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1.
Am J Bot ; 106(10): 1392-1396, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553817

RESUMO

PREMISE: Climate change is making spring arrive earlier than in the past, causing some species to alter the timing of their spring activities. This study addressed whether Erythronium americanum Ker Gawl. (trout lily), a common spring ephemeral, can emerge earlier if exposed to early spring warming. METHODS: I collected corms of Erythronium americanum in the fall, overwintered them in soil, and exposed them to warming in either mid (early treatment) or late (late treatment) February. The timing of leaf emergence was monitored and compared between treatments. RESULTS: Leaves exposed to early warming emerged earlier than those in the late treatment. Bud break happened closer to date of exposure to warming in the late treatment than in the early treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Spring ephemerals may be able to produce leaves early in response to early spring warming induced by climate change. Risk of late frost and eventual shading by the canopy may limit the duration of a potentially extended growing season.


Assuntos
Liliaceae , Folhas de Planta , Mudança Climática , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
2.
Chin J Nat Med ; 17(8): 624-630, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472900

RESUMO

Five new polyhydroxylated furostanol saponins were isolated from the roots and rhizomes of Tupistra chinensis, and their structures were determined as tupistrosides J-N (1-5), together with four known furostanol saponins (6-9), on the basis of physico-chemical properties and spectral analysis. Among them, compounds 3 and 5 showed cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines SW620 with IC50 values of 72.5 ± 2.4 and 77.3 ± 2.5 µmol·L-1, respectively. Compound 4 showed cytotoxicity against human cancer cell line HepG2 with IC50 value of 88.6 ± 2.1 µmol·L-1.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Liliaceae/química , Saponinas/química , Esteróis/química , Células A549 , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Rizoma/química , Saponinas/farmacologia , Esteróis/farmacologia
3.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 137: 160-168, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255623

RESUMO

The rheological properties and emulsifying behavior of four polysaccharides (HBSS, CHSS, DASS, and CASS) sequentially extracted from Amana edulis (AEPs) were investigated under various concentrations, temperatures, pH levels, and ionic strengths. The apparent viscosity of the four AEPs solutions at 1% (w/w) concentration were found to be CHSS > DASS > HBSS > CASS. When the AEPs were heated to 100 οC, they showed lower colloidal viscosity, whereas after refrigeration and chilling, higher apparent viscosities were observed. The apparent viscosity of four AEPs at pH 10 or pH 4 was lower than that at pH 7. The apparent viscosity increased at a lower sodium ion concentration and then declined with an increase in ion concentration. The storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) increased with an increase in oscillation frequency. The emulsifying activity and stability were enhanced as the concentration of the four AEPs increased. The emulsifying activity and stability of the AEPs were steady within the pH range of 2-10 and NaCl concentration range of 0-0.4 mol/L. Our results implied that these polysaccharides can be utilized as a novel hydrocolloid source for natural thickeners in the food industry.


Assuntos
Liliaceae/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Reologia , Cálcio/química , Emulsões , Indústria Alimentícia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Temperatura , Viscosidade
4.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 174: 277-285, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185339

RESUMO

Knipholone (1) and knipholone anthrone (2), isolated from the Ethiopian medicinal plant Kniphofia foliosa Hochst. are two phenyl anthraquinone derivatives, a compound class known for biological activity. In the present study, we describe the activity of both 1 and 2 in several biological assays including cytotoxicity against four human cell lines (Jurkat, HEK293, SH-SY5Y and HT-29), antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strain, anthelmintic activity against the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, antibacterial activity against Aliivibrio fischeri and Mycobacterium tuberculosis and anti-HIV-1 activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) infected with HIV-1c. In parallel, we investigated the stability of knipholone (2) in solution and in culture media. Compound 1 displays strong cytotoxicity against Jurkat, HEK293 and SH-SY5Y cells with growth inhibition ranging from approximately 62-95% when added to cells at 50 µM, whereas KA (2) exhibits weak to strong activity with 26, 48 and 70% inhibition of cell growth, respectively. Both 1 and 2 possess significant antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strain with IC50 values of 1.9 and 0.7 µM, respectively. These results complement previously reported data on the cytotoxicity and antiplasmodial activity of 1 and 2. Furthermore, compound 2 showed HIV-1c replication inhibition (growth inhibition higher than 60% at tested concentrations 0.5, 5, 15 and 50 µg/ml and an EC50 value of 4.3 µM) associated with cytotoxicity against uninfected PBMCs. The stability study based on preincubation, HPLC and APCI-MS (atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry) analysis indicates that compound 2 is unstable in culture media and readily oxidizes to form compound 1. Therefore, the biological activity attributed to 2 might be influenced by its degradation products in media including 1 and other possible dimers. Hence, bioactivity results previously reported from this compound should be taken with caution and checked if they differ from those of its degradation products. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the anti-HIV activity and stability analysis of compound 2.


Assuntos
Antracenos/análise , Antracenos/farmacologia , Antraquinonas/farmacologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Bioensaio , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Liliaceae/química , Estrutura Molecular , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Molecules ; 24(7)2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30978910

RESUMO

The resource shortage of Rhizoma Paridis has never been effectively addressed, and the industry continues to search for alternative resources. The in vitro effects on thrombin of Paris saponins and in vivo hemostatic activity of Paris fargesii var. brevipetala (PF) were evaluated in this study. PF is considered to be an alternative source of Rhizoma Paridis (RP). The in vitro incubation experiment was designed to investigate the effects on thrombin activity of Paris saponin H (PS H) and saponin extract in PF. The bleeding time of mouse tail snipping was used to evaluate the in vivo hemostatic effects of Paris saponins. Also, in vivo changes in four blood coagulation parameters in rats after oral administration of different groups of Paris saponins were compared. The effects of Paris saponins on liver function and blood lipid parameters were examined in order to avoid drug-induced liver injury. Activity studies of thrombin after ultra-filtration centrifugation showed that Paris saponins were able to enhance thrombin activity. Ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) analysis results of the substrates led us to speculate that there is a specific binding between Paris saponins and thrombin. PS H and Paris saponins in PF significantly shortened the bleeding time in mice. One pathway by which Paris saponins enhance in vivo blood coagulation is by increasing fibrinogen (FIB), among the four blood coagulation parameters in rats. At the same time, the effects on liver and blood lipid parameters were insignificant. P. fargesii var. brevipetala can be developed as an alternative medicinal source of Rhizoma Paridis.


Assuntos
Hemorragia/tratamento farmacológico , Liliaceae/química , Saponinas/administração & dosagem , Trombina/metabolismo , Animais , Tempo de Sangramento , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/sangue , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Hemostasia/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos
6.
Fitoterapia ; 135: 52-63, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999023

RESUMO

Steroidal saponins, one of the most diverse groups of plant-derived natural products, elicit biological and pharmacological activities; however, the genes involved in their biosynthesis and the corresponding biosynthetic pathway in monocotyledon plants remain unclear. This study aimed to identify genes involved in the biosynthesis of steroidal saponins by performing a comparative analysis among transcriptomes of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis (PPC), Ypsilandra thibetica (YT), and Polygonatum kingianum (PK). De novo transcriptome assemblies generated 57,537, 140,420, and 151,773 unigenes from PPC, YT, and PK, respectively, of which 56.54, 47.81, and 44.30% were successfully annotated, respectively. Among the transcriptomes for PPC, YT, and PK, we identified 194, 169, and 131; 17, 14, and 26; and, 80, 122, and 113 unigenes corresponding to terpenoid backbone biosynthesis; sesquiterpenoid and triterpenoid biosynthesis; and, steroid biosynthesis pathways, respectively. These genes are putatively involved in the biosynthesis of cholesterol that is the primary precursor of steroidal saponins. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that lanosterol synthase may be exclusive to dicotyledon plant species, and the cytochrome P450 unigenes were closely related to clusters CYP90B1 and CYP734A1, which are UDP-glycosyltransferases unigenes homologous with the UGT73 family. Thus, unigenes of ß-glucosidase may be candidate genes for catalysis of later period modifications of the steroidal saponin skeleton. Our data provide evidence to support the hypothesis that monocotyledons biosynthesize steroidal saponins from cholesterol via the cycloartenol pathway.


Assuntos
Liliaceae/genética , Melanthiaceae/genética , Fitosteróis/biossíntese , Polygonatum/genética , Saponinas/biossíntese , Transcriptoma , Vias Biossintéticas , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Liliaceae/química , Liliaceae/metabolismo , Melanthiaceae/química , Melanthiaceae/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Filogenia , Fitosteróis/química , Fitosteróis/genética , Polygonatum/química , Polygonatum/metabolismo , Saponinas/química , Saponinas/genética , Triterpenos
7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 239: 111914, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029760

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Asphodelus microcarpus is an important medicinal plant belonging to family Liliaceae. This plant is used in traditional medicine to treat abscesses by local application of the powder; the roots are used against white spots, and specifically used for ear pain. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of the present study was to assess the in vitro antioxidant effects and the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of the different parts methanolic extracts of the Asphodelus microcarpus: aerial part (APME), leaf (LME), stem flowers (SFME) and root (RME). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The antioxidant potency of extracts was evaluated by DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS, ß-carotene bleaching assays, iron chelating, free hydroxyl radicals (HO•) assays, and reducing power. The anti-inflammatory effect of the extracts was evaluated using the carrageenan induced rat paw edema and xylene-induced ear edema in mice. RESULTS: The estimation of polyphenols and flavonoids showed that the leave methanolic extract contains a high amount of polyphenols and flavonoids: 755.3 ±â€¯0.036 mg Gallic acid equivalent and 42.2 ±â€¯0.043 mg Rutin equivalent/g of dried material, respectively. Oral administration of the APME and RME extract produced significant (p < 0.05) anti-edematogenic effect with a dose of 500 mg/kg in the carrageenan induced paw edema after 6 h (58.04%, 58.75%, respectively). APME, LME; SFME and RME extracts at 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg, exhibited significant (p < 0.05) inhibition of xylene induced ear edema. CONCLUSION: the present study confirms the use of A. microcarpus in traditional medicine as anti-inflammatory agent.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Liliaceae , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Antioxidantes/química , Benzotiazóis/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Carragenina , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Radical Hidroxila/química , Ferro/química , Camundongos , Fitoterapia , Picratos/química , Componentes Aéreos da Planta , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos Wistar , Ácidos Sulfônicos/química , Xilenos , beta Caroteno/química
8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 131: 453-460, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30880054

RESUMO

Amana edulis polysaccharides (AEPs) specifically HBSS, CHSS, DASS, and CASS were sequentially extracted with four different solvents. The present study characterized the AEPs with particular focus on their physicochemical and anti-oxidant based functional properties. Initially, monosaccharide analysis revealed arabinose (31.7%, 32.5%, 36.5%) as the main sugar in HBSS, CHSS, and DASS whereas, galactose (31.4%) in CASS besides their respective molecular weights of 6.29 × 102, 1.5 × 102, 8.1 × 102, and 2.6 × 103 kD. HBSS showed the maximum solubility, while, CASS was observed for higher foam capacity and foam stability. Among all the fractions, DASS was observed with higher thermal stability. HBSS showed the highest ABTS+ scavenging activity. HBSS and CASS had higher DPPH and OH- scavenging activities. DASS depicted the highest chelation and reducing ability. To summarize, these polysaccharides fractions may be further utilized for their enormous prospective in functional foods preparation.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Liliaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Fracionamento Químico , Fenômenos Químicos , Peso Molecular , Monossacarídeos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Solubilidade , Análise Espectral , Termodinâmica
9.
Am J Bot ; 106(3): 477-488, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30901490

RESUMO

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Climate cycles of the Quaternary have impacted plants at a global scale, leaving behind a complex genetic legacy. Species of the northern Rocky Mountains of North America were exposed to more uniform glacial patterns than the central and southern ranges, where synergistic relationships between temperature and precipitation caused differences in the timing and extent of glacier onset. We examined the genetic impacts of climate oscillations on Calochortus gunnisonii (Liliaceae) in the central and southern Rocky Mountains. METHODS: Populations were sampled from disjunct mountain ranges across the basins of Wyoming and northern and central Colorado. Allelic data from nuclear microsatellites and plastid sequences (trnV-ndhC, petA-psbJ, and rpl16) were used to examine patterns of genetic structure between and among populations along the southern Rocky Mountain corridor. KEY RESULTS: We infer considerable population structure concordant with mountain range of origin. Clustering analysis supports separate north and south genetic clusters on either side of major basins in Wyoming, suggesting that populations were maintained in two distinct refugia. Additionally, populations within the Sierra Madre Range of southern Wyoming show localized, divergent genetic signal indicative of a third potential glacial refugium. By contrast, recent genetic admixture is observed in the Laramie, Medicine Bow, and Front ranges, where population expansion from glacial refugia has likely occurred. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that during climate cycles of the Quaternary, C. gunnisonii experienced periods of population expansion and reduction, habitat fragmentation, isolation in three or more refugia, and admixture mirroring genetic impacts of other southern Rocky Mountains organisms.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Variação Genética , Liliaceae/genética , Colorado , Marcadores Genéticos , Refúgio de Vida Selvagem , Wyoming
10.
Molecules ; 24(5)2019 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30836659

RESUMO

Researches on spicatoside A (SpiA)-containing natural products suggest the possibility of SpiA as a potential laxative to alleviate chronic constipation. However, no studies have been conducted with single compound administration of SpiA. To verify the laxative effects and mechanism of action of SpiA on chronic constipation, we investigated alterations in the excretion parameters, histological structure, and cholinergic regulation of the enteric nerve in the colons of Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice with loperamide (Lop)-induced constipation after exposure to 20 mg/kg of SpiA. Decrease in the number, weight and water contents of stools in the Lop+Vehicle treated group significantly recovered after SpiA treatment, and alterations in the histological structure and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images were improved in the Lop+SpiA treated group. Similar recovery effects were observed in the ability for mucin secretion and expression of the membrane water channel gene (aquaporin 8, AQP8). Furthermore, significant improvements were observed in the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and acetylcholine receptors' (AChRs) downstream signaling pathway after treatment of SpiA. The levels of gastrointestinal (GI) hormones including cholecystokinin (CCK) and gastrin were also remarkably enhanced in the Lop+SpiA treated group as compared to the Lop+Vehicle treated group. The expression of receptor tyrosine kinase (C-kit) and protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5) in Cajal and neural cells, as well as the phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) in smooth muscle cells, were recovered after SpiA exposure. Taken together, the results of the present study provide the first strong evidence that SpiA improves chronic constipation through muscarinic cholinergic regulation of the enteric nerve in a Lop-induced constipation ICR mice model.


Assuntos
Colinérgicos/farmacologia , Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/efeitos dos fármacos , Laxantes/farmacologia , Saponinas/farmacologia , Animais , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Constipação Intestinal/induzido quimicamente , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ingestão de Alimentos , Hormônios Gastrointestinais/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Liliaceae/química , Loperamida , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Mucinas/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Saponinas/isolamento & purificação , Transdução de Sinais
11.
J Int Med Res ; 47(4): 1685-1695, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819018

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Paris polyphylla 26 (PP-26) is a monomer purified from Paris polyphylla, which has traditionally been used as an antimicrobial, hemostatic, and anticancer agent in China. The anti-proliferation effect and underlying molecular mechanism of PP-26 were investigated in vitro. METHODS: The effects of PP-26 on various tumor cells were detected by MTT assay. PP-26-affected cell cycle and cell cycle-related proteins in HepG2 cells were detected by flow cytometry and western blotting, respectively. Apoptosis in response to PP-26 was assessed by Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry. PP-26-affected apoptosis-related proteins and Akt signaling were detected by western blotting. The inhibitory effect of PP-26 on HepG2 cells, when combined with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), was also assessed. RESULTS: PP-26 inhibited proliferation of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner by triggering G2/M-phase arrest. Moreover, PP-26 induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Expression levels of apoptosis proteins caspase 9, caspase 3, PARP, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1 were downregulated, while the expression level of apoptosis protein Bax was upregulated. Expression levels of p-Akt, p-GSK-3ß, and p-Foxo3 were downregulated. Combination with PP-26 enhanced 5-FU inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation. CONCLUSIONS: PP-26 triggers G2/M-phase arrest and induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells via inhibition of the Akt signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Liliaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/antagonistas & inibidores , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
12.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 212: 132-145, 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639599

RESUMO

The conventional procedures, based on attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (ATR-FTIR), have been developed for the origins traceability of cultivated Paris polyphylla Smith var. yunnanensis (PPY) samples with the help of partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and random forest. In this study, a set of 219 batch cultivated PPY samples, containing the cultivation years of 5, 6 and 7, and covering the municipal districts of Chuxiong, Dali, Honghe, Lijiang and Yuxi in Yunnan Province, China, were used to build the discrimination models. Firstly, a visualized analysis was carried out by t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE) to reduce each data point in a two-dimensional map and make a knowledge of the sample distribution tendency. Secondly, the single spectra data sets of Paridis rhizome and leaf tissues, and the combination of these two data sets with variable selection (mid-level data fusion strategy), were used to establish PLS-DA and random forest models, and parallelly compared the model performance. Results demonstrated that the discrimination ability of PLS-DA preceded the random forest model, and the classification performance was remarkably improved after mid-level data fusion. These results verified each other by 5-, 6- and 7-year old Paridis samples and indicated that the model performance established in the present study was reliable. Besides, five agronomic characters, including the plant height, dry weight of rhizome and leaf tissues, and the allocation of rhizome and leaf were determined and analyzed, results of which indicated that the dry weight and their allocation was significantly different among various origins and fluctuated with the cultivation years. This study was using a comprehensive and green analytical method to discriminate the cultivated Paridis according to their provenances, which was simultaneously benefited for the appropriate cultivation areas selection based on the dry weight of rhizome tissues.


Assuntos
Liliaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Algoritmos , Análise Discriminante , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Folhas de Planta/química , Rizoma/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
13.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 234: 76-84, 2019 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30699362

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma (SGR), known as Tu-fu-ling in the China, Japan and Korea, is an herb that has been used for clearing damp and detoxification in traditional Chinese medicine for many years. The post-harvest drying of SGR has traditionally been done by the sun, but sometimes sulfur fumigation is used instead due to its low cost and high efficiency. Recent reports show that sulfur fumigation can change the chemical constitution of herbal medicines and decrease their biology activity. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study will investigate the changes to the chemical constitution, acute toxicity and antioxidant potential of SGR that occur after sulfur fumigation. To date, no studies have investigated these aspects simultaneously. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An ultra-performance liquid chromatography fingerprint method was developed for analysing changes to SGR's chemical constitution caused by sulfur fumigation. The chromatography conditions were as follows: all samples were analysed on a Waters Acquity UHPLC HT3 C18 column; the linear gradient elution was conducted with a mobile phase prepared from acetonitrile and water. All calibration curves showed good linear regression (R > 0.9991) within the tested range. The method was validated for precision, accuracy, limit of detection and quantification. Total flavonoids of the raw and sulfur-fumigated samples were also determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The antioxidant properties of the extracts were evaluated using both DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays. The acute toxicities of the raw and sulfur-fumigated samples were investigated. RESULTS: The results demonstrate that the amounts of astilbin, neoastilbin, neoisoastilbin, isoastilbin, resveratrol and total flavonoids were lower in sulfur-fumigated samples than in raw samples. The antioxidant activity of the sulfur-fumigated samples was also significantly lower. Therefore, sulfur fumigation may cause chemical transformation, alter the chemical constitution, and decrease the bioactivity of SGR. Orally-administered doses did not cause mortality or changes in the general behaviour of tested mice. The LD50 was > 5000 mg/kg DW. However, the high-dose S-SGR mice had significant liver damage and high levels of plasma biochemical parameters (ALT, AST, DBIL, TBIL). CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study suggest that sulfur fumigation can decrease antioxidant activity in vitro; and that orally-administrated S-SGR is unsafe at doses > 3000 mg/kg dried materia medica. Therefore, sulfur-fumigation processing should be forbidden for SGR until its efficacy and safety has been demonstrated. An alternative method of sulfur fumigation for the post-harvest processing of SGR should also be developed.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Liliaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Feminino , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/isolamento & purificação , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Fumigação , Dose Letal Mediana , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Rizoma , Enxofre/química
14.
J AOAC Int ; 102(2): 457-464, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30227903

RESUMO

Background: Paris polyphylla var. Yunnanensis (PPY) is used in the clinical treatment of tumors, hemorrhages, and anthelmintic. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine total flavonoids of PPY in the Yunnan and Guizhou Provinces, China. Methods: In this study, total flavonoids were determined by UV spectrophotometry at first. Then, Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-IR) based on various pretreatments include standard normal variate (SNV), first derivative (FD), second derivative (SD), Savitzky-Golay (SG), and orthogonal signal correction (OSC) were investigated. In addition, several relevant variables were screened by competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS). The content of total flavonoids and selected variables of FT-IR were used to establish a partial least squares regression for PPY in different regions. Results: The results indicated that CARS was an effective method for decreasing the variable of the database and improving the prediction of the model. FT-IR with pretreatment SNV + OSC + FD + SG had the best performance, with R2 > 0.9 and residual predictive deviation = 3.3515, which could be used for the predictive model of total flavonoids. Conclusions: Those results would provide a fast and robust strategy for the determination of total flavonoids of PPY in different geographical origin. Highlights: Various pretreatments, including SNV, FD, SD, SG, and OSC, were compared; several relevant variables were selected by CARS; and the content of total flavonoids and selected variable were used to establish a partial least squares regression for PPY in different regions.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/análise , Liliaceae/química , China , Estrutura Molecular , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
15.
Microsc Res Tech ; 82(4): 373-393, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30575189

RESUMO

Palyno-anatomical study of monocots taxa using Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was first time conducted with a view to evaluating their taxonomic significance. Studied plants were collected from different eco-climatic zones of Pakistan ranges from tropical, sub-tropical, and moist habitats. The aim of this study is to use palyno-anatomical features for the correct identification, systematic comparison, and investigation to elucidate the taxonomic significance of these features, which are useful to taxonomists for identifying monocot taxa. A signification variation was observed in quantitative and qualitative characters by using the standard protocol of light microscopy (LM) and SEM. Epidermal cell length varied from maximum in Allium griffthianum (480 ± 35.9) µm at the adaxial surface to minimum in Canna indica (33.6 ± 8.53) µm on abaxial surface. Maximum exine thickness was observed in Canna indica (4.46) µm and minimum in Allium grifthianum (0.8) µm. Variation was observed in shape and exine ornamentation of the pollen, shape of the epidermal cell, number, size, and type of stomata, guard cell shape, and anticlinal wall pattern. Based on these palyno-anatomical features a taxonomic key was developed, which help in the discrimination of studied taxa. In conclusion, LM and SEM pollen and epidermal morphology is explanatory, significant, and can be of special interest for the plant taxonomist in the correct identification of monocots taxa.


Assuntos
Amaryllidaceae/anatomia & histologia , Araceae/anatomia & histologia , Asparagaceae/anatomia & histologia , Células Epidérmicas/ultraestrutura , Liliaceae/anatomia & histologia , Epiderme Vegetal/ultraestrutura , Pólen/ultraestrutura , Amaryllidaceae/classificação , Araceae/classificação , Asparagaceae/classificação , Ecossistema , Liliaceae/classificação , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Paquistão
16.
Molecules ; 23(12)2018 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563007

RESUMO

Paris polyphylla, as a traditional herb with long history, has been widely used to treat diseases in multiple nationalities of China. Nevertheless, the quality of P. yunnanensis fluctuates among from different geographical origins, so that a fast and accurate classification method was necessary for establishment. In our study, the geographical origin identification of 462 P. yunnanensis rhizome and leaf samples from Kunming, Yuxi, Chuxiong, Dali, Lijiang, and Honghe were analyzed by Fourier transform mid infrared (FT-MIR) spectra, combined with partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), random forest (RF), and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) methods. The obvious cluster tendency of rhizomes and leaves FT-MIR spectra was displayed by principal component analysis (PCA). The distribution of the variable importance for the projection (VIP) was more uniform than the important variables obtained by RF, while PLS-DA models obtained higher classification abilities. Hence, a PLS-DA model was more suitably used to classify the different geographical origins of P. yunnanensis than the RF model. Additionally, the clustering results of different geographical origins obtained by HCA dendrograms also proved the chemical information difference between rhizomes and leaves. The identification performances of PLS-DA and the RF models of leaves FT-MIR matrixes were better than those of rhizomes datasets. In addition, the model classification abilities of combination datasets were higher than the individual matrixes of rhizomes and leaves spectra. Our study provides a reference to the rational utilization of resources, as well as a fast and accurate identification research for P. yunnanensis samples.


Assuntos
Liliaceae/química , Melanthiaceae/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Rizoma/química , Análise Discriminante , Geografia , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Medicina Tradicional , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos
17.
Molecules ; 23(12)2018 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30544561

RESUMO

Semen Allii Fistulosi (PSAF) is the seed of Allium fistulosum L. of the Liliaceae family. The purpose of this study was to extract, characterize, and evaluate the antioxidant activity in vitro of proteins. Using single factor and orthogonal design, the optimum conditions of extraction were determined to be as follows: extraction time 150 min, pH 8.5, temperature 60 °C, and ratio (v/w, mL/g) of extraction solvent to raw material 35. The isoelectric point of the pH was determined to be about 4.4 and 10.2, by measuring the protein content of PSAF solutions at different pH values. The amino acid composition of PSAF was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the results suggested that the species of amino acids contained in the PSAF was complete. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS⁻PAGE) analysis showed the molecular weight was mainly between 40 and 55 kDa, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) characterized prevalent protein absorption peaks. PSAF exhibited potent scavenging activities against DPPH assays, via targeting of hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, while chelating Fe2+ activity and demonstrating weak reducing power. This work revealed that PSAF possessed potential antioxidant activity in vitro, suggesting potential for use of PSAF as a natural antioxidant.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Liliaceae/química , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Aminoácidos/análise , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Padrões de Referência , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Phytochemistry ; 156: 116-123, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30268044

RESUMO

Polyphyllins are the major steroidal saponin components of Paris polyphylla, the main source plant of the common Chinese herbal medicine Paridis Rhizoma with strong pharmacological activity and extremely high economic value and great market prospects. However, the production of polyphyllins in plants is limited, and their biosynthesis pathway has not been reported. The downstream hydroxylation step was particularly unclear. To clarify the enzymes and intermediates involved in the downstream steps of polyphyllin biosynthesis, we performed a comparative transcriptome analysis and discovered a cytochrome P450 gene that encodes a protein with monooxygenase activity. Heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae demonstrated that it encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol from cholesterol. The relative gene expression measured by RT-PCR and polyphyllin contents measured by HPLC in P. polyphylla roots at different ages confirmed that this gene is involved in polyphyllin biosynthesis. To our best knowledge, this is the first report on the cloning of a CYP450 enzyme gene from the steroidal saponin pathway of higher plants.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Liliaceae/química , Saponinas/biossíntese , Esteroides/biossíntese , Hidroxilação , Liliaceae/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Filogenia , Saponinas/química , Esteroides/química
19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 43(14): 2918-2927, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30111050

RESUMO

Gray mold disease is one of the most important diseases of planted Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis, the disease appeared primarily as blossom blights and fruit rots, but also as stem rots, leaf rots.In this study, the pathogenetic fungi was isolated from plant tissue or sclerotia that covering the fruit of diseased P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis, the pathogen was certified according to Koch's Postulation. The pathogen produced abundant black, irregular sclerotia on surface of diseased plants and potato dextrose agar. The conidiophores and clusters of oval conidia resembled a grape-like cluster, the size of conidia was 9.70-13.70 µm [average of (11.32±0.82)µm]×7.05-9.12 µm [average of (8.24±0.48)µm], the microconidia produced on potato dextrose agar were spherical,and the size was (3.34±0.31) µm,the pathogen was identified as Botrytis sp based on morphological characteristics. The DNA sequence analysis of the G3PDH, HSP60, RPB2 genes placed the pathogen in a single clade that outside defined species of Botrytis, so the pathogen could be identified as a new species of Botrytis. The pathogen requires 20 °C, pH 8, darkness or low light condition for the best growth.


Assuntos
Liliaceae , Melanthiaceae , Folhas de Planta
20.
Ann Bot ; 122(7): 1245-1262, 2018 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30084909

RESUMO

Background and Aims: The role played by the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) in the organismal diversification and biogeography of plants in the Northern Hemisphere has attracted much attention from evolutionary biologists. Here we use tribe Lilieae (Liliaceae), including primarily temperate and alpine lineages with disjunct distributions in the North Temperate Zone, as a case study to shed light upon these processes. Methods: Using 191 taxa (five outgroup taxa) comprising more than 60 % of extant Lilieae species across the entire geographical range, we analyse phylogenetic relationships based on three plastid markers (matK, rbcL, rpl16) and nuclear ITS. Divergence time estimation and ancestral range reconstruction were further inferred. Key Results: The results support a monophyletic Lilieae divided into four clades. Lilium is nested within Fritillaria, which is paraphyletic and partitioned into two clades, New World and Old World, in the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) analysis. Incongruences between the ITS and cpDNA trees may be explained by divergent ITS paralogues and hybridization. Lilieae originated around 40-49 (28-67) Mya and probably diversified in the QTP region with four major clades that were established during the Oligocene and the Early Miocene. Uplift of the QTP and climatic changes probably drove early diversification of Lilieae in the QTP region. A rapid radiation occurred during the Late Miocene and the Pleistocene, coinciding temporally with recent orogenic process in the QTP region and climatic oscillations. Several lineages dispersed out of the QTP. Conclusions: Lineage persistence and explosive radiation were important processes for establishing high species diversity of Lilieae in the QTP region. Both long-distance dispersal and migration across Beringia probably contributed to the modern distribution range of Lilieae. Our study shows that biotic interchanges between the QTP region and Irano-Turanian region and the Mediterranean Basin were bi-directional, suggesting the latter was a secondary centre of diversity.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Liliaceae/classificação , Liliaceae/fisiologia , Filogenia , Dispersão Vegetal , Evolução Biológica , DNA de Cloroplastos/análise , Liliaceae/genética , Filogeografia
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