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1.
Andrologia ; 51(9): e13360, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264248

RESUMO

Protective effects of standardised extract of Costus afer leaves (CAME), an extract with good antioxidants on cadmium-induced reproductive toxicity in male rats, were investigated in this study. Forty-two adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups and were treated every day regularly for 4 weeks. G1 (control) rats received 1 ml of vehicle treatment. G2 rats were intoxicated with 2.5 mg kg-1  day-1 s.c cadmium chloride for 1 week. G3 and G4 rats were intoxicated with cadmium as in G2 rats and were treated orally with 100 and 200 mg/kg bwt/day of CAME, respectively, for 4 weeks. Group G5 and G6 rats were orally treated with 100 and 200 mg kg-1  day-1 bwt of CAME, respectively, for 4 weeks. Significant changes (p < 0.05) in andrological parameters (sperm count, sperm morphology, serum testosterone and nitric oxide concentration) and testicular antioxidant parameters (reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation and activities of catalase, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase) caused by Cd toxicity were improved in cadmium-intoxicated rats treated with 100 mg/kg body weight of CAME. Administration of 200 mg/kg body weight of CAME to cadmium-intoxicated rats potentiated reproductive toxic effects of cadmium. In conclusion, lower dose of CAME is preferred over high dose in treatment of cadmium-induced reproductive toxicity in rats.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Intoxicação por Cádmio/tratamento farmacológico , Costus/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Doenças Testiculares/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Cloreto de Cádmio/toxicidade , Intoxicação por Cádmio/complicações , Intoxicação por Cádmio/etiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Doenças Testiculares/etiologia , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/patologia
2.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 197: 111541, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272033

RESUMO

Here, we report the novel fabrication of ZnO nanoparticles using the Costus igneus leaf extract. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy to determine the bioactive components present in the plant extract. The synthesis of Ci-ZnO NPs (C. igneus- coated zinc oxide nanoparticles) was accomplished using a cost-effective and simple technique. Ci-ZnO NPs were specified using UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, and TEM. Ci-ZnO NPs was authenticated by UV-Vis and exhibited a peak at 365 nm. The XRD spectra proved the crystalline character of the Ci-ZnO NPs synthesized as hexagonal wurtzite. The FTIR spectrum illustrated the presence of possible functional groups present in Ci-ZnO NPs. The TEM micrograph showed evidence of the presence of a hexagonal organization with a size of 26.55 nm typical of Ci-ZnO NPs. The α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition assays demonstrated antidiabetic activity of Ci-ZnO NPs (74 % and 82 %, respectively), and the DPPH [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate] assay demonstrated the antioxidant activity of the nanoparticles (75%) at a concentration of 100 µg/ml. The Ci-ZnO NPs exhibited promising antibacterial and biofilm inhibition activity against the pathogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans, Lysinibacillus fusiformis, Proteus vulgaris, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Additionally, the Ci-ZnO NPs showed biocompatibility with mammalian RBCs with minimum hemolytic activity (0.633 % ±â€¯0.005 %) at a concentration of 200 µg/ml.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Óxido de Zinco/química , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Costus/química , Costus/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/citologia , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/fisiologia , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/fisiologia , Química Verde , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Insulina/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tamanho da Partícula , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
3.
J Integr Med ; 17(3): 181-191, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30799249

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: An extract of Costus speciosus (CSE), a herb widely used in folk medicine, was evaluated for its antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic and ameliorating effects on histopathological changes in atherogenic rabbits. METHODS: Twenty-four male rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were divided into 4 groups. Three groups were fed a diet containing 3% saturated fat and 1.3% cholesterol for 40 d. One of these was sacrificed on the 40th day and was called the pathogenic (P) group; the other two groups received treatment for another 30 d as follows: one received 0.8 g/(kg·d) of CSE and the other was given 0.01 g/(kg·d) of simvastatin. The normal group was sacrificed on the 70th day and used as a control. RESULTS: CSE showed radical-scavenging ability. Administration of CSE for a 30-day period resulted in a significant decrease in total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, low-density lipoprotein and aspartate aminotransferase compared to the P group, while levels of hemoglobin, packed corpuscular volume and red blood cells were elevated. With respect to studies performed on the heart, a decrease in malondialdehyde and an increase in reduced glutathione were noted. Total protein increased in the liver, heart and aorta after treatment with CSE and also a marked improvement in histopathological parameters was demonstrated. CONCLUSION: The present findings indicate that the C. speciosus rhizome possesses antiatherogenic and antioxidant properties which may provide protective effects against oxidative stress in atherosclerotic rabbits.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Costus/química , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Hipolipemiantes/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Colesterol/metabolismo , Dieta Aterogênica/efeitos adversos , Glutationa/metabolismo , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/etiologia , Hiperlipidemias/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Coelhos , Rizoma/química , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
4.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(1): 109-115, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772798

RESUMO

The quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) and antimicrobial potentials of the total methanol extract (TME) and different extractives as well as the sesquiterpenes: dehydrodihydrocostus lactone (1), dehydrocostus lactone (2), arbusculin A (3), santamarine (4), reynosin (5), and specioic acid (6) isolated from Costus speciosus rhizomes were evaluated. The CHCl3:EtOAc (1:1), EtOAc, and TME fractions exhibited potent antibacterial activity toward B. cereus with inhibition zone diameter 13 mm. While the CHCl3 fraction showed strong activity towards S. aureus and B. cereus with inhibition zone diameter 11 and 19 mm, respectively. Moreover, the TME and CHCl3 fractions have strong activity towards C. albicans with inhibition zone diameter 15 and 12 mm, respectively. Compound 5 showed prominent activity towards B. cereus (MIC 385 µg/mL). However, 6 exhibited significant activity with MIC values of 150, 400, and 550 µg/mL towards S. aureus, E. coli, and B. cereus, respectively. Moreover, it showed potent antifungal effect towards C. albicans (MIC 320 µg/mL). Most of the tested fractions had QSI activity against C. violaceum. Only compound 6 exhibited moderate QSI effect with disappearance of violet pigment. In addition, compounds 1-6 were evaluated for their in vitro antiproliferative activity towards KB, BT-549, SK-MEL, and SKOV-3 cancer cell lines.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Costus , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas , Percepção de Quorum/efeitos dos fármacos , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Clorofórmio , Costus/química , Testes de Sensibilidade a Antimicrobianos por Disco-Difusão , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Metanol/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Raízes de Plantas/química , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Solventes/química
5.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(1): e1800365, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30371987

RESUMO

This study aimed to isolate and identify flavonoids with hypoglycemic activity in Costus spiralis leaves. The methanolic extract (ME) was rich in flavonoids, while the powdered leaves (PL) contained considerable amounts of macro- and microelements. Oral acute treatment of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats for 18 h with the C. spiralis PL, ME and isolated guaijaverin (GUA) lowered glycemia, improved oral glucose tolerance and inhibited liver lipid peroxidation. GUA and ME lowered plasma levels of low-density and non-high density lipoproteins; GUA also lowered total cholesterol levels. PL, ME and GUA did not significantly alter the plasma levels of triglycerides, high-density lipoproteins, very low-density lipoproteins, creatinine and aspartate transaminase, and the total protein levels in the kidney and liver tissues. Therefore, C. spiralis leaves are promising raw materials and rich sources of bioactive flavonoids for the development of novel antidiabetic drugs due to their hypoglycemic, antidyslipidemic and antioxidant actions.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Costus/química , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Lipídeos/sangue , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Folhas de Planta/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Testes de Função Renal , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Metanol/química , Ratos Wistar , Estreptozocina
6.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 120: 448-461, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30055312

RESUMO

There is a need of multifactorial management to treat T2DM. Till date, no clinically simulated animal model and therapy for NSAID-induced gastroenteropathic damage (NSAID-iGD) in T2DM patients. T2DM was developed using high-fat diet plus multiple low doses of streptozotocin (30 mg/kg, IP). Rats treated with ethanolic extract of Insulin plant (EIP; 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg, PO; b.i.d.)/Quercetin (QCT; 50 mg/kg)/vehicle for total 10 days. Diclofenac sodium (DCF; 7.5 mg/kg, PO, b.i.d.) administered for final five days of EIP/vehicle administration. Rats fasted after last dose on the 9th day; water was provided ad libitum. 12 h after the last dose on 10th day, GI tracts assessed for haemorrhagic damage, XO activity, LPO, intestinal permeability, luminal pH alterations along with haematological, biochemical and histological parameters. The evidence suggested that DCF administration caused significant gastroenteropathic damage. In presence of T2DM, NSAID-iGD significantly exacerbated. Whereas, QCT/EIP treatment significantly attenuated T2DM dependent exacerbation of NSAID-iGD, and also efficiently managed T2DM in a dose-dependent manner. Low amount of QCT in EIP(190.96 ±â€¯7.5 ng/mg) than its effective dose(50 mg/kg) indicates that EIP's other phytoconstituents (e.g. Kaempferol, Ascorbic acid, Lupeol, Diosgenin, ß-sitosterol, Stigmasterol, ß-amyrin, etc.) giving synergistic actions. Costus pictus/QCT has potential to be promising candidate to treat patient with T2DM and NSAID-gastroenteropathy in T2DM.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Costus/química , Gastroenteropatias/prevenção & controle , Hiperglicemia/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Quercetina/farmacologia , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Gastroenteropatias/induzido quimicamente , Gastroenteropatias/complicações , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Masculino , Ratos Wistar , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
7.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 31(3(Supplementary)): 997-1001, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29731436

RESUMO

To examine the action mechanism that mediates the anti-fertility effect of Costus speciosus extract, research was conducted on male Sprague-Dawley rats. Costus extract was given to male rats for 14 days at various doses, namely 275, 550 and 1,100 mg kg-1 day-1 in 0.5% sodium CMC. The results showed that Costus extract with doses ranging from 275 to 1,100 mg kg-1 day-1 was able to inhibit pregnancy among female rats by 10-70%. No obstacles in terms of sexual behavior were identified among male rats. The anti-fertility effect of Costus extract kicked in without involving a decreased level of male reproductive hormones.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais Masculinos/farmacologia , Costus/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anticoncepcionais Masculinos/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/metabolismo , Hormônio Luteinizante/metabolismo , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Ratos , Testículo/metabolismo , Testosterona/metabolismo
8.
J Appl Microbiol ; 125(1): 172-180, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29603526

RESUMO

AIMS: The purpose of this study is to identify species from genus Diaporthe associated with a medicinal plant Costus spiralis by ITS, EF 1-α, TUB and CAL gens. METHODS AND RESULTS: The 30 isolates from the genus Diaporthe associated with the medicinal plant Costus spiralis were characterized based on morphological characters and the microculture technique and grouped by DNA fingerprinting with the ISSP gene. Afterwards, a total of 12 isolates were selected for the identification of the species based on the comparative research on the blast through the sequences of the ITS gene. Phylogenetic Tree of Maximum Likelihood were generated with the ITS gene individually and with the genes ITS, TUB, CAL and EF1-α combined with the Diaporthe species recognized and with the additional sequences obtained from GenBank for these species. CONCLUSIONS: It was not possible to characterize the 30 isolates microscopically and macromorphologically through the microculture technique and the macromorphological characteristics. The 12 isolates selected based on the DNA fingerprinting profile identified phylogenetically, revealed five distinct species of Diaporthe which are present in C. spiralis. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The molecular analyses used in this study are excellent alternatives for species-level identification of Diaporthe associated with medicinal plants.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Costus/microbiologia , Plantas Medicinais/microbiologia , Ascomicetos/classificação , Ascomicetos/genética , DNA Fúngico/genética , Filogenia
9.
Chem Biol Interact ; 284: 80-89, 2018 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29458019

RESUMO

Among several metabolic disorders, the pathogenesis of insulin resistance is considered to be multifactorial. Raffinose, an oligosaccharide isolated from the rhizome of Costus speciosus showed ≤50% inhibition of lipid accumulation in differentiated HepG2 and 3T3-L1 cells through exhibiting partial agonism to PPARγ, and, an enhanced secretion of adiponectin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Raffinose was also observed to attenuate the expression of SREBP1c, ACC and FAS which are involved in the fatty acid synthesis. A corresponding upregulation of PPARα and ACO involved in fatty acid oxidation was observed in steatotic HepG2 hepatocytes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In vitro evaluation of its anti-diabetic potential showed a dose dependent enhancement of glucose uptake. Investigation of the insulin sensitizing efficacy of Raffinose revealed an increase in Glut4 translocation via phosphorylation of IRß/PI3K/Akt in differentiated L6 myocytes and 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. In addition, Raffinose was potentially involved in glycogen synthesis by inhibiting the activation of GSK3ß. Hence, Raffinose could be a useful therapeutic agent for metabolic maladies.


Assuntos
Costus/química , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Ativados por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Rafinose/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/metabolismo , Células 3T3-L1 , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Costus/metabolismo , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 18(1): 5, 2018 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29310671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Costus speciosus, Cymbopogon citratus, and Tabernaemontana coronaria are herbal plants traditionally used as remedies for symptoms of tuberculosis (TB) including cough. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the in vitro anti-TB activity of different solvent partitions of these plants, to identify the phytochemical compounds, and to assess the effects of the most active partitions on the growth kinetics and cellular integrity of the tubercle organism. METHODS: The in vitro anti-TB activity of different solvent partitions of the plant materials was determined against M. tuberculosis H37Rv using a tetrazolium colorimetric microdilution assay. The phytochemical compounds in the most active partition of each plant were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The effects of these partitions on the growth kinetics of the mycobacteria were evaluated over 7-day treatment period in a batch culture system. Their effects on the mycobacterial cellular integrity were observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). RESULTS: The respective n-hexane partition of C. speciosus, C. citratus, and T. coronaria exhibited the highest anti-TB activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 100-200 µg/mL and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 200 µg/mL. GC-MS phytochemical analysis of these active partitions revealed that majority of the identified compounds belonged to lipophilic fatty acid groups. The active partitions of C. speciosus and T. coronaria exhibited high cidal activity in relation to time, killing more than 99% of the cell population. SEM observations showed that these active plant partitions caused multiple structural changes indicating massive cellular damages. CONCLUSIONS: The n-hexane partition of the plant materials exhibited promising in vitro anti-TB activity against M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Their anti-TB activity was supported by their destructive effects on the integrity of the mycobacterial cellular structure.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Costus/química , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Tabernaemontana/química , Antituberculosos/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Cinética , Extratos Vegetais/química
11.
Biomed Res Int ; 2018: 4907648, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30596093

RESUMO

Medicinal plants are efficient modulators of oxidative stress associated with diabetes mellitus. This study evaluated the cardio-, reno-, and hepato-antioxidant status of hydroethanolic extract of Costus afer on streptozotocin-intoxicated diabetic rats. Experimental animals were daily administered with hydroethanolic extract of C. afer by oral intubation for eight weeks (60 days), after which the levels of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), and lipid peroxidation marker (MDA) were evaluated in the heart, liver, and kidney homogenates. Plasma biochemical parameters such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total protein, creatinine, and urea were determined. Meanwhile, parts of the heart, kidneys, and liver were histopathologically examined. Streptozotocin administration induced toxicity in the cardiac, hepatic, and renal tissues by stimulating significant increases (p<0.05) in the levels of CAT and SOD, GSH, and MDA. Similarly, significant increases (P<0.05) in the levels of ALT, AST, urea, and total protein were observed in streptozotocin treated rats, whereas decreases were observed in the levels of ALP, LDH, and creatinine. Following the treatments with C. afer hydroethanolic extract prevented the effect of streptozotocin by maintaining the tissue antioxidant status (CAT, SOD, GSH, and MDA) and the plasma biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, creatinine, and urea) towards the normal ranges. The histopathological examination revealed hepatovascular congestion and leucocyte infiltration as well as renovascular congestion, glomerulosclerosis, and tubular clarification in the untreated diabetic control and their absence in the group of animals treated with a high dose of C. afer extract. The findings of the present investigation suggest that C. afer possesses antioxidant activities capable of regulating drug induced tissue damage.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Costus/química , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Estreptozocina/farmacologia , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
12.
Nat Prod Res ; 32(15): 1809-1816, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29172707

RESUMO

The present investigation reports the growth kinetics and diosgenin accumulation in callus cultures of Costus speciosus. Effect of explants, media and plant growth regulators was evaluated with respect to callus induction and growth. Out of the two explants viz pseudostem and seed, pseudostem showed maximum callus induction frequency of 90% on MS medium. The fresh weight of callus was maximum (9-folds) on 28th day on 1.0 mg/L picloram containing medium. The callus obtained was white compact hard (WCH). For growth kinetics study pseudostem derived callus was transferred on different media supplemented with 1.0 mg/L picloram. All phases of growth were seen in callus inoculated on all the three media except the absence of stationary phase on MS and SH media. MS medium proved to be the best for maximum biomass accumulation (9-fold) on 28th day of culture and callus in post-exponential phase showed maximum diosgenin accumulation (33 ppm).


Assuntos
Costus/citologia , Costus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Diosgenina/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Costus/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura , Cinética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Sementes/citologia
13.
Nat Prod Res ; 32(1): 18-22, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28480734

RESUMO

Chemical investigation of the rhizomes of Costus speciosus led to the isolation of a new compound, 22-ketocholesteryl palmitate (1) along with four known compounds, 24-methylenecycloartanol (2), cycloartanol (3), stigmasterol (4) and linoleic acid (5). The structure of new compound was characterised by extensive 1D-, 2D-NMR and mass spectrometry (GC-MS and HR-ESI-MS) techniques.


Assuntos
Costus/química , Cetosteroides/química , Rizoma/química , Esteróis/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Ácido Linoleico/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Estigmasterol/química , Triterpenos/química
14.
Chem Biodivers ; 15(1)2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29124880

RESUMO

Costus spiralis, a plant used in traditional Brazilian medicine for the treatment of complications in diabetes, was investigated. Assay of hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous fractions obtained by partition of a crude methanol extract of dried leaves of C. spiralis revealed that AGI activity was confined to the ethyl acetate fraction. Purification of this fraction yielded schaftoside and isoschaftoside. The AGI activities of the two flavones were lower than, but comparable with, that of the anti-diabetic drug acarbose. In contrast, the IC50 value of the ethyl acetate fraction was 1.95-, 2.34-, and 2.22-fold higher than those of acarbose, schaftoside, and isoschaftoside, respectively. The results demonstrate for the first time that schaftoside and isoschaftoside are responsible, in part, for the AGI activity of C. spiralis. Our study suggests that further investigations into C. spiralis may lead to the discovery of additional compounds with antihyperglycemic activity.


Assuntos
Costus/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Flavonas/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Flavonas/química , Flavonas/isolamento & purificação , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Medicina Tradicional , Conformação Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
15.
Nat Prod Res ; 32(7): 826-833, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28814124

RESUMO

Costus speciosus had been used in oriental systems of medicines, to treat diverse ailments. The present study was focused on NMR, GC-MS and UPLC/ESI-MS/MS-based metabolic profiling of C. speciosus. This metabolic study resulted in the identification of 91 and quantification of 69 metabolites. Caffeic acid derivatives previously unreported in C. speciosus were also identified. High quantity of steroidal saponins namely methyl protogracillin (297.97 ± 0.07 mg/g dried wt.) and dioscin (158.72 ± 0.27 mg/g dried wt.) were observed in butanol fraction of rhizomes. Health care metabolites including caffeic acid (37.88 ± 0.04 mg/g dried wt.) and trehalose (75.12 ± 0.08 mg/g dried wt.) were also detected in ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions of rhizomes, respectively. Metabolites of nutraceutical and biological significance including eremanthine (5.14 ± 0.68%, peak area), tocopherols (~22%), sterols (~25%) were also identified from hexane fractions of rhizomes and leaves using GC-MS. The analytical techniques used had successfully differentiated metabolites composition among leaves and rhizomes.


Assuntos
Costus/química , Costus/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Rizoma/metabolismo , Ácidos Cafeicos/análise , Ácidos Cafeicos/metabolismo , Diosgenina/análogos & derivados , Diosgenina/análise , Diosgenina/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Metabolômica/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Rizoma/química , Saponinas/análise , Saponinas/química , Sesquiterpenos/análise , Sesquiterpenos/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Esteroides/análise , Esteroides/química , Esteróis/análise , Esteróis/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
16.
Molecules ; 22(5)2017 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28468278

RESUMO

Synthesis of metallic and semiconductor nanoparticles through physical and chemical routes has been extensively reported. However, green synthesized metal nanoparticles are currently in the limelight due to the simplicity, cost-effectiveness and eco-friendliness of their synthesis. This study explored the use of aqueous leaf extract of Costus afer in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (CA-AgNPs). The optical and structural properties of the resulting silver nanoparticles were studied using UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infra-red spectrophotometer (FTIR). TEM images of the silver nanoparticles confirmed the existence of monodispersed spherical nanoparticles with a mean size of 20 nm. The FTIR spectra affirmed the presence of phytochemicals from the Costus afer leaf extract on the surface of the silver nanoparticles. The electrochemical characterization of a CA-AgNPs/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)-modified electrode was carried out to confirm the charge transfer properties of the nanocomposites. The comparative study showed that the CA-AgNPs/MWCNT-modified electrode demonstrated faster charge transport behaviour. The anodic current density of the electrodes in Fe(CN)6]4-/[Fe(CN)6]3- redox probe follows the order: GCE/CA-Ag/MWCNT (550 mA/cm²) > GCE/MWCNT (270 mA/cm²) > GCE (80 mA/cm²) > GCE/CA-Ag (7.93 mA/cm²). The silver nanoparticles were evaluated for their antibacterial properties against Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) pathogens. The nanoparticles exhibited better inhibition of the bacterial strains compared to the precursors (leaf extract of Costus afer and silver nitrate). Furthermore, the ability of the nanoparticles to scavenge DPPH radicals at different concentrations was studied using the DPPH radical scavenging assay and compared to that of the leaf extract and ascorbic acid. The nanoparticles were better DPPH scavengers compared to the leaf extract and their antioxidant properties compared favorably the antioxidant results of ascorbic acid. The green approach to nanoparticles synthesis carried out in this research work is simple, non-polluting, inexpensive and non-hazardous.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanocompostos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Costus/química , Eletroquímica , Eletrodos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Radicais Livres/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Picratos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Prata , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol ; 28(4): 383-391, 2017 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28355145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In continuation of our study of the biological activity of the aqueous extract of Costus afer stem used in tradomedicare in Nigeria, this work has investigated the biochemical, nephroprotective, hepatoprotective and protective effects of aqueous extract of C. afer stem on alloxan-induced hyperglycaemic albino Wistar rats. METHODS: Thirty male albino Wistar rats (150-200 g) were weight-matched into six groups of five rats each. Groups 1 and 2 were the normal (non-induced) and toxic (alloxan-induced) controls, respectively. Groups 3-6 were induced and treated with 1, 2 and 3 g/kg of the aqueous extract of C. afer stem and glibenclamide (5 mg/kg), respectively. Food and fluid intake, body weight, absolute and relative weight of organs (liver, pancreas, and kidneys) and biochemical parameters were measured. RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin triglyceride, creatinine, urea and electrolyte when compared with toxic control group. The liver marker enzymes were restored in all the treated groups. The aqueous stem extract possessed hypoglycaemic effect and reversed the histopathological damage in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that aqueous stem extract of C. afer possesses both hypoglycaemic and organ protective properties.


Assuntos
Aloxano/farmacologia , Costus/química , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Caules de Planta/química , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Glibureto/farmacologia , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Testes de Função Hepática/métodos , Masculino , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
18.
Curr Drug Discov Technol ; 13(3): 123-143, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27515456

RESUMO

Costus speciosus is native to South East Asia, especially found in India, Srilanka, Indonesia and Malaysia. C. speciosus have numerous therapeutic potentials against a wide variety of complains. The therapeutic properties of C. speciosus are attributed to the presence of various ingredients such as alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, saponins, sterols and sesquiterpenes. This review presented the past, present, and the future status of C. speciosus active ingredients to propose a future use as a potential anticancer agent. All possible up-regulation of cellular apoptotic molecules as p53, p21, p27, caspases, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and others attribute to the anticancer activity of C. speciosus along the down-regulation of anti-apoptotic agents such as Akt, Bcl2, NFKB, STAT3, JAK, MMPs, actin, surviving and vimentin. Eventually, we recommend further investigation of different C. speciosus extracts, using some active ingredients and evaluate the anticancer effect of these chemicals against different cancers.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Costus , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Descoberta de Drogas , Humanos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
19.
Pharm Biol ; 54(10): 2103-10, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27306958

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Medicinal plants encompass a rich source of active compounds that can neutralize snake venoms or toxins. Costus spicatus (Jacq.) Sw. (Costaceae) is used by the Amazonian population to treat inflammation, pain and other pathological manifestations. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of C. spicatus aqueous extract on edema, peritonitis, nociception, coagulation, haemorrhage and indirect haemolytic activity induced by Bothrops atrox venom (BAV). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dried and pulverized leaves were extracted with distilled water. Envenoming was induced by administration of B. atrox snake venom in Swiss Webster mice. The experimental groups consisted of BAV (at the minimum dose to induce measurable biological responses) and C. spicatus extract (CSE, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 mg/kg/25 µl phosphate-buffered saline) administered individually and in combination (BAVCSE). PBS was used as a control. In vitro assays were also conducted in order to evaluate phospholipase A2 coagulant activities (indirect haemolytic method). RESULTS: CSE significantly reduced the venom-induced edema and nociception at all concentrations tested and inhibited migration of inflammatory cells at the three least concentrations (5.0, 7.5 and 10 mg/kg/25 µl PBS). CSE was not effective in inhibiting coagulant, haemorrhagic and indirect haemolytic activities of the venom. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The data suggest that CSE could exhibit a central mechanism for pain inhibition, and may also inhibit prostaglandin synthesis. These findings corroborate the traditional administration of C. spicatus decoction to treat inflammatory disorders, including those caused by B. atrox envenomation.


Assuntos
Antídotos/farmacologia , Bothrops , Costus , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/tratamento farmacológico , Venenos de Víboras , Analgésicos/isolamento & purificação , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antídotos/isolamento & purificação , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Costus/química , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemorragia/sangue , Hemorragia/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Nociceptividade/efeitos dos fármacos , Dor Nociceptiva/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Nociceptiva/fisiopatologia , Peritonite/tratamento farmacológico , Fosfolipases A2/metabolismo , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta , Plantas Medicinais , Mordeduras de Serpentes/sangue , Mordeduras de Serpentes/fisiopatologia
20.
Phytochemistry ; 124: 99-107, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26854130

RESUMO

We have reported earlier, an orally active insulin-like protein (ILP) from Costus igneus having potent hypoglycemic property in STZ-induced diabetic Swiss mice. The blood glucose level was reduced significantly within two hours after feeding ILP orally in an oral glucose tolerance test. The present study elucidates the mechanism underlying the hypoglycemic action of ILP. Mechanism of action of ILP was studied in differentiated L6 myotubes. 2-NBDG uptake stimulated by ILP was studied in differentiated L6 myotubes under normoglycemic, hyperglycemic and induced insulin resistant conditions. ILP treatment significantly increased 2-NBDG uptake in differentiated L6 myotubes. The levels of insulin signaling molecules IRS-1 and GLUT-4 were assessed in ILP treated L6 myotubes by immunoblot analysis of cytoplasmic and plasma membrane fractions respectively. Immunoblot analysis revealed an increase in cytoplasmic IRS-1 with a concomitant increase in GLUT-4 translocation to the plasma membrane in a time dependent manner. Toxicity studies of ILP were performed on normal as well as diabetic Swiss albino mice. ILP did not show any toxicity in the acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies in normal as well as diabetic Swiss albino mice. Mass spectrometry was carried out to identify ILP. MALDI TOF/TOF MS analysis of ILP revealed sequence homology with the predicted protein from Physcomitrella patens. Our study reveals that ILP acts via insulin signaling pathway and can be used as oral insulin mimetic.


Assuntos
Costus/química , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Insulina/farmacologia , 4-Cloro-7-nitrobenzofurazano/análogos & derivados , 4-Cloro-7-nitrobenzofurazano/farmacologia , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Desoxiglucose/análogos & derivados , Desoxiglucose/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Camundongos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia
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