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1.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(24): 30868-30874, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524408

RESUMO

Exposure to contaminants is one of the main threats to all living organisms. In this context, bats have been used to indicate environmental contaminants in urban and agricultural environments, since they are extremely sensitive to changes in the ecosystem and easily accumulate waste in their body tissues. Among bats, Sturnira lilium, is a frugivorous species widely distributed and abundant in Brazil that uses an extensive variety of habitats and shelters. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the oxidative state of S. lilium individuals in agricultural and urban areas in southern Brazil. Individuals were sampled in agricultural and urban areas from November 2017 to March 2018 through the mist-net method. Parameters of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzyme activity, non-protein thiols (NPSH), and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) were determined based on liver tissue. A total of 46 individuals were captured, 29 of them in urban areas and 17 in agricultural areas. We found that S. lilium individuals from agricultural areas showed a significant increase in TBARS, NPSH, and SOD activity, compared to individuals from urban areas. The activity of the antioxidant enzyme CAT did not differ. The present findings suggest that the species S. lilium, which are widely distributed and abundant in Brazil in urban and agricultural areas, can usefully be employed in biomonitoring programs. Further studies are to be encouraged to refine our knowledge on the potential DNA damage caused by environmental contamination, as well as identify potential contaminants to bats.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Lilium , Animais , Brasil , Ecossistema , Estresse Oxidativo
2.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 149: 96-110, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058898

RESUMO

NACs are one of the largest transcription factor families in plants and are involved in the response to abiotic stress. A new stress-responsive NAC transcription factor gene, LpNAC13, was isolated from Lilium pumilum bulbs. The expression of LpNAC13 was induced by drought, salt, cold and ABA treatments. LpNAC13 overexpressing plants were generated to explore the function of LpNAC13 in response to drought and salt stress. Overexpression of LpNAC13 in tobacco displayed a reduced drought tolerance but exhibited an enhanced salt tolerance. The LpNAC13 overexpression plants had decreased antioxidant enzyme activities, content of proline and chlorophyll, increased MDA content under drought condition, the results in the LpNAC13 plants under salt condition were opposite to those under drought condition. The seed germination and root length assays of overexpression of LpNAC13 showed decreased sensitivity to ABA. Functional analyses demonstrate that LpNAC13 plays opposite roles in drought and salt stress tolerance, acting as a negative regulator of drought response but as a positive regulator of salt response in tobacco.


Assuntos
Secas , Lilium , Estresse Fisiológico , Tabaco , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lilium/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Estresse Salino/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
3.
Phytochemistry ; 173: 112294, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058861

RESUMO

Lilies are a commercially significant cut flower worldwide due not only to their elegant shape but also to their appealing scent. Among Lilium varieties, Lilium 'Siberia' is a cultivar that is prominent and highly favored by consumers due to its snowy white color and strong floral scent. Here, two terpene synthase genes (LoTPS2 and LoTPS4) that are responsible for floral scent production in Lilium 'Siberia' were cloned and functionally characterized. Recombinant LoTPS2 specifically catalyzed the formation of (E, E)-α-farnesene from FPP. Recombinant LoTPS4 is a multiproduct enzyme that produces D-limonene and ß-myrcene as major volatile compounds and ß-phellandrene, (+)-4-carene and 3-carene as minor products from GPP. Furthermore, LoTPS4 generates trans-α-bergamotene as a major product and di-epi-α-cedrene, α-cubebene and (E)-ß-farnesene as minor compounds from FPP. Subcellular localization analysis using GFP fusion constructs revealed that LoTPS2 was localized in the cytosol, whereas LoTPS4 was localized in plastids. Real-time PCR analysis showed that LoTPS2 was highly expressed in the petals and sepals of the flower, while LoTPS4 was highly expressed in the filament of the flower. Moreover, mechanical wounding of flowers revealed that LoTPS2 showed a strong response to wounding via a rapid increase in its mRNA transcript level. Our results will assist scientists in exploring the molecular mechanisms of terpene biosynthesis in this species and will provide new insight into the biotechnological modification of the floral bouquet in Lilium.


Assuntos
Lilium , Clonagem Molecular , Flores , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Odorantes
4.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227921, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971962

RESUMO

Low temperature induces changes in plants at physiological and molecular levels, thus affecting growth and development. The Lanzhou lily (Lilium davidii, var. unicolor) is an important medicinal plant with high economic value. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its photosynthetic and antioxidation responses to low temperature still remain poorly understood. This study subjected the Lanzhou lily to the two temperatures of 20°C (control) and 4°C (low temperature) for 24 h. Physiological parameters related to membrane integrity, photosynthesis, antioxidant system, and differentially expressed genes were investigated. Compared with control, low temperature increased the relative electrical conductivity by 43.2%, while it decreased net photosynthesis rate, ratio of variable to maximal fluorescence, and catalase activity by 47.3%, 10.1%, and 11.1%, respectively. In addition, low temperature significantly increased the content of soluble protein, soluble sugar, and proline, as well as the activity of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase. Comparative transcriptome profiling showed that a total of 238,109 differentially expressed genes were detected. Among these, 3,566 were significantly upregulated while 2,982 were significantly downregulated in response to low temperature. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis indicated that in response to low temperature, the mostly significantly enriched differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in phosphorylation, membrane and protein kinase activity, as well as photosynthesis, light harvesting, light reaction, and alpha,alpha-trehalose-phosphate synthase activity. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analysis also indicated that the most significantly enriched pathways involved ribosome biogenesis in eukaryotes, phenylalanine metabolism, circadian rhythm, porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism, photosynthesis of antenna proteins, photosynthesis, and carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms. Moreover, the expression patterns of 10 randomly selected differentially expressed genes confirmed the RNA-Seq results. These results expand the understanding of the physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying the response of the Lanzhou lily to low temperature stress.


Assuntos
Lilium/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Plantas Medicinais/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Ontologia Genética , Lilium/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/genética , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Plantas Medicinais/fisiologia , RNA-Seq , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(21): 4581-4587, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872651

RESUMO

The biological characteristics,agronomic traits,yield traits,stress resistance,quality and photosynthetic characteristics among six lily varieties were compared in order to screen out the excellent lily varieties suitable for spread planting in Hunan province. Lilium longiflorum had the longest growth period,246 days,among these six lily varieties,while others were about 170 days. The leaves of L.longiflorum,self-selected variety,L. lancifolium and L. dauricum had higher chlorophyll content. No obvious difference was found in net photosynthetic rate,stomatal conductance,transpiration rate and intercellular CO2 concentration among all varieties. The self-selected variety had the highest theoretical and actual yield,2 543. 03,1 608. 65 kg per Mu(1 Mu≈666. 7 m2),respectively,but contents of polysaccharides and flavones in bulbs were lower. All of these six lily varieties can sowing,seedling emergence,growth,flowering,mature harvest in Hunan province. L. dauricum and L. lancifolium would be provided for edible lily. L. brownie and the self-selected variety are highly susceptible varieties. L. dauricum and L. lancifolium are suitable to plant widely in disease-prone regions,due to their strong resistance. L. brownie and L. lancifolium are preferred varieties for medicinal and food using for their good quality and higher contents of polysaccharides and flavones. L. davidii had lower theoretical and actual yield,so planting extension of it should be taken into account.


Assuntos
Lilium , Fotossíntese , Clorofila , Folhas de Planta , Raízes de Plantas
6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(22): 5007-5011, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872612

RESUMO

To clarify the species and preparation of " Baihe"( Lilii Bulbus),a traditional Chinese medicine,we investigated the relative ancient Chinese literature on this medicine. The study concluded that Lilium brownii var. viridulum is the authentic lily for medical use. In the Ben Cao Yan Yi and some medical books in the Ming and Qing Dynasties,L. lancifolium( Juandan) was also mistakenly used as genuine lily,but most doctors believe that this variety should not be used for medicinal purposes; L. pumilum( Shandan)began to be used as a medicine from Ri Hua Zi Ben Cao,but mainly for surgery,the effect is also different from L. brownii var. viridulum. We suggested Shandan be used as the species for another medicine as " Hong Bai He( red lily) " due to its red flower. All above three species recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia are not corresponded to the condition of ancient doctors' uses. Therefore,as for developing of traditional classical formula,L. brownii var. viridulum should be chosen and used as Baihe. The birth places for Baihe include Gansu,Hubei,Anhui and Shandong province. The drug preparations of Baihe include crude medicine,roasting and steaming,which preparation should be chosen depends on the formula which contains Baihe.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Lilium , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Livros , China , Raízes de Plantas
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(23)2019 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771269

RESUMO

The lily (Lilium spp.) anther contains a lot of pollen. It is not known if lily pollen contains allergens, and therefore screening pollen allergy-related proteins and genes is necessary. The pollen development period of lily 'Siberia' was determined by microscope observation. Early mononuclear microspores and mature pollens were used as sequencing materials. The analysis of the pollen transcriptome identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs), e.g., Profilin, Phl p 7 (Polcalcin), Ole e 1, and Phl p 11, which are associated with pollen allergens. The proteome analysis positively verified a significant increase in pollen allergenic protein content. The expression levels of LoProfiilin and LoPolcalcin, annotated as allergen proteins, gradually increased in mature pollen. LoProfiilin and LoPolcalcin were cloned and their open reading frame lengths were 396 bp and 246 bp, which encoded 131 and 81 amino acids, respectively. Amino acid sequence and structure alignment indicated that the protein sequences of LoProfilin and LoPolcalcin were highly conserved. Subcellular localization analysis showed that LoProfilin protein was localized in the cell cytoplasm and nucleus. LoProfilin and LoPolcalcin were highly expressed in mature pollen at the transcriptional and protein levels. A tertiary structure prediction analysis identified LoProfilin and LoPolcalcin as potential allergens in lily pollen.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/metabolismo , Lilium/metabolismo , Pólen/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Alérgenos/química , Alérgenos/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antígenos de Plantas/química , Antígenos de Plantas/genética , Antígenos de Plantas/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lilium/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pólen/genética , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Alinhamento de Sequência
8.
J Plant Physiol ; 243: 153050, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639533

RESUMO

The pollen tube is characterized by cytoplasm compartmentalization typical for cells with polar growth. This concept includes "ion zoning", i.e. gradient distribution of ionic currents across the plasma membrane and free inorganic ions in the cytoplasm. One of the putative mechanisms for maintaining "ion zoning" is indicated by the sensitivity of the ion transport systems to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we test the possibility of redox regulation of ionic gradients and membrane potential (MP) gradient in growing pollen tubes using quantitative fluorescence microscopy. ROS quencher MnTMPP and exogenic H2O2 cause different alterations of intracellular Ca2+ gradient, pH gradient and MP gradient during short-term exposure. MnTMPP significantly shifts the gradients of Ca2+ and MP at low concentrations while high concentration cause growth alterations (ballooned tips) and cytoplasm acidification. H2O2 at 0,5 and 1 mM affects ion homeostasis as well (MP, Ca2+, pH) but doesn't decrease viability or alter shape of the tubes. Here we present original quantitative data on the interconnection between ROS and ion transport during tip growth.


Assuntos
Homeostase/fisiologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Lilium/fisiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/administração & dosagem , Transporte de Íons/fisiologia , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Oxirredução , Tubo Polínico/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tubo Polínico/fisiologia
9.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 6869350, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428228

RESUMO

Our previous study has demonstrated the effects of aqueous extract of lily bulb in alleviating menopause-related psychiatric symptoms in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. This study sought to further investigate the psychotropic effects of total polysaccharides of lily bulb (TPLB) against anxiety, depression, and cognitive deterioration and the underlying mechanisms in OVX mice using behavioral, neurochemical, molecular, and proteomic approaches in comparison with estrogen therapy. While TPLB and estradiol showed similar effects in reducing OVX-induced anxiety, depression, and cognitive impairment, the psychotropic effects of TPLB were more closely associated with the predominant activation of estrogen receptors (ERs) and regulation of brain regional neurotransmitters and neurotrophins with minor effects on the uterus. Estradiol had similar potencies in binding affinity at ERα and ERß, which caused widespread genetic and epigenetic effects. In contrast, TPLB displayed a higher affinity at ERß than ERα, triggering the specific Ras/Akt/ERK/CREB signaling pathway without affecting any epigenetic activity. TPLB additionally modulated multiple proteins associated with mitochondrial oxidative stress, but estradiol did not. These results indicate that TPLB has comparable efficacy in reducing menopause-associated neuropsychological symptoms with a better safety profile compared to estrogen therapy. We suggest that TPLB could serve as a novel agent for menopause syndrome.


Assuntos
Lilium/metabolismo , Menopausa/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Ansiedade/induzido quimicamente , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Ansiedade/patologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Estradiol/metabolismo , Estradiol/farmacologia , Estradiol/uso terapêutico , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/química , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/química , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Feminino , Fulvestranto/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurotransmissores/análise , Ovariectomia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Útero/metabolismo
10.
Molecules ; 24(15)2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357567

RESUMO

A group of prenyltransferases catalyze chain elongation of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) to designated lengths via consecutive condensation reactions with specific numbers of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP). cis-Prenyltransferases, which catalyze cis-double bond formation during IPP condensation, usually synthesize long-chain products as lipid carriers to mediate peptidoglycan biosynthesis in prokaryotes and protein glycosylation in eukaryotes. Unlike only one or two cis-prenyltransferases in bacteria, yeast, and animals, plants have several cis-prenyltransferases and their functions are less understood. As reported here, a cis-prenyltransferase from Lilium longiflorum anther, named LLA66, was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and characterized to produce C40/C45 products without the capability to restore the growth defect from Rer2-deletion, although it was phylogenetically categorized as a long-chain enzyme. Our studies suggest that evolutional mutations may occur in the plant cis-prenyltransferase to convert it into a shorter-chain enzyme.


Assuntos
Lilium/química , Lilium/enzimologia , Transferases/química , Transferases/metabolismo , Lilium/classificação , Lilium/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Filogenia , Conformação Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Transferases/genética
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(13)2019 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261872

RESUMO

Most commercial cultivars of lily are sensitive to abiotic stresses. However, tiger lily (Lilium lancifolium L.), one of the most widely distributed wild lilies in Asia, has strong abiotic stresses resistance. Thus, it is indispensable to identify stress-responsive candidate genes in tiger lily for the stress resistance improvement of plants. In this study, a MYB related homolog (LlMYB3) from tiger lily was functionally characterized as a positive regulator in plant stress tolerance. LlMYB3 is a nuclear protein with transcriptional activation activity at C-terminus. The expression of LlMYB3 gene was induced by multiple stress treatments. Several stress-related cis-acting regulatory elements (MYBRS, MYCRS, LTRE and DRE/CRT) were located within the promoter of LlMYB3; however, the promoter activity was not induced sufficiently by various stresses treatments. Overexpressing LlMYB3 in Arabidopsis thaliana L. transgenic plants showed ABA hypersensitivity and enhanced tolerance to cold, drought, and salt stresses. Furthermore, we found LlMYB3 highly co-expressed with LlCHS2 gene under cold treatment; yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) assays demonstrated LlMYB3 was able to bind to the promoter of LlCHS2. These findings suggest that the stress-responsive LlMYB3 may be involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway to regulate stress tolerance of tiger lily.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Arabidopsis/genética , Resposta ao Choque Frio , Lilium/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Salino , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Antocianinas/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Pressão Osmótica , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ligação Proteica , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(13)2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262062

RESUMO

Our previous studies have indicated that a partial NAC domain protein gene is strongly up-regulated by cold stress (4 °C) in tiger lily (Lilium lancifolium). In this study, we cloned the full-length of this NAC gene, LlNAC2, to further investigate the function of LlNAC2 in response to various abiotic stresses and the possible involvement in stress tolerance of the tiger lily plant. LlNAC2 was noticeably induced by cold, drought, salt stresses, and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Promoter analysis showed that various stress-related cis-acting regulatory elements were located in the promoter of LlNAC2; and the promoter was sufficient to enhance activity of GUS protein under cold, salt stresses and ABA treatment. DREB1 (dehydration-responsive binding protein1) from tiger lily (LlDREB1) was proved to be able to bind to the promoter of LlNAC2 by yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) assay. LlNAC2 was shown to physically interact with LlDREB1 and zinc finger-homeodomain ZFHD4 from the tiger lily (LlZFHD4) by bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay. Overexpressing LlNAC2 in Arabidopsis thaliana showed ABA hypersensitivity and enhanced tolerance to cold, drought, and salt stresses. These findings indicated LlNAC2 is involved in both DREB/CBF-COR and ABA signaling pathways to regulate stress tolerance of the tiger lily.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Frio , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lilium/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Salino , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ativação Transcricional , Lilium/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
13.
J Mol Neurosci ; 69(3): 371-379, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290092

RESUMO

Inhibition of monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A/B can ameliorate depressive- and anxiety-related symptoms via increase of monoamine extracellular levels. However, such inhibition can also instigate hypertensive response following exposure to dietary tyramine (i.e., "the cheese effect"). Novel herbal treatment (NHT) is an herbal formula that has been demonstrated to reduce depressive- and anxiety-like symptoms in pre-clinical studies. The aim of the current study was to examine whether the therapeutic potential of NHT is underlain by inhibition of MAO-A/B and whether NHT poses a risk for tyramine hyper-potentiation. Unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS)-exposed mice and naïve mice were treated for 3 weeks with NHT (30 mg/kg; i.p.), the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) escitalopram (15 mg/kg; i.p.), or saline. Subsequently, MAO-A/B activities in the hypothalamus, striatum, and prefrontal cortex (PFC) were assessed. Exposure to UCMS led to significant increases in both MAO-A and MAO-B activities in the hypothalamus (p < 0.001) and in the PFC (p < 0.01 for MAO-A; p < 0.001 for MAO-B). Neither NHT nor escitalopram had any notable effects. Treatment with NHT was supported as safe in terms of risk for inducing a hypertensive response. The antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects of NHT are mediated via pathways other than MAO-A/B inhibition.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Corpo Estriado/efeitos dos fármacos , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Monoaminoxidase/análise , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/análise , Fitoterapia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ansiolíticos/farmacologia , Ansiolíticos/uso terapêutico , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Citalopram/uso terapêutico , Corpo Estriado/enzimologia , Crataegus , Depressão/etiologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Hipotálamo/enzimologia , Lilium , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Monoaminoxidase/biossíntese , Córtex Pré-Frontal/enzimologia , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Triticum , Tiramina/metabolismo , Ziziphus
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(11)2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The LA hybrid lily 'Aladdin' has both excellent traits of Longiflorum hybrids and Asiatic hybrids-such as big and vivid flower, strong stem, high self-propagation coefficient, and shorter low temperature time required to release bulb dormancy in contrast to Oriental hybrids. A genome-wide transcriptional analysis using transcriptome RNA-Seq was performed in order to explore whether there is a gibberellin floral induction pathway in the LA hybrid lily. Subsequently, gene co-expression network analysis was used to analyze the possible interactions of key candidate genes screened from transcriptome data. At the same time, a series of physiological, biochemical, and cultivation tests were carried out. RESULTS: The content of five endogenous hormones changed sharply in the shoot apex during the treatment of 200 mg/L exogenous gibberellin and the ratio of ABA/GA3 dropped and stayed at a lower level after 4 hours' treatment from the higher levels initially, reaching a dynamic balance. In addition, the metabolism of carbohydrates in the bulbs increase during exogenous gibberellin treatment. A total of 124,041 unigenes were obtained by RNA-seq. With the transcriptome analysis, 48,927 unigenes and 48,725 unigenes respectively aligned to the NR database and the Uniprot database. 114,138 unigenes, 25,369 unigenes, and 19,704 unigenes respectively aligned to the COG, GO, and KEGG databases. 2148 differentially expression genes (DEGs) were selected with the indicators RPKM ≥ 0, FDR ≤ 0.05 and |log2(ratio)| ≥ 2. The number of the upregulated unigenes was significantly more than the number of the downregulated unigenes. Some MADS-box genes related to flowering transformation-such as AGL20, SOC1, and CO-were found to be upregulated. A large number of gibberellin biosynthesis related genes such as GA2ox, GA3ox, GA20ox, Cytochrome P450, CYP81, and gibberellin signal transduction genes such as DELLA, GASA, and GID1 were significantly differentially expressed. The plant hormones related genes such as NCED3 and sugar metabolism related genes such as α-amylase, sucrose synthase hexokinase, and so on were also found expressing differentially. In addition, stress resistance related genes such as LEA1, LEA2, LEA4, serine/threonine protein kinase, LRR receptor-like serine/threonine protein kinase, P34 kinase, histidine kinase 3 and epigenetic related genes in DNA methylation, histone methylation, acetylation, ubiquitination of ribose were also found. Particularly, a large number of transcription factors responsive to the exogenous gibberellin signal including WRKY40, WRKY33, WRKY27, WRKY21, WRKY7, MYB, AP2/EREBP, bHLH, NAC1, NAC2, and NAC11 were found to be specially expressing. 30 gene sequences were selected from a large number of differentially expressed candidate genes for qRT-PCR expression verification (0, 2, 4, 8, and 16 h) and compared with the transcriptome expression levels. CONCLUSIONS: 200mg/L exogenous GA3 can successfully break the bulb's dormancy of the LA hybrid lily and significantly accelerated the flowering process, indicating that gibberellin floral induction pathway is present in the LA lily 'Aladdin'. With the GCNs analysis, two second messenger G protein-coupled receptor related genes that respond to gibberellin signals in the cell were discovered. The downstream transport proteins such as AMT, calcium transport ATPase, and plasma membrane ATPase were also discovered participating in GA signal transduction. Transcription factors including WRKY7, NAC2, NAC11, and CBF specially regulated phosphorylation and glycosylation during the ubiquitination degradation process of DELLA proteins. These transcription factors also activated in abscisic acid metabolism. A large number of transcription factors such as WRKY21, WRKY22, NAC1, AP2, EREB1, P450, and CYP81 that both regulate gibberellin signaling and low-temperature signals have also been found. Finally, the molecular mechanism of GA floral induction pathway in the LA hybrid lily 'Aladdin' was constructed.


Assuntos
Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Lilium/genética , Lilium/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
15.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 117: 109114, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lily bulb is often used as a dietary supplement for menopause. This study was aimed to investigate the ameliorative effects of aqueous extract of lily bulb (AELB) on the menopause-associated psychiatric disorders and the underlying mechanisms in comparison with estrogen therapy. METHODS: Ovariectomized (OVX) mice were treated with 1.8 g/kg AELB or 0.3 mg/kg estradiol for 5 weeks. Animals were tested in multiple behavioral paradigms. Serum, uterus, and brain tissues were collected for the measurement of neurotransmitters and their related biomarkers, neurotrophins, and estrogen receptor α (ERα) and ß (ERß). RESULTS: AELB and estradiol had similar anxiolytic, antidepressant, and cognition-improving effects. While estradiol limited OVX-induced weight gains and prevented uterine shrinkage and the drop of serum estrogen level, AELB had minor and even no effects on these indices. AELB, but not estradiol, reversed OVX-induced decreases in the expression levels of hippocampal nerve growth factor (NGF) and prefrontal glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). In addition to hypothalamic and prefrontal ERα, AELB enhanced uterine and brain regional ERß expression levels without affecting uterine ERα, NGF, and GDNF. Conversely, estradiol completely restored the expression levels of estrogen receptors and neurotrophins in uterus. CONCLUSIONS: While AELB is comparable to estradiol in alleviating menopause-like behavior, it has distinct brain-uterus mechanisms in association with the predominant protection of catecholamine synthesis, neurotrophins, and ERß receptors in brain, but with minor effects on uterus. AELB and its constituents may be novel treatments for menopause.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Estrogênios/uso terapêutico , Lilium/química , Menopausa/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovariectomia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Útero/fisiologia , Animais , Ansiedade/complicações , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição , Depressão/complicações , Dopamina/metabolismo , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Menopausa/sangue , Metaboloma , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Serotonina/metabolismo , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Água
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(12)2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207994

RESUMO

Lilium spp. is a bulb flower with worldwide distribution and unique underground organs. The lack of an efficient genetic transformation system for Lilium has been an international obstacle. Because existing model plants lack bulbs, bulb-related gene function verification studies cannot be carried out in model plants. Here, two stable and efficient genetic transformation systems based on somatic embryogenesis and adventitious bud regeneration were established in two Lilium species. Transgenic plants and T-DNA insertion lines were confirmed by ß-glucuronidase (GUS) assay, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot. After condition optimization, transformation efficiencies were increased to 29.17% and 4% in Lilium pumilum DC. Fisch. and the Lilium longiflorum 'White Heaven', respectively. To further verify the validity of these transformation systems and apply the CRISPR/Cas9 (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein 9) technology in Lilium, the LpPDS gene in the two Lilium species was knocked out. Completely albino, pale yellow and albino-green chimeric mutants were observed. Sequence analysis in the transgenic lines revealed various mutation patterns, including base insertion, deletion and substitution. These results verified the feasibility and high efficiency of both transformation systems and the successful application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system to gene editing in Lilium for the first time. Overall, this study lays an important foundation for gene function research and germplasm improvement in Lilium spp.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Edição de Genes/métodos , Lilium/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Transformação Genética
17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 135: 1208-1216, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176857

RESUMO

A polysaccharide (LPR) was separated from the roots of Lilium davidii var. unicolor Cotton with hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation, and purification by anion-exchange and gel-permeation chromatography. LPR was characterized. The weight-average molecular weight (MW) of LPR was 5.12 × 104 g/moL. Glucose and mannose comprised LPR with a molar ratio of 2.9:3.3. IR, NMR and methylation analysis showed that LPR was a natural O-acetyl glucomannan, the backbone mainly contained ß-(1 → 4)-linked d-glucopyranosyl and ß-(1 → 4)-linked D-mannopyanosyl, and the branches probably linked at O-2 and/or O-3 of the mannosyl and glucosyl residues. The acetyl groups mainly attached at O-2 or O-3 of mannosyl residues. X-ray diffractometric (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed that LPR was a semi-crystalline substance with porous lamellar structure. Bioassays in vitro indicated that LPR had distinct scavenging activities on hydroxyl radical and DPPH radical. These findings provided a reference for functional underutilization roots of L. davidii as natural antioxidant in food and pharmaceutical industry.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Lilium/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Fenômenos Químicos , Metilação , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Termogravimetria
18.
Carbohydr Res ; 481: 36-42, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228655

RESUMO

Lilium Asiatic hybrids (Lilium spp.) are produced by interspecific crosses of Sinomartagon species belonging to Liliaceae. To date, no phytochemical work appears to have been conducted on Lilium Asiatic hybrids. In the current work, solvent extraction, solvent fractionation, and repeated SiO2 and ODS column chromatography yielded three new steroidal saponins along with a known one, avenacoside A (1). The chemical structures of the new saponins were determined based on extensive spectroscopic methods as well as chemical and biological reactions to be 26-O-ß-D-glucopyranosylnuatigenin 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-O-[(4-O-methyl)-ß-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-ß-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)]-ß-d-glucopyranoside (2), 26-O-ß-D-glucopyranosylnuatigenin 3-O-ß-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-(6-acetoxyl)-ß-d-glucopyranoside (3), and 26-O-ß-D-glucopyranosylnuatigenin 3-O-ß-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-O-[ß-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)]-ß-d-glucopyranoside (4), named lilyasiasides A-C, respectively. The aglycone of the saponins, a nuatigenin, is an atypical spirostanol sapogenin possessing a pentacyclic F-ring, furospirostane steroid, which is very rarely occurred in Lilium species.


Assuntos
Flores/química , Lilium/química , Saponinas/química , Espirostanos/química
19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 135: 422-428, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128191

RESUMO

The white garland-lily rhizomes represent a potential source for starch extraction. Thus, the present study aimed to contribute with new data about the starch extraction yield and to characterize the chemical-structural, thermal and technological properties of the white garland-lily starch. The rhizomes harvested in the dry season presented greater starch yields (22.0 g 100 g-1) than in the early summer (6.9 ±â€¯0.5 g 100 g-1) (d.b). The starch presented adequate purity (97.67 g 100 g-1), the granules were flat, with the thickness varying from 2 to 6 µm and length between 12 and 38 µm, and they showed no birefringence. They presented an amylose content of 59.16 g 100 g-1, crystallinity of 19.30% and type B starch. The C13 CP/MAS spectrum presented an amorphous pattern although indicating a transition to type V. This was a product with moderate swelling power and a high gelatinization peak temperature (76.78 °C). The extraction of white garland-lily starch is feasible in the dry season when it has chemical-structural, thermal and technological properties suitable for use in the food industry, related to its high amorphous starch content.


Assuntos
Lilium/química , Amido/química , Amido/isolamento & purificação , Solubilidade , Temperatura , Água/química
20.
Genes Genomics ; 41(8): 941-950, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: B chromosomes are supernumerary chromosomes found in numerous plant species, including in the genus Lilium. Lilium amabile, an endemic Korean Lilium species, carries B chromosomes which are highly variable in terms of numbers and shape among the accessions collected throughout the Korea. Class 1 retrotransposons are highly abundant in the genome of Lilium species, but their biological functions are still obscure. Lilium species were known to hold high diversities derived from retrotransposons. OBJECTIVE: In this study, genetic diversities among the L. amabile accessions were analyzed to better understand relationships between genetic variations and cytological diversities. METHODS: Chromosomes were prepared from 95 L. amabile accessions for cytological identification. Genetic variations were analyzed by inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP), and genetic differentiation was evaluated via Tajima's D neutrality and FST analyses. Population structure and phylogenetic analyses were also carried out. RESULTS: The L. amabile accessions were classified into 11 cytotypes by the chromosome constitutions. Genetic diversity measured by IRAP analysis revealed high genetic diversity among the accessions. In the joint analysis of cytological variation with genetical variation, IRAP diversity was not related to the cytological diversities of diploid and aneuploids among L. amabile accessions, and genetic differentiation was not obvious. Moreover, the geographical distribution of L. amabile was not related to either IRAP diversity or cytological diversity. CONCLUSION: The B chromosome-carrying aneuploids occurred randomly among diploids throughout Korea, and IRAP diversification predated L. amabile dispersion in Korea without genetic differentiation.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Lilium/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Retroelementos , Sequências Repetidas Terminais , Aneuploidia , Diploide
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