatomia & histologia , Allium/genética , China , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Flores/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/genética
11.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 75(1): 124-130, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722087

RESUMO

This study aimed at evaluating and comparing the chemical profile obtained by HPLC-ESI-MSn analysis, the inhibitory activity of enzymes linked to obesity (α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and lipase) and the antioxidant properties (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and ß-carotene bleaching tests) of ethanol extracts of bulbs (BE) and aerial parts (APE) from Allium commutatum Guss. (known in Italy as "aglio delle isole"). The chemical profile revealed alliin as the main abundant compound with values of 31.5 and 38.8 mg/g extract for BE and APE, respectively. APE is rich also in quercetin (38.5 mg/g extract) and luteolin (31.8 mg/g extract). Bulbs extract exhibited the highest activity as inhibitor of enzymes linked to obesity. Except for DPPH test, APE showed the highest antioxidant potential with IC50 of 7.6 and 56.6 µg/mL in ABTS and ß-carotene bleaching test after 60 min of incubation, respectively. In conclusion, the present investigation revealed A. commutatum bulbs and aerial parts as a promising source of inhibitors of enzyme linked to the obesity and of antioxidant compounds.


Assuntos
Allium , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Antioxidantes , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Inibidores Enzimáticos , Itália , Extratos Vegetais
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(1): 657-667, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808086

RESUMO

Excessive copper (Cu) exposure ultimately results in toxicosis in all organisms. The protective potential of resveratrol compound against the CuCl2 toxicity was evaluated in Allium cepa L. root tip cells. For this aim, A. cepa bulbs were divided into six groups and the groups were treated with tap water, 400 mg/L resveratrol, 800 mg/L resveratrol, 20 µM CuCl2, 400 mg/L resveratrol + 20 µM CuCl2, and 800 mg/L resveratrol + 20 µM CuCl2 solutions, respectively for 72 h. The first group irrigated with tap water was accepted as control. All groups were screened for the germination percentage, root elongation, total bulb weight gain, micronucleus (MN) frequency, mitotic index (MI), chromosomal aberrations, and anatomical changes. Furthermore, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) level as an indicator of lipid peroxidation were investigated. It was found that CuCl2 exposure alone triggered a definite negative effects on all parameters examined. On the other hand, the groups treated with resveratrol did not have statistically different values compared to the control group. Resveratrol doses induced a remarkable recovery in growth parameters including germination percentage, root elongation, and total bulb weight gain when applied with CuCl2. In these groups, MN frequency, chromosomal aberrations, and anatomical abnormalities were alleviated, whereas the MI levels increased significantly. Moreover, lipid peroxidation level and antioxidant enzyme activities showed a marked amelioration when resveratrol and CuCl2 were applied together. Copper compounds have become common pollutants due to their direct uses as pesticides in agricultural areas as well as their spreading to natural areas from industrial fields. The study clearly demonstrated the therapeutic potential of resveratrol against the harmful effects of CuCl2 exposure in Allium roots. So, resveratrol could be considered as a plant-derived restorative agent for the reduction of the risks from the other copper compounds.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cobre/toxicidade , Cebolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Allium , Cloretos/farmacologia , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Citogenética , Germinação , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/farmacologia , Meristema/efeitos dos fármacos , Índice Mitótico , Cebolas/fisiologia , Oxirredução , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
13.
Gene ; 726: 144154, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589962

RESUMO

In this work the complete chloroplast DNAs of Allium paradoxum and Allium ursinum, two edible species of Allium subg. Amerallium (the first lineage), were sequenced, assembled, annotated, and compared with complete Allium plastomes of the second and third evolutionary lines from GenBank database. The A. ursinum plastome contains 90 predicted genes (81 unique) including 5 pseudogenes, while A. paradoxum has 88 predicted genes (79 unique) including 19 pseudogenes. The comparative analysis has revealed that the A. paradoxum plastome differs markedly from those of other species. Due to many deletions, the A. paradoxum plastome is the shortest of known for Allium species, being only 145,819 bp long. The most prominent distinctions are (1) a 4825 bp long local inversion that spans from the ndhE to the rpl32 gene in the small single copy region and (2) pseudogenization, or the loss of all NADH-genes. In contrast, the plastome of A. ursinum - a species from the first evolutionary line (as well as A. paradoxum) - resembles the Allium species of the second and third evolutionary lines, showing no large rearrangements or discrepancies in gene content. It is unclear yet whether only A. paradoxum was affected by some evolutionary events or its close relatives from both sect. Briseis and other sections of Amerallium were altered as well. We speculate the sunlight-intolerant, shade-loving nature of A. paradoxum and the impairment of the ndh genes in its plastome could be interrelated phenomena.


Assuntos
Allium/genética , Rearranjo Gênico/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Cebolas/genética , DNA de Cloroplastos/genética , DNA de Plantas/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Cloroplastos/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Pseudogenes/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
14.
Biomolecules ; 10(1)2019 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877639

RESUMO

Constipation is a common bowel disease in adults with the symptoms of dry stool or difficulty passing stool. Compared with medication therapy, patients show more compliance with the diet therapy, and thus the diet therapy normally exhibits better therapeutic effect. Allium mongolicum Regel s a perennial herb of Liliaceae native to Mongolia, Kazakhstan, and China, which is traditionally used for constipation. In this paper, we partly clarify the effectiveness of A. mongolicum on constipation from two aspects, including maintaining colon water content and increasing intestinal transit. In loperamide-induced constipation mice model, nine days oral administration of A. mongolicum 50% ethanolic extract increased luminal side water content and regulated intestinal movement rhythm to normalize stools. The activity at least partly related to down-regulation of colon aquaporins 3 (AQP3) expression, and up-regulation and activation of G protein alpha (Gα) and phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K). Further, activities on intestine movements were tested using compounds isolated from A. mongolicum. Three kinds of major flavonoids significantly increased cellular calcium flux in HCT116 cells and promoted mice intestine smooth muscle contraction. The activity may be related to M choline receptor, µ opioid receptor, 5-HT3 receptor, and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor.


Assuntos
Allium/química , Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Aquaporina 3/genética , Aquaporina 3/metabolismo , China , Constipação Intestinal/genética , Constipação Intestinal/metabolismo , Constipação Intestinal/fisiopatologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Flavonoides/química , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR
15.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 137(5): 407-413, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vegetables have some beneficial effects on human health due to their antioxidant compounds, like polyphenols. Cooking leads to many physical and chemical changes to plant structure that can alter the phytochemical compounds of vegetables. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of heat treatment and freezing on the antioxidant properties of garlic, onion, broccoli and cauliflower. DESIGN AND SETTING: Experimental in vitro study in a university laboratory. METHODS: Fresh broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), garlic (Allium sativum) and onion (Allium cepa) were obtained from a local store. These vegetables were divided into three treatment groups: raw, heated and frozen. The heat treatment consisted of heating them in a drying oven at 150 °C for 20 minutes. The freezing treatment consisted of keeping them frozen at -20 °C until analysis. The total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and malondialdehyde levels of the vegetables were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu phenol reagent, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, respectively. RESULTS: Heat treatment had deleterious effects on the antioxidant properties of onion and garlic; and it decreased the antioxidant activity of broccoli. Freezing improved the antioxidant activity of broccoli and garlic, but had detrimental effects for cauliflower and onion. CONCLUSIONS: Heat treatment and freezing exhibit different effects on the antioxidant properties of broccoli, cauliflower, garlic and onion. Convenient cooking and storage patterns should be identified for each vegetable, to obtain the best nutritional benefit from the antioxidant compounds of vegetables.


Assuntos
Allium/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Malondialdeído/análise , Verduras/química , Brassica/química , Congelamento , Alho/química , Calefação , Técnicas In Vitro , Valor Nutritivo , Cebolas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química
16.
Molecules ; 24(21)2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694287

RESUMO

Alliums and allied plant species are rich sources of sulfur compounds that have effects on vascular homeostasis and the control of metabolic systems linked to nutrient metabolism in mammals. In view of the multiple biological effects ascribed to these sulfur molecules, researchers are now using these compounds as inspiration for the synthesis and development of novel sulfur-based therapeutics. This research has led to the chemical synthesis and biological assessment of a diverse array of sulfur compounds representative of derivatives of S-alkenyl-l-cysteine sulfoxides, thiosulfinates, ajoene molecules, sulfides, and S-allylcysteine. Many of these synthetic derivatives have potent antimicrobial and anticancer properties when tested in preclinical models of disease. Therefore, the current review provides an overview of advances in the development and biological assessment of synthetic analogs of allium-derived sulfur compounds.


Assuntos
Allium/química , Compostos de Enxofre/química , Compostos de Enxofre/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Humanos
17.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 74(4): 525-530, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696379

RESUMO

Onion (Allium cepa) and leek (Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum) are common herbs and vegetables found in our daily life. It belongs to the genus Allium, which is usually known for their high antioxidant and anticancer properties. Medical researchers highly recommend the exploitation of herbs and plants as alternative ways in the treatment of cancer. This research was designed to study the anticancer effects of onion and leek extracts on MCF-7 human breast cancer cell. Crude extracts of ethanol, methanol, and water of onion and leek were obtained by maceration. MCF-7 cells were cultured in complete media at 37 °C and subjected to different treatments that involved varying concentrations (10, 50, and 100 µg/mL) of onion and leek extracts for 24, 48, and 72 h of incubation. The percentage of cell viability and the concentration of extracts on MCF-7 cells were determined using MTT assay. The water leek extract proved to be the most effective extract at 50 µg/mL, whereby it showed a significant inhibition ability due to the presence of entadamide A-ß-D-glucopyranoside as identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS). Further studies about the mechanism of both extracts in causing cell death and the determination of the presence of other bioactive compounds in the extracts are needed.


Assuntos
Allium , Cebolas , Antioxidantes , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Espectrometria de Massas
18.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547031

RESUMO

Allium hookeri (AH) is widely consumed as a herbal medicine. It possesses biological activity against metabolic diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of AH root water extract (AHR) on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells and in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. AHR inhibited lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation by downregulation of gene expression, such as hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and an adipogenic gene, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Oral administration of AHR significantly suppressed body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, serum leptin levels, and adipocyte cell size in HFD-induced obese mice. Moreover, AHR significantly decreased hepatic mRNA expression levels of cholesterol synthesis genes, such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase, sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor (SREBP)-2, and low-density lipoprotein receptor, as well as fatty acid synthesis genes, such as SREBP-1c and fatty acid synthase. Serum triglyceride levels were also lowered by AHR, likely as a result of the upregulating gene involved in fatty acid ß-oxidation, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a, in the liver. AHR treatment activated gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, which might have promoted HSL and LPL-medicated lipolysis, thereby reducing white adipose tissue weight. In conclusion, AHR treatment can improve metabolic alterations induced by HFD in mice by modifying expression levels of genes involved in adipogenesis, lipogenesis, and lipolysis in the white adipose tissue and liver.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Allium , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Proteína alfa Estimuladora de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Leptina/sangue , Lipogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipase Lipoproteica/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/etiologia , Esterol Esterase/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Molecules ; 24(18)2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505821

RESUMO

The ramp (Allium tricoccum) is a traditional plant in the eastern Appalachian Mountains. Ramps have been used in traditional medicine for their health-promoting roles in lowering blood pressure and cholesterol. Information on the chemical composition of the potentially bioactive components in ramps is limited. Therefore, the aim of this work was to characterize and quantify major flavonols in ramps. Flavonoids were extracted in 50% methanol and 3% acetic acid. Characterization was conducted using UHPLC-PDA-MS and MS/MS, and quantification was performed using UHPLC-PDA detection. The major flavonol glycosides were kaempferol sophoroside glucuronide, quercetin sophoroside glucuronide, kaempferol rutinoside glucuronide, quercetin hexoside glucuronide, quercetin sophoroside, and kaempferol sophoroside. All conjugates were detected in leaves. Quercetin and kaempferol sophoroside glucuronide conjugates were detected in the stem, but no flavonol glycosides were detected in the bulb. The total amounts of the identified quercetin and kaempferol conjugates in whole ramps were 0.5972 ± 0.235 and 0.3792 ± 0.130 mg/g dry weight, respectively. Flavonol conjugates were concentrated in the leaves. To our knowledge, this work is the first to identify and quantify the major flavonol glycosides in ramps. Our findings suggest that specifically the leaves may harbor the potentially bioactive flavonols components of the plant.


Assuntos
Allium/química , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/química , Medicina Tradicional , Colesterol/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Glucuronídeos/química , Glucuronídeos/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Quempferóis/química , Quempferóis/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Quercetina/química , Quercetina/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
20.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; 33(11): e22396, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557364

RESUMO

The furocoumarin backbone is a promising platform for chemical modifications aimed at creating new pharmaceutical agents. However, the high level of biological activity of furocoumarins is associated with a number of negative effects. For example, some of the naturally occurring ones and their derivatives can show genotoxic and mutagenic properties as a result of their forming crosslinks with DNA molecules. Therefore, a particularly important area for the chemical modification of natural furocoumarins is to reduce the negative aspects of their bioactivity. By studying a group of 21 compounds-1,2,3-triazolyl modified derivatives of furocoumarin and peucedanin-using the SOS chromotest, the Ames test, and DNA-comet assays, we revealed modifications that can neutralize the structure's genotoxic properties. Theoretical aspects of the interaction of the compound library were studied using molecular modeling and this identified the leading role of the polyaromatic molecular core that takes part in stacking-interactions with the pi-systems of the nitrogenous bases of DNA.


Assuntos
Cumarínicos/química , Furocumarinas/química , Substâncias Intercalantes/química , Mutagênicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Allium/citologia , Apiaceae/química , Ensaio Cometa , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla/efeitos dos fármacos , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Simples/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Guanina/química , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Meristema/efeitos dos fármacos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos
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