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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795408

RESUMO

Vertical partially saturated (VPS) constructed wetlands (CWs) are a novel wastewater treatment system for which little information is known about its design parameters and performance under tropical climates. The objective of this study is to evaluate the nitrogen removal process from domestic wastewater and the production of tropical ornamental plants (Canna hybrids and Zantedeschia aethiopica) in VPS CWs at a mesocosms scale. Nine VPS CWs, with a free-flow zone of 16 cm and a saturated zone of 16 cm, were used as experimental units. Three units were planted with Canna hybrids., and three, with Zantedeschia aethiopica (one plant per unit); the remaining three units were established as controls without vegetation. They were fed with domestic wastewater intermittently and evaluated for the elimination of COD, N-NH4, N-NO3, Norg, NT, and PT. The results showed an increase in the removal for some pollutants in the vegetated systems, i.e., N-NH4 (35%), Norg (16%), TN (25%), and TP (47%) in comparison to the unvegetated systems. While N-NO3 removal showed better removal in 10% of the systems without vegetation, no significant differences were found (p > 0.05) for COD removal. The aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the VPS CWs favor the elimination of pollutants in the systems, and also the development of the tropical species evaluated in this study; good development was exhibited by a high growth rate and biomass production.


Assuntos
Desnitrificação , Nitrogênio/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Áreas Alagadas , Biomassa , Clima Tropical , Zantedeschia/metabolismo , Zingiberales/metabolismo
2.
Microb Pathog ; 137: 103768, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585154

RESUMO

Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus are the most common opportunistic pathogens that co-exist as mixed biofilms. Dual-species biofilms of C. albicans and S. aureus cause nosocomial medical device-related infections that are strongly resistant to antibiotics and host immune responses compared with mono-species biofilms. The purpose of this study was to describe the efficacy of zerumbone derived from Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith, on dual-species biofilm formation. This study examined the inhibitory effects of zerumbone on planktonic cell growth, adhesion and biofilm formation. The results demonstrated that zerumbone remarkably inhibited mono- and dual-species biofilms formed by C. albicans and S. aureus using the XTT [2,3-bis(2-smethoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfo-phenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide]-reduction assay. Furthermore, a significant decrease in biomass and cell density of dual-species biofilms following zerumbone treatment was confirmed using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Therefore, our study suggests that zerumbone is a potential antimicrobial and antibiofilm agent indicated for the therapeutic management of nosocomial medical device-related infections induced by dual-species biofilms of C. albicans and S. aureus.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Zingiberales/química , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida albicans/fisiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 185: 109692, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585391

RESUMO

Canna indica L. is a promising species for heavy metal phytoremediation due to its fast growth rate and large biomass. However, few studies have investigated cadmium (Cd) tolerance mechanisms. In the present study, Canna plants were cultivated under hydroponic conditions with increasing Cd concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15 mg/L). We found that the plants performed well under 5 mg/L Cd2+ stress, but damage was observed under higher Cd exposure, such as leaf chlorosis, growth inhibition, a decreased chlorophyll content, and destruction of the ultrastructure of leaf cells. Additionally, Canna alleviated Cd toxicity to a certain extent. After Canna was exposed to 5, 10 and 15 mg/L Cd2+ for 45 d, the highest Cd concentration was exhibited in roots, which was almost 17-47 times the Cd concentration in leaves and 8-20 times that in stems. At the subcellular level, cellular debris and heat-stable proteins (HSPs) were the main binding sites for Cd, and the proportion of Cd in the two subcellular fractions accounted for 71.4-94.2% of the total Cd. Furthermore, we found that granules could participate in the detoxification process when Cd stress was enhanced. Our results indicated that Canna indica L. can tolerate Cd toxicity by sequestering heavy metals in root tissues, fencing out by cell wall, and binding with biologically detoxified fractions (granules and HSPs).


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Frações Subcelulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Zingiberales/efeitos dos fármacos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Cádmio/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Inativação Metabólica , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/ultraestrutura , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/ultraestrutura , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Frações Subcelulares/metabolismo , Frações Subcelulares/ultraestrutura , Zingiberales/metabolismo , Zingiberales/ultraestrutura
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(22): 23082-23094, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187376

RESUMO

Layered combined bio-ceramic, zeolite, and anthracite were used as substrates in vertical-flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) for enhancing contaminant removal from synthetic municipal wastewater. Plant growth and propagation and the removal of organic matter, nitrogen, and phosphorus as well as its spatiotemporal variation were evaluated systematically. The results demonstrated that three different substrates were adequate for the establishment of Canna indica L., especially for zeolite. All small-scale VFCW units were simultaneous efficient in removing CODCr (73.9-78.7%), NH4+-N (83.8-89.9%), TN (88.3-91.5%), SRP (93.8-98.6%), and TP (87.1-90.9%) with a little significant difference on treatment performance. Different pollution removal processes followed a different trend because of their different removal mechanisms driven by the synergy of substrate, plant, and microorganism. Purification space moved down due to the adsorption capacity consumption of upper layer substrate over time. It was concluded that VFCWs filled with layered combined bio-ceramic, zeolite, and anthracite had great potential for treating municipal wastewater.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/química , Zeolitas/química , Carvão Mineral , Nitrogênio/química , Fósforo/química , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Áreas Alagadas , Zingiberales
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31134841

RESUMO

The current paper investigates the development of two ornamental plants, canna lily (Canna x generalis) and giant horsetail (Equisetum giganteum), at both bench and pilot scale. Combinations of gravel-filled mesocosm, planted and unplanted (control), irrigated with light greywater (GWL) or tap water (WT), were used. Both species were able to grow under the tested conditions with no indication of toxicity that could affect the development. Irrigation with GWL, resulted in higher evapotranspiration (2.2 mm-2.8 mm) in canna lily than giant horsetail (1.7 mm-2.3 mm) in mesocosm system. When the plants were mature and the season was more humid and warmer, canna lily and giant horsetail irrigated with GWL evapotranspirated 69.23% and 30.77%, respectively as compared to the unplanted GWL-irrigated-mesocosm. Principal components and cluster analysis identified similarity between evapotranspiration (ET) and the characteristics of the plants. Both species can thus be used in constructed wetlands taking into consideration elements such as the space available, level of water and solar incidence so as to allow the full development of the plants. The roots of giant horsetail require high water availability. Low solar incidence is indicated for giant horsetail, and the opposite for canna lily, if flowering is desired.


Assuntos
Equisetum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Águas Residuárias , Áreas Alagadas , Zingiberales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biodegradação Ambiental , Umidade , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/fisiologia , Transpiração Vegetal/fisiologia , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes da Água/análise , Poluentes da Água/metabolismo , Purificação da Água/métodos
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(21): 21340-21350, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119548

RESUMO

Today, environmental pollution, especially heavy metal pollution, is known as a new and possibly more dangerous pollutant than other environmental ones. For this purpose, the uptake of four aquatic plants in different environments was chosen. In this experiment, four macrophytes, i.e., umbrella palm (Cyperus alternifolius), duckweed (Lemna minor), water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), and canna (Canna × generalis), were studied in five contaminated aquatic environments, i.e., Gohar Rood river, Zarjoob river, Eynak lagoon, Anzali lagoon, and control solution (containing Cd, Cr, Pb, and Zn). The results showed that the highest uptake rates of cadmium, cobalt, vanadium, chromium, zinc, nickel, and lead were observed for duckweed fronds. The highest bioconcentration factor (BCF) of nickel was related to duckweed stem and water hyacinth root, and the highest BCF of cadmium belonged to duckweed fronds and canna root. The highest rate of uptake of cadmium, chromium, zinc, and lead was related to control. The least amount of uptake of several metals by plants was obtained from the water of Gohar Rood and Zarjoob. Generally, based on the results of this study, it can be stated that duckweed is suitable for the uptake of most heavy metals.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Araceae/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio , Cromo/análise , Cyperus/metabolismo , Eichhornia/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/análise , Níquel , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Zinco , Zingiberales
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30841572

RESUMO

Wetland plants that cover the wetlands play an important role in reducing pollutants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two plant species on microbial communities and nitrogen-removal genes and to evaluate the contributions of absorbing pollutants by Canna indica (CI) and Cyperus alternifolius (CA) to the removal performance in both a vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland and a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland, which were part of a full-scale hybrid constructed wetland system. The microbial assemblages were determined using 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing. Results showed that the presence of CI and CA positively affected microbial abundance and community in general and which was positive for the total bacteria and ammonia nitrogen removal in the CWs. The higher abundance of Nitrospirae appeared in the non-rhizosphere sediment (NRS) than that in the rhizosphere sediment (RS). More denitrification genes were found in NRS than in RS. The copy numbers of narG, nirS and nosZ genes for CA were higher than those for CI. Wetland plant species can significantly (P < 0.05) affect the distribution of microbial communities in RS. Plant selection is important to promote the development of microbial communities with a more active and diverse catabolic capability and the contribution of plant absorption to the overall removal rate of wetland system can be neglected.


Assuntos
Cyperus/química , Microbiota , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes da Água/química , Áreas Alagadas , Zingiberales/química , Amônia/química , Amônia/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/química , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Rizosfera , Poluentes da Água/metabolismo
8.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(2): 761-767, 2019 Feb 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30628341

RESUMO

For the problem that few technologies can be directly used to treat wastewater with middle and low salt, in this study, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi were used to enhance the tolerance of wetland plants to salt stress. Ecological floating beds (EFBs) enhanced with AM fungi were constructed to explore a new technology as well as to treat wastewater with low and medium salt content, but also to overcome the low tolerance to salt stress and low salt removal by EFB plants. Results showed that canna plants (Canna indica L.) were well colonized by AM fungi (Glomus etunicatum) and the mycorrhizal colonization rate was not affected by salt stress. Inoculation with AM fungi enhanced the ability of the EFBs to treat saline wastewater. After treatment by EFB with AM for 21 d, removal rates of total dissolved solids (TDS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) were 36.1%, 74.4%, 57.6%, and 59.1%, respectively, which were higher by 79.2%, 36.4%, 32.7%, and 37.6% over those with treatment by EFB without AM, respectively. Removal rates of Na, K, Ca, and Mg were 34.4%, 61.3%, 57.4%, and 51.9% after 21 d of treatment by EFB with AM, which were higher by 11.4%, 37.1%, 18.3%, and 24.6%, respectively, than removal rates with treatment by EFB without AM, respectively. Plant sample analysis showed that AM increased the Na uptake of plants and Na transportation from root to shoot, and this may be the reason that AM enhanced the ability of the EFBs to treat saline wastewater. This study indicated that AM fungi can be used to improve the ability of EFB to remedy water pollution and increase salt removal efficiency.


Assuntos
Indústria Química , Carvão Mineral , Micorrizas , Águas Residuárias , Purificação da Água/métodos , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Salinidade , Zingiberales/microbiologia
9.
Food Chem ; 271: 62-69, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30236724

RESUMO

The lignin isolated from C. edulis ker residues showed a significant activating effect on α-amylase. Further studies revealed that the isolated lignin formed a 1:1 complex with α-amylase through hydrogen bonding and quenched fluorescence of α-amylase with a static quenching procedure. Binding with lignin led to conformational and granular size changes of α-amylase. Two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser spectroscopy (2D-NOESY) spectra suggested that OH in G units and ß-O-4 structure were the major binding sites of lignin on the α-amylase molecule. Molecular docking studies indicated that the binding residue on α-amylase for lignin was not the same as for chloride ions, and the major binding force was hydrogen bonding. Furthermore, the docking results also showed the structural change of lignin induced by α-amylase. Thus, this work provided a new insight into the interaction between lignin from Canna edulis ker residues and α-amylase, which may be beneficial to apply lignin in the food industry.


Assuntos
Lignina/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular/métodos , Zingiberales/química , Zingiberales/enzimologia , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Cinética
10.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 102(1): 115-121, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30483838

RESUMO

Cyperus alternifolius (C. alternifolius) and Canna generalis (C. generalis) are widely used as artificial floating-bed (AFB) plants for water pollution control. This study evaluated the release of anti-cyanobacterial allelochemicals from both plants in AFB systems. A series of cyanobacterial assays using pure culture solutions and extracts of culture solutions of C. alternifolius and C. generalis demonstrated allelopathic growth inhibition of a cyanobacterium M. aeruginosa. After 45 days of incubation by the culture solutions, both final inhibitory rates of M. aeruginosa were more than 99.6% compared with that of the control groups. GC/MS analyses indicated the presence of a total of 15 kinds of compounds, including fatty acids and phenolic compounds, in both plants' culture solutions, which are are anti-cyanobacterial. These findings provide a basis to apply artificial floating-bed plants for cyanobacterial inhibition using allelopathic effects.


Assuntos
Alelopatia , Microcystis/efeitos dos fármacos , Feromônios/análise , Cyperus/química , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Zingiberales/química
11.
Am J Bot ; 105(11): 1888-1910, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30368769

RESUMO

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: We present the first plastome phylogeny encompassing all 77 monocot families, estimate branch support, and infer monocot-wide divergence times and rates of species diversification. METHODS: We conducted maximum likelihood analyses of phylogeny and BAMM studies of diversification rates based on 77 plastid genes across 545 monocots and 22 outgroups. We quantified how branch support and ascertainment vary with gene number, branch length, and branch depth. KEY RESULTS: Phylogenomic analyses shift the placement of 16 families in relation to earlier studies based on four plastid genes, add seven families, date the divergence between monocots and eudicots+Ceratophyllum at 136 Mya, successfully place all mycoheterotrophic taxa examined, and support recognizing Taccaceae and Thismiaceae as separate families and Arecales and Dasypogonales as separate orders. Only 45% of interfamilial divergences occurred after the Cretaceous. Net species diversification underwent four large-scale accelerations in PACMAD-BOP Poaceae, Asparagales sister to Doryanthaceae, Orchidoideae-Epidendroideae, and Araceae sister to Lemnoideae, each associated with specific ecological/morphological shifts. Branch ascertainment and support across monocots increase with gene number and branch length, and decrease with relative branch depth. Analysis of entire plastomes in Zingiberales quantifies the importance of non-coding regions in identifying and supporting short, deep branches. CONCLUSIONS: We provide the first resolved, well-supported monocot phylogeny and timeline spanning all families, and quantify the significant contribution of plastome-scale data to resolving short, deep branches. We outline a new functional model for the evolution of monocots and their diagnostic morphological traits from submersed aquatic ancestors, supported by convergent evolution of many of these traits in aquatic Hydatellaceae (Nymphaeales).


Assuntos
Especiação Genética , Genomas de Plastídeos , Magnoliopsida/genética , Filogenia , DNA Intergênico , Zingiberales/genética
12.
Virol J ; 15(1): 147, 2018 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30249287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) is the prevalent virus inducing maize dwarf mosaic and sugarcane mosaic diseases in China. According to the phylogenetic results of the complete genomic and coat protein gene sequences, SCMV was divided into four or five molecular groups, respectively. Previously, we detected SCMV isolates of group SO from Canna spp. in Ji'nan, Shandong province, China. FINDINGS: In this study, we collected two SCMV isolates infecting Canna spp. in Ji'nan (Canna-Ji'nan) and Tai'an (Canna-Tai'an) of Shandong, China. Their complete genome sequences had genome of 9576 nucleotides and contained a large open reading frame encoding a polyprotein of 3063 amino acids. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the both Canna-Ji'nan and Canna-Tai'an were clustered into an independent group based on the complete genome sequence. CONCLUSION: In this study, we report the complete genome sequences of SCMV infecting Canna spp. from Ji'nan and Tai'an. This is the first report on SCMV belonging to SO group.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral , Potyvirus/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Zingiberales/virologia , China , Análise por Conglomerados , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Poliproteínas/genética , Potyvirus/classificação , Potyvirus/isolamento & purificação , Homologia de Sequência , Proteínas Virais/genética
13.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 128: 55-68, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30063997

RESUMO

Many cases of rapid evolutionary radiations in plant and animal lineages are known; however phylogenetic relationships among these lineages have been difficult to resolve by systematists. Increasing amounts of genomic data have been sequentially applied in an attempt to resolve these radiations, dissecting their evolutionary patterns into a series of bifurcating events. Here we explore one such rapid radiation in the tropical plant order Zingiberales (the bananas and relatives) which includes eight families, approximately 110 genera, and more than 2600 species. One clade, the "Ginger families", including (Costaceae + Zingiberaceae) (Marantaceae + Cannaceae), has been well-resolved and well-supported in all previous studies. However, well-supported reconstructions among the "Banana families" (Musaceae, Heliconiaceae, Lowiaceae, Strelitziaceae), which most likely diverged about 90 Mya, have been difficult to confirm. Supported with anatomical, morphological, single locus, and genome-wide data, nearly every possible phylogenetic placement has been proposed for these families. In an attempt to resolve this complex evolutionary event, hybridization-based target enrichment was used to obtain sequences from up to 378 putatively orthologous low-copy nuclear genes (all ≥ 960 bp). Individual gene trees recovered multiple topologies among the early divergent lineages, with varying levels of support for these relationships. One topology of the "Banana families" (Musaceae (Heliconiaceae (Lowiaceae + Strelitziaceae))), which has not been suggested until now, was almost consistently recovered in all multilocus analyses of the nuclear dataset (concatenated - ExaML, coalescent - ASTRAL and ASTRID, supertree - MRL, and Bayesian concordance - BUCKy). Nevertheless, the multiple topologies recovered among these lineages suggest that even large amounts of genomic data might not be able to fully resolve relationships at this phylogenetic depth. This lack of well-supported resolution could suggest methodological problems (i.e., violation of model assumptions in both concatenated and coalescent analyses) or more likely reflect an evolutionary history shaped by an explosive, rapid, and nearly simultaneous polychotomous radiation in this group of plants towards the end of the Cretaceous, perhaps driven by vertebrate pollinator selection.


Assuntos
Genômica , Filogenia , Clima Tropical , Zingiberales/classificação , Zingiberales/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Núcleo Celular/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética
14.
Am J Bot ; 105(8): 1389-1400, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30071130

RESUMO

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Inclusion of fossils in phylogenetic analyses is necessary in order to construct a comprehensive "tree of death" and elucidate evolutionary history of taxa; however, such incorporation of fossils in phylogenetic reconstruction is dependent on the availability and interpretation of extensive morphological data. Here, the Zingiberales, whose familial relationships have been difficult to resolve with high support, are used as a case study to illustrate the importance of including fossil taxa in systematic studies. METHODS: Eight fossil taxa and 43 extant Zingiberales were coded for 39 morphological seed characters, and these data were concatenated with previously published molecular sequence data for analysis in the program MrBayes. KEY RESULTS: Ensete oregonense is confirmed to be part of Musaceae, and the other seven fossils group with Zingiberaceae. There is strong support for Spirematospermum friedrichii, Spirematospermum sp. 'Goth', S. wetzleri, and Striatornata sanantoniensis in crown Zingiberaceae while "Musa" cardiosperma, Spirematospermum chandlerae, and Tricostatocarpon silvapinedae are best considered stem Zingiberaceae. Inclusion of fossils explains how different topologies from morphological and molecular data sets is due to shared plesiomorphic characters shared by Musaceae, Zingiberaceae, and Costaceae, and most of the fossils. CONCLUSIONS: Inclusion of eight fossil taxa expands the Zingiberales tree and helps explain the difficulty in resolving relationships. Inclusion of fossils was possible in part due to a large morphological data set built using nondestructive microcomputed tomography data. Collaboration between paleo- and neobotanists and technology such as microcomputed tomography will help to build the tree of death and ultimately improve our understanding of the evolutionary history of monocots.


Assuntos
Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Filogenia , Zingiberales/genética
15.
Plant Physiol ; 177(2): 513-521, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29724771

RESUMO

Commelinid monocotyledons are a monophyletic clade differentiated from other monocotyledons by the presence of cell wall-bound ferulate and p-coumarate. The Poaceae, or grass family, is a member of this group, and most of the p-coumarate in the cell walls of this family acylates lignin. Here, we isolated and examined lignified cell wall preparations from 10 species of commelinid monocotyledons from nine families other than Poaceae, including species from all four commelinid monocotyledon orders (Poales, Zingiberales, Commelinales, and Arecales). We showed that, as in the Poaceae, lignin-linked p-coumarate occurs exclusively on the hydroxyl group on the γ-carbon of lignin unit side chains, mostly on syringyl units. Although the mechanism of acylation has not been studied directly in these species, it is likely to be similar to that in the Poaceae and involve BAHD acyl-coenzyme A:monolignol transferases.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/química , Lignina/metabolismo , Magnoliopsida/química , Propionatos/metabolismo , Acilação , Commelinaceae/química , Commelinaceae/citologia , Cotilédone/citologia , Hidrólise , Lignina/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Magnoliopsida/citologia , Parabenos/química , Parabenos/metabolismo , Células Vegetais/química , Células Vegetais/metabolismo , Propionatos/química , Zingiberales/química , Zingiberales/citologia
16.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 19(3): 839-844, 2018 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29582643

RESUMO

Objective: Dietary high fibre and calcium intake has been suggested to reduce colorectal cancer risk. However, there is limited information available regarding the potential of edible canna (Ganyong), with high dietary fibre and calcium content, to act as a preventive agent for colorectal cancer. This experimental study was conducted to investigate the preventive effect of Ganyong in reducing colorectal carcinogenesis with attention to effects on adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into 5 equal groups; a normal control group without azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulphate (AOM/DSS) induction and Ganyong, a 'cancer' control group with AOM/DSS induction only, and three treatment groups with AOM/DSS induction and different percentages (5%, 10% and 20%) of Ganyong. Paraffin-embedded sections of rat colon tissue were analysed by haematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical staining against antibodies against APC and iNOS. Variation in rates of APC and iNOS expression were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by the Dunn's test (SPSS statistic version 24). P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: AOM/DSS induction increased the expression of APC (p=0.013) and iNOS (p=0.013) compared to the normal control group. APC expression in the treated groups was lower than in the 'cancer' control group (p=0.049), especially in the 10% Ganyong group (p=0.02). In contrast, there was no significant variation among the treated groups regarding iNOS expression. Histopathological features of the colon supported the data for APC and iNOS expression. Conclusion: This study indicated potential chemopreventive effects of Ganyong reducing expression of factors contributing to colorectal carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Proteína da Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Zingiberales/química , Animais , Azoximetano/toxicidade , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/induzido quimicamente , Sulfato de Dextrana/toxicidade , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
17.
Micron ; 107: 94-100, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29482103

RESUMO

The contact angle, surface structure and chemical compositions of Canna leaves were investigated. According to the surface structure of Canna leaves which observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy(SEM), the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics)model was established and the method of volume of fluid (VOF) was used to simulate the process of droplet impacting on the surface and established a smooth surface for comparison to verify that the surface structure was an important factor of the superhydrophobic properties. Based on the study of Canna leaf and VOF simulation of its surface structure, the superhydrophobic samples were processed successfully and showed a good superhydrophobic property with a contact angle of 156 ±â€¯1 degrees. A high-speed camera (5000 frames per second) was used to assess droplet movement and determine the contact time of the samples. The contact time for the sample was 13.1 ms. The results displayed that the artificial superhydrophobic surface is perfect for the performance of superhydrophobic properties. The VOF simulation method was efficient, accurate and low cost before machining artificial superhydrophobic samples.


Assuntos
Hidrodinâmica , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/ultraestrutura , Zingiberales/fisiologia , Biomimética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Propriedades de Superfície , Água
18.
Water Sci Technol ; 77(3-4): 829-837, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29431728

RESUMO

In this study, the influence of vegetation type and environmental temperature on performance of constructed wetlands (CWs) was investigated. Results of vegetation types indicated that the removal of most nutrients in polyculture was greater than those in monoculture and unplanted control. The greatest removal percentages of NH4+-N, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) in polyculture were 98.7%, 98.5%, and 92.6%, respectively. In experiments of different temperatures, the removal percentages of NH4+-N, NO3--N, TN and TP in all CWs tended to decrease with the decline of temperature. Especially, a sharp decline in the removal percentages of NO3--N (decreased by above 13.8%) and TN (decreased by above 7.9%) of all CWs was observed at low temperature (average temperature of 8.9 °C). Overall, the performance of CWs was obviously influenced by temperature, and the polyculture still showed best performance in the removal of nitrogen when the average temperature dropped to 19.8 °C. Additionally, the variations of urease activities in rhizosphere soil tended to decrease with the decreasing temperature. Overall, a substantial enhancement for nitrogen and TP removal in polyculture (Canna indica + Lythrum salicaria) was observed. In conclusion, CW cultivated with polyculture was a good strategy for enhancing nutrient removal when temperature was above 19.8 °C.


Assuntos
Lythrum/metabolismo , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Áreas Alagadas , Zingiberales/metabolismo , Compostos de Amônio/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Temperatura
19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 111: 39-51, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29305211

RESUMO

As the aim of this present study, a proteinaceous α-amylase inhibitor has been isolated from the rhizome of Cheilocostus specious (C. speciosus) and was purified using DEAE cellulose anion exchange chromatography followed by gel filtration using Sephacryl-S-200 column. The purity and molecular mass of the purified inhibitor was determined by SDS-PAGE and LC-MS respectively. The molecular mass of the purified inhibitor was determined to be 31.18kDa. Protein-protein docking was also carried out as molecular model. Model validation methods such as Ramachandran plot and Z-score plot were adopted to validate the structural description (sequence analysis) of proteins. The inhibitory activity was confirmed using spectrophotometric and reverse zymogram analyses. This 31.18kDa protein from C. speciosus inhibited the activity of fungal α-amylase by 71% at the level of ion exchange chromatography and 96% after gel filtration. The inhibition activity of the α-amylase inhibitor was stable and high at optimum pH6 (52.2%) and temperatures of 30-40°C (72.2%). Thus it was suggested that the main responsible for the versatile biological and pharmacological activities of C. speciosus is due to its primary metabolites (proteins) only.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Zingiberales/química , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores , Cromatografia em Gel , Cromatografia por Troca Iônica , Cromatografia Líquida , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Estabilidade Enzimática , Proteínas Fúngicas/isolamento & purificação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Peso Molecular , Rizoma/química , alfa-Amilases/química
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 148: 781-786, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29190597

RESUMO

The fast-growing resistance development to several synthetic and microbial insecticides currently marketed highlighted the pressing need to develop novel and eco-friendly pesticides. Among the latter, botanical ones are attracting high research interest due to their multiple mechanisms of action and reduced toxicity on non-target vertebrates. Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a key polyphagous insect pest showing insecticide resistance to several synthetic molecules used for its control. Therefore, here we focused on the rhizome essential oil extracted from an overlooked Asian plant species, Cheilocostus speciosus (J. Konig) C. Specht (Costaceae), as a source of compounds showing ingestion toxicity against H. armigera third instar larvae, as well as ovicidal toxicity. In acute larvicidal assays conducted after 24h, the C. speciosus essential oil achieved a LC50 value of 207.45µg/ml. GC and GC-MS analyses highlighted the presence of zerumbone (38.6%), α-humulene (14.5%) and camphene (9.3%) as the major compounds of the oil. Ingestion toxicity tests carried out testing these pure molecules showed LC50 values of 10.64, 17.16 and 20.86µg/ml, for camphene, zerumbone and α-humulene, respectively. Moreover, EC50 values calculated on H. armigera eggs were 35.39, 59.51 and 77.10µg/ml for camphene, zerumbone and α-humulene, respectively. Overall, this study represents the first report on the toxicity of C. speciosus essential oil against insect pests of agricultural and medical veterinary importance, highlighting that camphene, zerumbone and α-humulene have a promising potential as eco-friendly botanical insecticides.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/farmacologia , Lepidópteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Rizoma/química , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Terpenos/farmacologia , Zingiberales/química , Animais , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Índia , Inseticidas/isolamento & purificação , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lepidópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sesquiterpenos Monocíclicos , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação
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