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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(28): e20692, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The key to the management of chronic obstructive (CB) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is to control symptoms of the disease and to prevent deterioration in the health of affected patients. Myrtol has been proved to be effective in treating the symptoms of patients with CB and COPD and preventing the deterioration in their health. However, there has been no systematic review of the efficacy and safety of myrtol in the treatment of CB or COPD. The purpose of this study is going to evaluate the effects of myrtol on the management of CB or COPD based on randomized controlled trials. METHODS: Electronic literature and other ongoing studies will be searched before November 31, 2019. Randomized controlled trials that report the use of myrtol in the treatment of CB or COPD (in the absence and presence of concurrent treatments) will be selected for inclusion regardless of language. Primary outcomes will include cumulative numbers of exacerbation events and the number of days of disability including days in bed, days off work due to breathing complications, and days on which the participant was unable to undertake normal activities due to breathing complications. Study selection, data extraction, and deviation the derivation risk assessment will be carried out by 2 independent investigators. Meta-analysis will be carried out by the RevMan5.3 software. RESULTS: The study will provide summary results for estimating the efficacy and safety of myrtol for future treatments of CB or COPD. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review will determine if myrtol is an effective and a safe intervention on the symptoms and the prevention of exacerbation of CB or COPD. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval will not be required for this study because no identifying patient data will be used. The review will be published as an article or a conference presentation in a peer-reviewed journal. REGISTRATION: OSF registration number: DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/PXRBV.


Assuntos
Bronquite Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Monoterpenos/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Myrtaceae , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
2.
Prostate ; 80(11): 859-871, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brazilian berry is a fruit popularly known as "Jaboticaba," rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Senescence and overweight are increasing worldwide and are considered risk factors to prostatic pathogenesis mainly due to oxidative and inflammatory processes induction. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of two increasing doses of the patented jaboticaba peel extract (PJE) on oxidative-stress and inflammation in the prostate of aging or high-fat-fed aging mice. METHODS: PJE and/or high-fat diet (HFD) treatments started with 11-month-old mice and lasted 60 days. The levels or the immunoexpression of different inflammatory (nuclear factor κB [NFκB], CD3+, cyclooxygenase 2 [COX-2], toll-like receptor 4 [TLR4], phosphorylated signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 [pSTAT-3], tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α], interleukin 6 [IL-6], and IL-1ß) and oxidative-stress (catalase, superoxide dismutase 2 [SOD2], glutathione reductase [GSR], reduced glutathione, and glutathione peroxidase 3 [GPx3]) related molecules were analyzed by western-blotting, immunohistochemistry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: Both PJE doses reduced the levels of oxidative-stress-related molecules (GPx3, GSR, catalase), lipid peroxidation (4-hydroxynonenal), inflammatory mediators (COX-2, TNF-α, and pSTAT-3) and CD3+ T cells number, which were associated with the maintenance of the glandular morphological integrity in aging and HFD-fed-aging mice. Nevertheless, only the high PJE dose reduced the NFκB and TLR4 levels in aging mice; and SOD2, IL-6, and IL-1ß levels in HFD-aging mice. Aging itself promoted an oxidative inflammation in the prostate, interfering in the levels of the different oxidative-stress, lipid peroxidation, and inflammatory mediators evaluated, in association with high incidence of prostate epithelial and stromal damages. The HFD intake intensified aging alterations, showing an unfavorable prostatic microenvironment prone to oxidative and inflammatory damages. CONCLUSIONS: PJE exerted a dose-dependent effect controlling inflammation and oxidative-stress in aging and HFD-fed aging mice prostate. This fact contributed to prostate microenvironment balance recovery, preserving the tissue architecture of this gland. Thus, the PJE emerges as a potential therapy to prevent inflammation and oxidative stress in the prostate.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Myrtaceae/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Prostatite/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Etários , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/biossíntese , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/imunologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Prostatite/imunologia , Prostatite/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia
3.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(1): e20180472, 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187272

RESUMO

Resprouting is a functional trait in species which occur in fire-prone ecosystems. These plants can resprout from aerial buds and by recruiting belowground bud bank using carbohydrates allocated in roots as resource. In this study, we present morpho-anatomical features and chemical composition related to the resprouting potential of two species of Eugenia L. in an area of the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna) under regeneration, after the clear-cutting of Pinus sp. with the later burning of pine needles layer. We used standard histological techniques for belowground organs analysis and aerial buds protection degree. Belowground buds in layer from soil surface down to 10 depth were counted and the chemical analyses were performed on roots. In all aerial buds, there were relevant protection traits. The belowground organ is a sobole and the number of buds in its upper portion varied from 24 to 517 between individuals of both species. Phenolic compounds, flavonoids, starch and other carbohydrates were detected in roots. The protection of aerial buds, the large number of belowground buds and the storing and protective compounds may have favored the resprouting of the species in the area.


Assuntos
Germinação/fisiologia , Myrtaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Brasil , Fogo , Myrtaceae/química , Myrtaceae/classificação , Raízes de Plantas/química
4.
Food Chem ; 316: 126364, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058190

RESUMO

Heat- and ultrasound-assisted extractions of anthocyanins from jabuticaba epicarp were optimized and the colouring potential of the developed extract was tested on macarons. The independent variables time (t), solvent concentration (S), and temperature (T) or power (P) were combined in a five-level central composite design coupled with response surface methodology. The delphinidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside levels monitored by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS were used as response criteria. The developed models were successfully fitted to the experimental data and used to determine optimal extraction conditions. HAE was the most efficient method yielding 81 ± 2 mg/g extract under optimal conditions (t = 21.8 min, T = 47.1 °C and S = 9.1% ethanol, v/v). Macarons were then produced using the optimized anthocyanin-rich colouring extract and their colour parameters and nutritional profile were monitored during shelf-life. The obtained results provided useful information for the development of anthocyanin-rich extracts from a bio-waste with potential use as natural food colorants.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Corantes de Alimentos/química , Myrtaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Pão , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cor , Glucosídeos/química , Temperatura Alta , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Ultrassom
5.
Chem Biodivers ; 17(1): e1900683, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797569
6.
Food Chem ; 310: 125909, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816536

RESUMO

Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) seeds are discarded without recovering the bioactive compounds. The main aim of the present work was to optimise the solvent mixture to extract higher total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of camu-camu seeds. The optimised solvent system increased the extraction of phenolic compounds, in which vescalagin and castalagin were the main compounds. The optimised extract displayed antioxidant capacity measured by different chemical and biological assays, exerted antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects against A549 and HCT8 cancer cells, antimicrobial effects, protected human erythrocytes against hemolysis, inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes and presented in vitro antihypertensive effect. Additionally, the optimized extract inhibited human LDL copper-induced oxidation in vitro and reduced the TNF-α release and NF-κB activation in macrophages cell culture. Thus, the use of camu-camu seed showed to be a sustainable way to recover bioactive compounds with in vitro functional properties.


Assuntos
Myrtaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/química , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/análise , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Fenóis/análise , Sementes/química , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores
7.
Nat Prod Res ; 34(2): 278-283, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30580612

RESUMO

Baeckea frutescens is a medicinal plant distributing from Southeast Asia to Australia. A pair of novel diastereomeric C-methylated triflavonoids named baeckeins L (1) and M (2) were isolated from the roots of B. frutescens. The structures of these isolates were elucidated by analysis of the 1D (1H/13C) and 2D NMR (HSQC/HMBC/NOESY) and HR-ESI-MS spectroscopic data, and the absolute configurations of chiral carbons (C-2/C-3/C-2°/C-3°) were established by CD spectrometry combined with quantum chemical calculations.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Myrtaceae/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Austrália , Dicroísmo Circular , Flavonoides/química , Conformação Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Teoria Quântica , Análise Espectral
8.
Nat Prod Res ; 34(2): 204-209, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30580617

RESUMO

A new oleanane triterpenoid, 2α,3ß,6ß,23,29-pentahydroxyolean-12-en-28- oic acid (1), was isolated from the roots of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa, together with four known oleanane triterpenoids (2-5) and two known ursane triterpenoids (6-7). The structure of compound 1 was determined by extensive NMR and HR-ESI-MS data analysis. Compounds 4-5 showed cytotoxicity against PC12 cell lines at a concentration of 50 µM, and compound 1 exhibited moderate neuroprotective activity against corticosterone induced PC12 cell death at the same concentration.


Assuntos
Myrtaceae/química , Ácido Oleanólico/análogos & derivados , Raízes de Plantas/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Citotoxinas/química , Citotoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Hidroxilação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Oleanólico/química , Ácido Oleanólico/isolamento & purificação , Células PC12 , Ratos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia
9.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(2): 1131-1140, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759605

RESUMO

This work aimed to characterize the phenolic composition and in vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative properties of lyophilized camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) seed extract (LCE), and to assess the effects of LCE on the antioxidant and sensory traits of yogurt. The LCE contained 46.3% (wt/wt) total phenolic content; the main compounds quantified were vescalagin, castalagin, gallic acid, procyanidin A2, and (-)-epicatechin. The LCE had antioxidant activity, as measured by different chemical assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity, total reducing capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and Cu2+ chelating capacity), and inhibited the cell proliferation of HepG2 cells (human hepatoma carcinoma; IC50 = 1,116 µg/mL) and Caco-2 cells (human colorectal adenocarcinoma epithelial cells; IC50 = 608.5 µg/mL). In addition, LCE inhibited the in vitro activity of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and angiotensin-converting enzyme, and protected DNA from peroxyl radical-induced scission. When added to yogurts, different concentrations of LCE (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 g/100 g) increased the chemical antioxidant and reducing capacities. The camu-camu yogurt containing LCE at 0.25 g/100 g had an acceptance index of 84%, showing that camu-camu seed extract may be a potential ingredient for addition to yogurts.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Myrtaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Iogurte , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Células CACO-2 , Catequina/análise , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/análise , Fenóis/análise , Proantocianidinas/análise , Sementes/química
10.
Food Chem ; 306: 125630, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593892

RESUMO

The Myrtaceae family is one of the world's leading commercial fruit tree families. Among the 121 genera belonging to this family, the Syzygium, Eugenia and Campomanesia genera are constituted by a wide variety of fruit species with great potential to be explored economically, besides presenting excellent nutritional value and being considered sources of phytochemicals such as phenolic compounds, carotenoids and volatile compounds. Many of these phytochemicals have been linked to the prevention and management of several chronic and degenerative diseases including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, amnesia among other disorders. In this context, this review discusses about the importance of four fruits species representative of Myrtaceae family such as Syzygium cumini, Syzygium malaccense, Eugenia pyriformis and Campomanesia xanthocarpa, focusing on the nutrients and phytochemical constituents as well as demonstrating their biological effects in order to stimulate the cultivation and consumption of these fruits.


Assuntos
Myrtaceae/química , Frutas/química , Valor Nutritivo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Árvores
11.
Food Chem ; 309: 125794, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784074

RESUMO

Jabuticaba is a Brazilian berry rich in phenolic compounds (PC), which are mainly concentrated in its peel and seed (JPS), fractions that are not usually consumed. Thus, to develop a powder with potential functional properties, we investigated the effect of pressurization and dehydration methods on the chemical composition of JPS, with emphasis on PC. JPS showed a very diverse PC profile, including phenolic acids, flavonoids, ellagitannins and proanthocyanidins. Contrary to our hypothesis, pressurization was ineffective in increasing total PC contents of JPS. Freeze-drying and oven-drying at 75 °C yielded powders with similar total PC contents, but with distinct profile, the former richer in anthocyanins and the latter in ellagitannins. Considering that both dehydration methods produced a jabuticaba powder rich in PC, and that freeze-drying is a higher cost method, the choice between these drying methods depends on the purpose of the final product.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas , Myrtaceae/química , Fenóis/química , Antocianinas/química , Antioxidantes/química , Liofilização , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/química , Pressão Hidrostática , Myrtaceae/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo
12.
Food Chem ; 307: 125515, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648177

RESUMO

This study evaluated the polyphenol profile and the antioxidative properties of Plinia trunciflora (O. Berg) Kausel fruits. Folin-Ciocalteau and pH-jumping methods indicated that these berries are a major source of antioxidant polyphenols (1201.05 mg GAE/100 g FW), particularly anthocyanins. HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS analysis identified cyanidine glycosides as the main components. Flavon-3-ols and hydrolysable-tannins were also found. CAA assay showed that extracts of P. trunciflora fruits prevent lipid peroxidation in HepG2 cells with higher efficacy than other colourful fruits (CAA50 935.25 mg FW/mL cell medium). Moreover, our results suggested that the observed antioxidant protection involve both redox active properties of P. trunciflora components, as measured by ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assays, and upregulation of the genes coding for the antioxidant enzymes MnSOD and GPx, as evaluated by qRT-PCR. Collectively, our data provided evidence on the potential of P. trunciflora fruit as a very rich source of natural antioxidant molecules.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Myrtaceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Myrtaceae/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/análise , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Food Chem ; 309: 125715, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685368

RESUMO

Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) is a flowering plant native to southern and southeastern Asia. Up to date, 106 chemical constituents have been isolated and identified from R. tomentosa. Among these compounds, triterpenoids, flavonoids, phenols and meroterpenoids are the major constituents. Investigations of pharmacological activities of R. tomentosa revealed that this edible medicinal herb exhibits a wide range of therapeutic potential including antibacterial, antitumor, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities both in vivo and in vitro. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of R. tomentosa studies until 2019. This article also intends to review advances in the botanical, phytochemical, pharmacological studies and industrial applications of R. tomentosa, which will provide a useful bibliography for further investigations and applications of R. tomentosa in medicines and foods.


Assuntos
Myrtaceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Myrtaceae/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo
14.
Food Chem ; 309: 125735, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704077

RESUMO

Jabuticaba (Myrciaria jaboticaba (Vell.) Berg) is a Brazilian berry, very appreciated for in natura consumption. However, its epicarp is not normally consumed due to its stiffness and astringent taste, and in manufacture of products from jabuticaba fruit, it is responsible for the generation of large amounts of residues. The exploration of by-products is becoming important for the obtainment of valuable bioactive compounds for food and pharmaceutical industries. In this context, jabuticaba epicarp was studied regarding its chemical composition, namely in terms of phenolic compounds, tocopherols, and organic acids, and its bioactive properties, such as antioxidant, anti-proliferate, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. A total of sixteen phenolic compounds, four tocopherols and six organic acids were identified in jabuticaba epicarp. Regarding bioactive properties, it showed high antioxidant activity, also presenting moderate anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and antimicrobial activities. The extract did not present hepatotoxicity, confirming the possibility of its applications without toxicity issues.


Assuntos
Myrtaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brasil , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/química , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/isolamento & purificação , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Myrtaceae/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Células RAW 264.7 , Tocoferóis/química , Tocoferóis/isolamento & purificação
15.
Molecules ; 25(1)2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878221

RESUMO

Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (Kunth) McVaugh) is a fruit economically relevant to the Amazon region, mostly consumed in the form of processed pulp. Our aim was to perform an unprecedented comparative study on the chemical composition and bioactivities of the camu-camu pulp and industrial bio-residues (peel and seed), and then the most promising fruit part was further explored as a functionalized ingredient in yogurt. A total of twenty-three phenolic compounds were identified, with myricetin-O-pentoside and cyanindin-3-O-glucoside being the main compounds in peels, followed by p-coumaroyl hexoside in the pulp, and ellagic acid in the seeds. The peel displayed the richest phenolic profile among samples, as well as the most significant antibacterial (MICs = 0.625-10 mg/mL) and anti-proliferative (GI50 = 180 µg/mL against HeLa cells) activities. For this reason, it was selected to be introduced in a food system (yogurt). Taken together, our results suggest the possibility of using the camu-camu peel as a source of food additives.


Assuntos
Ingredientes de Alimentos , Myrtaceae/química , Iogurte/análise , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Açúcares/análise
16.
Zootaxa ; 4571(1): zootaxa.4571.1.7, 2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715833

RESUMO

Two new species of Mimallonidae are described from the Brazilian Cerrado. One species belongs to Procinnus Herbin, 2016 and the second to Micrallo St Laurent and C. Mielke, 2016, both considered to belong to Druenticinae St Laurent and Kawahara, 2018. Procinnus incanus sp. n. is described from Bahia, Goiás, Distrito Federal, Minas Gerais, and São Paulo and is characterized by its wing habitus and male genitalia. Micrallo macro sp. n., the second species to be placed in Micrallo, is described from Minas Gerais. It differs from M. minutus St Laurent and C. Mielke, 2016 by larger size and distinct genitalia of both the male and female. All taxa involved are figured along with their genitalia. Holotypes designated here are deposited in the Coll. Padre Jesus S. Moure, in the Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.


Assuntos
Lepidópteros , Myrtaceae , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Genitália , Genitália Masculina , Masculino
17.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731626

RESUMO

Natural compounds could be a complementary alternative to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) management. This study determined the effects of an aqueous extract of Myrciaria jaboticaba peel (EJP) (50 g L-1) on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced colitis. Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: HC-healthy control, CC-colitis control, DC-drug control, SJ-short-term treatment with EJP, and LJ-long-term treatment with EJP. The EJP treatments reduced body weight loss, stool consistency score, and spleen enlargement. Gut microbiota was modulated through increased Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium counts after EJP treatment. Short-chain fatty acids were also higher in the EJP treatment groups. The antioxidant enzyme activities were greater than CC or DC controls. Myeloperoxidase activity (LJ), inducible nitric oxide synthase (LJ/SJ), and intercellular adhesion molecule (SJ) levels were lower than in the CC group. EJP decreased histological scoring, mucosal thickness, and preserved the crypts and histological structure. Therefore, EJP showed beneficial effects and could be potentially used as an adjuvant in IBD treatment.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Bifidobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Lactobacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Myrtaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Frutas/química , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Ácido Trinitrobenzenossulfônico
18.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 71(12): 1832-1838, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588559

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the diuretic efficacy of myricetin-3-O-α-rhamnoside (myricitrin), a common naturally occurring plant-derived flavonoid, obtained from Marlierea eugeniopsoides (D.Legrand & Kausel) D.Legrand leaves in rats. METHODS: For that, female Wistar rats were treated by oral route with the different treatments and kept in metaboloic cages for 8-h or 24-h experiment. The volume and urinary parameters were measured at the end of the period and compared between groups. KEY FINDINGS: When orally given to rats and compared to the vehicle-treated group, myricitrin (0.3 and 1 mg/kg) was able to stimulate rat diuresis, natriuresis and kaliuresis. The combination myricitrin plus hydrochlorothiazide, but not plus furosemide or amiloride, potentiated the urinary volume when compared to the effects of drugs alone. Besides, the 8-h renal effects of myricitrin were prevented in the presence of a cyclooxygenase inhibitor and a muscarinic receptor antagonist. However, all groups treated with myricitrin showed a significant reduction in Cl- excretion. In addition, a reduction in the urinary excretion of Cl- and HCO 3 - was detected on 24-h analysis, a result that showed to be associated with an increase of these anions in the blood samples from the myricitrin-treated group. Despite these alterations, no changes in urinary or blood pH were detected. CONCLUSIONS: Taking together, although the results of this study point to the diuretic potential of myricitrin, the reduction in urinary Cl- and HCO 3 - excretion should be considered in future approaches, as well as for therapeutic applicability.


Assuntos
Diuréticos/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Myrtaceae/química , Animais , Diurese/efeitos dos fármacos , Diuréticos/administração & dosagem , Diuréticos/isolamento & purificação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Hidroclorotiazida/administração & dosagem , Hidroclorotiazida/farmacologia , Natriurese/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
19.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 9(11): 3513-3520, 2019 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540972

RESUMO

Accurate feature annotation as well as assembly contiguity are important requisites of a modern genome assembly. They allow large-scale comparison of genomes across and within species and identification of polymorphisms, leading evolutionary and functional studies. We report an updated genome resource for Metrosideros polymorpha, the most dominant tree species in the Hawaiian native forests and a unique example of rapid and remarkable ecological diversification of woody species. Ninety-one percent of the bases in the sequence assembly (304 Mb) were organized into 11 pseudo-molecules, which would represent the chromosome structure of the species assuming the synteny to a close relative Eucalyptus Our complementary approach using manual annotation and automated pipelines identified 11.30% of the assembly to be transposable elements, in contrast to 4.1% in previous automated annotation. By increasing transcript and protein sequence data, we predicted 27,620 gene models with high concordance from the supplied evidence. We believe that this assembly, improved for contiguity, and annotation will be valuable for future evolutionary studies of M. polymorpha and closely related species, facilitating the isolation of specific genes and the investigation of genome-wide polymorphisms associated with ecological divergence.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Myrtaceae/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Fenômenos Ecológicos e Ambientais , Eucalyptus/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular
20.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0221998, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498844

RESUMO

In Southeast Asia, primary tropical rainforests are usually dominated by ectomycorrhizal (ECM) trees belonging to Dipterocarpaceae, although arbuscular mycorrhizal trees often outcompete them after disturbances such as forest fires and clear-cutting, thus preventing dipterocarp regeneration. In some secondary tropical forests, however, potentially ECM trees belonging to Tristaniopsis (Myrtaceae) become dominant and may help ECM dipterocarp forests to recover. However, we have no information about their mycorrhizal status in these settings. In this study, we analyzed ECM fungal communities in tropical secondary forests dominated by Tristaniopsis and investigated which ECM fungal species are shared with other tropical or temperate areas. In total, 100 samples were collected from four secondary forests dominated by Tristaniopsis on Bangka Island. ECM tips in the soil samples were subjected to molecular analyses to identify both ECM and host species. Based on a >97% ITS sequence similarity threshold, we identified 56 ECM fungal species dominated by Thelephoraceae, Russulaceae, and Clavulinaceae. Some of the ECM fungal species were shared between dominant Tristaniopsis and coexisting Eucalyptus or Quercus trees, including 5 common to ECM fungi recorded in a primary mixed dipterocarp forest at Lambir Hill, Malaysia. In contrast, no ECM fungal species were shared with other geographical regions, even with Tristaniopsis in New Caledonia. These results imply that secondary tropical forests dominated by Tristaniopsis harbor diverse ECM fungi, including those that inhabit primary dipterocarp forests in the same geographical region. They may function as refugia for ECM fungi, given that dipterocarp forests are disappearing quickly due to human activity.


Assuntos
Florestas , Ilhas , Micorrizas/isolamento & purificação , Myrtaceae/microbiologia , Clima Tropical , Indonésia , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Árvores
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