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1.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 38(2): 184-189, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611866

RESUMO

Background and Aim of the Study: The topical anesthetic property of clove remains unexplored even though it has been widely used in dentistry since ages. Hence, the aim of the study was to compare the topical anesthetic efficiency of precooling with ice, clove-papaya based topical gel and benzocaine gel in pediatric patients. Methodology: Sixty healthy children aged 9-10 years who required local anesthetic injections for dental procedures were selected and divided into three groups with 20 patients each. In the first visit, written consent and intraoral screening of the patients were performed. In the second visit, the topical anesthetic agents were applied in the respective groups for 1 min and later local anesthetic injections were administered. Pain perception was evaluated using Sound, Eye, Motor Scale (SEM scale) and Wong Baker Faces Pain Rating Scale (WBFPRS), tabulated, and statistically analyzed. A. Results: The test results demonstrated that benzocaine group has the highest mean WBFPRS score followed by clove-papaya group and then ice cone group. The ice group showed the least mean SEM scale score, followed by the benzocaine group and then clove-papaya group. However, the mean WBFPRS score and the mean SEM scale score did not show any statistically significant difference. Interpretation and Conclusion: All the three topical anesthetic agents provided similar surface anesthesia in children. The newly introduced clove-papaya based topical anesthetic gel showed encouraging results, hence can be used as a potent topical anesthetic agent.


Assuntos
Anestesia Dentária , Carica , Syzygium , Anestésicos Locais , Benzocaína , Criança , Humanos , Lidocaína , Medição da Dor , Percepção da Dor
2.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234964, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614844

RESUMO

In this study, a facile, ecological and economical green method is described for the fabrication of iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) from the extract of Syzygium cumini leaves. The obtained metal NPs were categorized using UV/Vis, SEM, TEM, FTIR and EDX-ray spectroscopy techniques. The Fe-, Cu- and Ag-NPs were crystalline, spherical and size ranged from 40-52, 28-35 and 11-19 nm, respectively. The Ag-NPs showed excellent antimicrobial activities against methicillin- and vancomycin-resistance Staphylococcus aureus bacterial strains and Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus fungal species. Furthermore, the aflatoxins (AFs) production was also significantly inhibited when compared with the Fe- and Cu-NPs. In contrast, the adsorption results of NPs with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) were observed as following order Fe->Cu->Ag-NPs. The Langmuir isotherm model well described the equilibrium data by the sorption capacity of Fe-NPs (105.3 ng mg-1), Cu-NPs (88.5 ng mg-1) and Ag-NPs (81.7 ng mg-1). The adsorption was found feasible, endothermic and follow the pseudo-second order kinetic model as revealed by the thermodynamic and kinetic studies. The present findings suggests that the green synthesis of metal NPs is a simple, sustainable, non-toxic, economical and energy-effective as compared to the others conventional approaches. In addition, synthesized metal NPs might be a promising AFs adsorbent for the detoxification of AFB1 in human and animal food/feed.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Biotecnologia/métodos , Cobre , Química Verde/métodos , Ferro , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Prata , Desintoxicação por Sorção , Syzygium/metabolismo , Adsorção , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Aspergillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergillus flavus/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Química Analítica , Cobre/administração & dosagem , Cobre/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Ferro/farmacologia , Cinética , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Oxirredução , Prata/administração & dosagem , Prata/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Termodinâmica , Vancomicina/farmacologia
3.
Planta Med ; 86(12): 876-883, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645736

RESUMO

Advanced glycation end products and methylglyoxal are known to show increased levels in diabetic conditions and induce diverse metabolic disorders. However, the antiglycation ability of the bark of Syzygium aromaticum is not yet studied. In this study, we determined the inhibitory effects of S. aromaticum on AGE formation. Moreover, S. aromaticum showed breakage and inhibitory ability against the formation of AGE-collagen crosslinks. In SV40 MES13 cells, treatment with the S. aromaticum extract significantly ameliorated MG-induced oxidative stress as well as cytotoxicity. Furthermore, in the S. aromaticum extract-treated group, there was a reduction in levels of several diabetic markers, such as blood glucose, kidney weight, and urinary albumin to creatinine ratio in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Treatment with the S. aromaticum extract significantly increased the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, a transcription factor involved in the expression of antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, the treatment significantly upregulated the expression of glyoxalase 1 and downregulated the expression of receptor for AGEs. These results suggest that the S. aromaticum extract might ameliorate diabetes-induced renal damage by inhibiting the AGE-induced glucotoxicity and oxidative stress through the Nrf2/Glo1 pathway.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Lactoilglutationa Liase , Syzygium , Animais , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos
4.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 2171-2195, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32280213

RESUMO

Purpose: Clove essential oil is a phytochemical possessing a vast array of biological activities. Nevertheless, fabricating nano topical delivery systems targeted to augment the anti-inflammatory activity of the oil has not been investigated so far. Accordingly, in this study, controlled release nanoparticulate systems, namely nanoemulgel and nanofibers (NFs), of the oil were developed to achieve such goal. Methods: The nanoemulsion was incorporated in the hydrogel matrix of mixed biopolymers - chitosan, guar gum and gum acacia - to formulate nanoemulsion-based nanoemulgel. Taguchi's model was adopted to evaluate the effect of independently controlled parameters, namely, the concentration of chitosan (X1), guar gum (X2), and gum acacia (X3) on different dependently measured parameters. Additionally, the nanoemulsion-based NFs were prepared by the electrospinning technique using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer. Extensive in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo evaluations of the aforementioned formulae were conducted. Results: Both Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) established the complete dispersion of the nanoemulsion in the polymeric matrices of the prepared nanoemulgel and NFs. The ex vivo skin permeation data of clove essential oil from the prepared formulations showed that NFs can sustain its penetration through the skin comparably with nanoemulgel. Topical treatment with NFs (once application) and nanoemulgel (twice application) evoked a marvelous in vivo anti-inflammatory activity against croton oil-induced mouse skin inflammation model when compared with pure clove essential oil along with relatively higher efficacy of medicated NFs than that of medicated nanoemulgel. Such prominent anti-inflammatory activity was affirmed by histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations. Conclusion: These results indicated that nanoemulsion-based nanoemulgel and nanoemulsion-based NFs could be introduced to the phytomedicine field as promising topical delivery systems for effective treatment of inflammatory diseases instead of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that possess adverse effects.


Assuntos
Óleo de Cravo/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/uso terapêutico , Emulsões/química , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Nanofibras/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Syzygium/química , Tecidos Suporte/química , Administração Tópica , Animais , Óleo de Cravo/farmacologia , Inflamação/patologia , Cinética , Masculino , Camundongos , Nanofibras/ultraestrutura , Permeabilidade , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar , Absorção Cutânea , Testes de Irritação da Pele , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 718: 137328, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325622

RESUMO

The plant-based biopesticides have been proposed as insect pest control tools that seem to be safer for the environment and human health when compared to synthetic conventional molecules. However, such assumptions are generally made without considering the absence of detrimental effects on sublethally-exposed non-target organisms or showing the physiological basis of the selective action of such botanical products. Thus, by using in silico-based and in vivo toxicological approaches, the present investigation aimed to disentangle the ecotoxicological selectivity of clove, Syzygium aromaticum, essential oil against the aphid Rhopalosiphum maidis and the non-target ladybeetle, Coleomegilla maculata. We also investigated whether the sublethal exposure to clove essential oil would affect the locomotory and predatory abilities of C. maculata. We found that the clove essential oil concentration estimated to kill 95% (LC95: 0.17 µL/cm2) of the aphids was lethal to <18% of C. maculata. Indeed, our in silico results reinforced such differential susceptibility, as it predicted that eugenol and ß-caryophyllene (i.e., the clove essential oil major components) bound to three potential molecular targets (i.e., transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, octopamine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors) of the aphids but only to the octopamine receptors of the ladybeetles. Additionally, the ladybeetles that were exposure to the clove essential oil exhibited unaffected abilities to locomote and to prey upon R. maidis aphids when compared to unexposed ladybeetles. Thus, by displaying lower toxicity against the ladybeetles, the clove essential oil represents a safer alternative tool to be integrated into programs aiming to manage aphid infestations.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Animais , Óleo de Cravo , Controle de Insetos , Óleos Voláteis , Syzygium
6.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(6): 1439-1448, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185411

RESUMO

The present investigation aimed to evaluate antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant efficacy of essential oils of three commonly used spices (black pepper, cinnamon and clove) in combination along with chemical characterization and toxicity evaluation. Among the possible combinations tested, cinnamon/clove oil combination showed synergistic antibacterial activity against foodborne bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and synergistic antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger as well as synergistic antioxidant potential in DPPH radical scavenging model system. GC-HRMS analysis revealed that out of thirteen identified components from clove oil, eugenol was found to be the main constituent of the oil; whereas out of twenty one identified constituents from cinnamon oil, the main component was cinnamaldehyde. Cinnamon/clove oil combination did not show any cytotoxic potential at recommended dosage level (IC50 > 2000 µg/ml). The results provide evidence that cinnamon/clove oil combination might indeed be used as a potential source of safe and effective novel natural antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant blend in the food and pharmaceutical industries. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a combination of essential oils has been tested as natural preservatives to prevent both microbial proliferation and oxidative deterioration at sufficiently low concentrations.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Óleo de Cravo/farmacologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Acroleína/análogos & derivados , Acroleína/farmacologia , Aspergillus niger/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Óleo de Cravo/química , Eugenol/farmacologia , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Piper nigrum/química , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Syzygium/química
7.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 25, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Candida vaginitis is a global health hazard that increases morbidity among women of childbearing age. Recent studies have revealed a high incidence of drug-resistant Candida strains. Additionally, treating Candida vulvovaginitis during pregnancy is challenging as antifungal therapy is associated with fetal abnormalities. Hence, it is important to develop novel therapeutic strategies to treat vulvovaginal candidiasis. METHODS: In this study, we used the disc diffusion method to evaluate the anticandidal activity of different Syzygium aromaticum extracts (methanol, ethyl acetate, n-hexane, and diethyl ether) against C. albicans, C. glabrata, and C. tropicalis. Furthermore, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of different S. aromaticum extracts was performed to determine active components exhibiting anticandidal activity. Cytotoxicity of different clove extracts against the HUH7 cell line was evaluated. RESULTS: The ethyl acetate extract exhibited the highest antifungal activity against C. albicans, C. glabrata, and C. tropicalis with inhibition zone diameters of 20.9, 14.9, and 30.7 mm, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the S. aromaticum ethyl acetate extract was 250 µg/disc against C. tropicalis, and 500 µg/disc against C. albicans and C. glabrata, while the minimum fungicidal concentration was 0.5 mg/disc against C. tropicalis and 1 mg/disc against the C. albicans and C. glabrata. GC-MS analysis of the ethyl acetate extract revealed the main bioactive compound as eugenol (58.88%), followed by eugenyl acetate (23.86%), trans-caryophyllene (14.44%), and α-humulene (1.88%). The cytotoxicity assay indicated that the diethyl ether extract demonstrated the lowest toxicological effect against the HUH7 cell line, with a relative IC50 of 62.43 µg/ml; the methanolic extract demonstrated a higher toxicity (IC50, 24.17 µg/ml). CONCLUSION: As the S. aromaticum extract exhibited high antifungal activity at low concentrations, it can be a potential source of natural antifungal drugs.


Assuntos
Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida glabrata/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida tropicalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Syzygium/química , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Arábia Saudita
8.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 412(4): 933-948, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927601

RESUMO

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were investigated as extracting solvent for headspace single-drop microextraction (HS-SDME). The extraction efficiency of 10 DESs mainly composed of tetrabutylammonium bromide (N4444Br) and long-chain alcohols was evaluated for the extraction of terpenes from six spices (cinnamon, cumin, fennel, clove, thyme, and nutmeg). The DES composed of N4444Br and dodecanol at a molar ratio of 1:2 showed the highest extraction efficiency and was selected to conduct the extractions of terpenes in the rest of the study. HS-SDME was optimized by design of experiments. Only two parameters from the four studied showed a significant influence on the efficiency of the method: the extraction time and the extraction temperature. The optimal extraction conditions were determined by response surface methodology. All extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). More than 40 terpenes were extracted and identified in nutmeg, the richest extract in terpenes in this study. Quantitative analysis based on 29 standards was conducted for each extract. Good linearity was obtained for all standards (R2 > 0.99) in the interval of 1 to 500 µg/g. Limits of quantification ranged from 0.47 µg/g (borneol) to 86.40 µg/g (α-farnesene) with more than half of the values under 2 µg/g. HS-SDME is simple, rapid, and cheap compared with conventional extraction methods. The use of DESs makes this extraction method "greener" and it was shown that DESs can be suitable solvents for the extraction of bioactive compounds from plants.


Assuntos
Microextração em Fase Líquida/métodos , Especiarias/análise , Terpenos/análise , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Cuminum/química , Foeniculum/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Myristica/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Solventes/química , Syzygium/química , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação , Thymus (Planta)/química
9.
Nat Prod Res ; 34(4): 567-574, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30317865

RESUMO

The antibacterial activity of Pimpinella anisum L., Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Syzygium aromaticum, and Cuminum cyminum L. essential oils (EOs) against some common pathogenic microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 14990, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 1915, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 7966, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 10005, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883, and Candida albicans ATCC 10231) and their biofilms was studied. The EOs inhibitory effects were evaluated by both Agar Well Diffusion assay and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) determination. The most active EOs, cinnamon and cloves, were also tested on 18, 24, 48, 72 hours mature biofilms. Cinnamon and cloves exhibited the best results showing a significant activity against all the tested bacteria. Concerning biofilm, results suggest that Cinnamomum zeylanicum oil may be a useful approach to impair the biofilm produced by the tested Gram-negative bacteria. [Formula: see text].


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Especiarias , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Cuminum/química , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Syzygium/química
10.
Br Poult Sci ; 61(2): 169-172, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846360

RESUMO

1. The aim was to evaluate the acaricidal effects of pure active components of essential oils against poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) as an alternative to chemical acaricides (organophosphates and pyrethroids).2. The toxicities of five pure active components of essential oils (eugenol from clove bud, eucalyptol from rosemary, limonene from citrus fruits, linalool from lavender and cinnamaldehyde from cinnamon) were tested on D. gallinae females in an impregnated paper assay.3. The active substances were dissolved in water and Tween 20 and applied at concentrations ranging from 0.002 to 0.06 µl/cm2. Toxicity was expressed as a lethal dose (LD50 or LD90).4. The highest mortality was observed with eugenol. The LD90 was estimated to be 5.1 µg/cm2 for this substance, followed by cinnamaldehyde, the LD90 of which was estimated to be 11.0 µg/cm2. Limonene and eucalyptol were generally less effective in controlling D. gallinae.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Ácaros , Óleos Voláteis , Syzygium , Animais , Galinhas , Feminino
11.
Food Chem ; 312: 126086, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887623

RESUMO

Garlic-based extracts have been surveyed as healthy promoting supplements in relation to their content of organosulfur compounds. The present study investigated the effect of high pressure extraction and maceration, and four extraction solvents (three hydroalcoholic mixtures and sunflower oil) on the total and relative amounts of the main organosulfur compounds of clove and stem extracts of the Italian ecotype "Aglio Rosso di Sulmona" (Sulmona Red Garlic). Organosulfur compounds were more abundant in cloves than in stem extracts. High pressure extraction led to higher recoveries of hydrophilic compounds than maceration whereas the highest amounts of lipophilic compounds were detected in macerates. A higher alliin-to-allicin conversion ratio was detected in clove, in comparison to stem extracts. Sunflower oil fostered allicin decay to compounds such as ajoenes, vinyldithiins and sulfides. The use of specific extraction methods may lead to standardised grade extracts, both from native raw materials and by-products.


Assuntos
Alho/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Caules de Planta/química , Compostos de Enxofre/química , Ecótipo , Alho/genética , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Pressão , Syzygium
12.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 51(5): 337-342, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31831923

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The inhibitory potential and percent inhibition of Syzygium aromaticum oil and fresh juice of Ocimum sanctum leaves on beta-lactamase enzyme of cecal samples of healthy broilers were studied on samples phenotypically positive for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four hundred cecal samples screened for ESBL-producing E. coli were collected from 38 poultry sale outlets located in Jabalpur. The effect of S. aromaticum oil and O. sanctum leaves was seen by colorimetric assay with CENTA and Nitrocefin as chromogenic substrate. RESULTS: Mean absorbance value was inversely propotional to the inhibitory potential. Syzigium aromaticum exhibited 0.4±0.02 and 0.41±0.03 mean absorbance value, 28 per cent and 27 per cent of inhibition with CENTA and Nitrocefin respectively. Ocimum sanctum mean absorbance value and per cent inhibition with CENTA and Nitrocefin was 2.03±0.02 and 10.0 ; 1.97±0.06 and 10.0 respectively (p>0.05) showing non- significant difference in CENTA and Nitrocefin activity. Tazobactum (100 µM) as standard control exhibited a mean absorbance value of 0.12 ± 0.01 and 0.13 ± 0.01 and percent inhibition of 99.88 and 98 against CENTA and Nitrocefin, respectively. Combination of Ocimum sanctum and Syzigium aromaticum showed range of 1.69±0.05 to 1.90±0.08 1.61±0.06 to 1.92±0.08 of absorbance value with per cent inhibition of 14 to 15.9 with CENTA and Nitrocefin respectively. CONCLUSION: The results depicted that the inhibition of beta-lactamase enzyme activity with S. aromaticum oil was higher than that of O. sanctum leaf juice, and combination of both the herbs showed not much difference in activity.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Ocimum sanctum/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Syzygium/química , Animais , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Índia , Folhas de Planta , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo
13.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(4): e20190052, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800704

RESUMO

The biotechnological potential of yeasts associated to different habitats in Colombia has been poorly studied, especially the yeasts associated with different plant structures. Fruit pulps are interesting substrates mainly for the growth of yeast species, that can positively affect the productivity and quality of some bioeconomic species. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify the dominant yeast species associated with mango and rose apple fruit pulps in Cali, Colombia. A total of 90 isolates were obtained, which were grouped considering their colony morphology. The D1/D2 domain of the large ribosomal RNA gene (LSU rRNA gene) or internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1, ribosomal gene 5.8S and ITS 2 (ITS) regions of one to several representative isolates from each group was sequenced and compared with type strains for identification. The species Hanseniaspora thailandica, H. opuntiae and Clavispora lusitaniae were reported as shared by both fruits, specific for rose apple (H. uvarum, Pichia terricola, Rhodosporidiobolus ruineniae and Candida albicans), or for Mango (Meyerozyma caribbica, M. guilliermondii, C. natalensis, Aureobasidium pullulans, Pichia sp., Saturnispora diversa and C. jaroonii). Two morphotypes were not identified at the taxonomic level of species and were reported as candidates for new species, belonging to the genera Wickerhamomyces and Pichia.


Assuntos
DNA Fúngico/genética , Frutas/microbiologia , Mangifera/microbiologia , Syzygium/microbiologia , Leveduras/genética , Colômbia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Leveduras/classificação , Leveduras/isolamento & purificação
14.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 7024785, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31871554

RESUMO

Plant parts and their bioactive compounds are widely used by mankind for their health benefits. Cleistocalyx nervosum var. paniala is one berry fruit, native to Thailand, known to exhibit various health benefits in vitro. The present study was focused on analyzing the antiaging, stress resistance, and neuroprotective effects of C. nervosum in model system Caenorhabditis elegans using physiological assays, fluorescent imaging, and qPCR analysis. The results suggest that the fruit extract was able to significantly extend the median and maximum lifespan of the nematode. It could also extend the healthspan by reducing the accumulation of the "age pigment" lipofuscin, inside the nematode along with regulating the expression of col-19, egl-8, egl-30, dgk-1, and goa-1 genes. Further, the extracts upregulated the expression of daf-16 while downregulating the expression of daf-2 and age-1 in wild-type nematodes. Interestingly, it could extend the lifespan in DAF-16 mutants suggesting that the extension of lifespan and healthspan was dependent and independent of DAF-16-mediated pathway. The fruit extract was also observed to reduce the level of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) inside the nematode during oxidative stress. The qPCR analysis suggests the involvement of skn-1 and sir-2.1 in initiating stress resistance by activating the antioxidant mechanism. Additionally, the fruit could also elicit neuroprotection as it could extend the median and maximum lifespan of transgenic strain integrated with Aß. SKN-1 could play a pivotal role in establishing the antiaging, stress resistance, and neuroprotective effect of C. nervosum. Overall, C. nervosum can be used as a nutraceutical in the food industry which could offer potential health benefits.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Syzygium/química , Envelhecimento , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Neuroproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
15.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224810, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689339

RESUMO

Insect repellents are widely used as the first line of defense against mosquito bites and transmission of disease-causing agents. However, the cost of daily applications of even the most affordable and the gold standard of insect repellents, DEET, is still high for low-income populations where repellents are needed the most. An Indian clove-based homemade recipe has been presented as a panacea. We analyzed this homemade repellent and confirmed by behavioral measurements and odorant receptor responses that eugenol is the active ingredient in this formulation. Prepared as advertised, this homemade repellent is ineffective, whereas 5x more concentrated extracts from the brand most enriched in eugenol showed moderate repellency activity against Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. DEET showed higher performance when compared to the 5x concentrated formulation and is available in the same market at a lower price than the cost of the ingredients to prepare the homemade formulation.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Culex/efeitos dos fármacos , DEET/toxicidade , Repelentes de Insetos/toxicidade , Syzygium/química , Animais , DEET/química , Etanol , Eugenol/toxicidade , Repelentes de Insetos/química , Oócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oócitos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Receptores Odorantes/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Food Funct ; 10(11): 7037-7041, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625548

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine dietary salicylate content in selected culinary herbs and spices, using the RP-HPLC method with fluorescence detection. The highest concentrations of salicylates were found in dried basil and cumin, followed by dried oregano and cloves. Our research contributes to the global database of salicylate content in food products.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/química , Salicilatos/química , Especiarias/análise , Cuminum/química , Ocimum basilicum/química , Origanum/química , Syzygium/química
17.
Andrologia ; 51(11): e13448, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642101

RESUMO

Focusing on its application in reproductive biotechnology, we evaluated the effects of the essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum (EOSA) on bovine epididymal sperm quality variables, including morphology, membrane functional integrity, membrane structural integrity, mitochondrial activity, metabolic activity, motility and oxidative stress by reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Bovine spermatozoa from eight males were incubated into the following groups: EOSA0 (without EOSA), EOSA10 (10 µg/ml of EOSA), EOSA15 (15 µg/ml of EOSA) and EOSA20 (20 µg/ml of EOSA); the incubation time with and without the EOSA was 1 or 6 hr. None of the sperm quality variables presented difference among the EOSA concentrations. However, the incubation time had a significant effect on the membrane functional integrity, membrane structural integrity, mitochondrial activity, progressive motility and some kinetic parameters. The effect of interaction among EOSA and incubation time was significant only on ROS levels. Spermatozoa incubated in the presence of 15 µg/ml of the EOSA for 1 hr had significantly reduced ROS levels compared with all other groups in the same time. In conclusion, the EOSA at a concentration of 15 µg/ml has antioxidant effects and protects bovine epididymal spermatozoa; hence, the EOSA may potentially be used in the field of reproductive biotechnology.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Syzygium , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Bovinos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Masculino , Óleos Voláteis/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/metabolismo
18.
Mymensingh Med J ; 28(4): 779-791, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599241

RESUMO

Evaluation of the in vitro antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts isolated from Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) buds against three food borne pathogens, gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative Escherichia coli & Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This interventional study was carried out during the period of July 2018 to June 2019 in the Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics with the collaboration of Department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. The antibacterial activity was tested at different concentrations of both extracts of spice by using disc diffusion & broth dilution method. The extracts were prepared by using solvents aqueous & ethanol. The test microorganisms were also tested for their activity against a standard antibiotic Gentamicin (80mg) by broth dilution method and the result was compared with that of Aqueous and Ethanolic extracts. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of clove had inhibitory activity against the test bacteria. Among different concentrations of the ACE, 500µg/ml & above concentration showed inhibitory effect against Staphylococcus aureus & Escherichia coli and 700µg/ml & above concentration showed inhibitory effect against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In case of ECE, 500µg/ml & above concentration showed inhibitory effect against aforesaid bacteria. In disc diffusion method, S. aureus was found to be most susceptible to ACE (30.5mm) & Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to be most susceptible to ECE (38mm). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of ECE were lower than ACE for the test bacteria except Staphylococcus aureus where MICs of ACE & ECE were the same. This result was also compared against a standard antibiotic Gentamicin where the MICs of Gentamicin were lower in comparison to MICs of ACE & ECE. The present study showed that aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Clove demonstrated antibacterial effects against food borne pathogens.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Syzygium , Bangladesh , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 236, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels. is one of the very popular traditionally used medicinal plants with numerous pharmacological activities including antioxidant, hypoglycemic and anti-inflammatory. However, actions of S. cumini on blood coagulation and other parameters of blood were poorly pharmacologically studied. Therefore, aim of this present investigation is to examine the effects of methanolic extract of S. cumini on blood coagulation and anticoagulation factors in healthy white albino rabbits at different doses. METHODS: Blood samples were drawn twice during this study and biochemical assays were performed to determine the effect on different parameters such as coagulation, anticoagulation, hematological, Protein C (PC) and thrombin antithrombin (TAT) complex and platelet aggregation. RESULTS: The results showed significant increase in RBCs, hemoglobin, hematocrit and platelets counts up to 1.4 × 103/cm, 2.2 g/dl, 6%, 248.2 × 103/cm respectively. While, thrombin and bleeding time were also prolonged in dose dependent manner which is highly significant (p ≤ 0.005) as compared to control. Similarly, highly significantly increased (p ≤ 0.005) in levels of protein C, thrombin antithrombin complex at dose of 500 mg/kg were observed. Whereas, levels of platelets aggregation and fibrinogen were decreased at high doses. CONCLUSION: The obtained findings of hematological and coagulation tests concludes possibly S. cumini possess anticoagulant and antiplatelet effects.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Syzygium/química , Animais , Anticoagulantes/química , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/química , Coelhos
20.
Molecules ; 24(18)2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540346

RESUMO

The development of natural essential oil as an alternative to synthetic chemicals in the control of postharvest decay is currently in the spotlight. In the present study, the efficacy of seven essential oils in suppressing Collelotrichum gloeosporioides identified from sweet cherry was evaluated in vitro and clove oil was proved to be the most promising inhibitor. Thus, the antifungal properties and potential mechanisms of clove oil in vitro and in vivo by fumigation and contact treatments were intensively investigated. For C. gloeosporioides, the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of clove oil in air and contact phase were 80 and 300 µL/L in vitro testing, respectively. Based on the radial growth of C. gloeosporioides mycelium in medium, the fumgitoxic ability of essential oil was observed in a dose-dependent manner, which was not as dramatic as that under in vivo conditions. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy of C. gloeosporioides exposed to clove oil exhibited obviously deleterious morphological and ultrastructural alterations confirming the disruption of fungal cell wall and endomembrane system, which resulted in increasing in permeability and causing the loss of intracellular constituents. In future, essential oils, combined with nano-emulsification approaches, could be good candidates as safe and effective antifungal agents for fungal spoilage of fresh commodities.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Ascomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óleo de Cravo/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Syzygium/química , Antifúngicos/química , Óleo de Cravo/química , Óleos Voláteis/química
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