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1.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 121: 109516, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704616

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The root of Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae), a traditional Chinese medicine, was mainly used in ancient times in the treatment of urinary calculi, recurrent headache and joint pain. AIM OF THE STUDY: Our aims were to explore the potential therapeutic effect of the extract of Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae) roots (EACR) against hepatic fibrosis in CCl4-treated rats and to understand the underlying molecular mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six groups of male Sprague Dawley rats were treated as follows: vehicle (olive oil), CCl4 alone, CCl4+colchicine, CCl4+EACR 1.0 g/kg, CCl4+EACR 0.5 g/kg and CCl4+EACR 0.25 g/kg. At the end of the 12th week, biomarkers of liver function, liver fibrosis, hepatic oxidative stress and antioxidant status were assayed, and histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation of liver tissue were conducted to investigate the liver damage and fibrosis degree. Furthermore, expressions of COL-1a1, α-SMA, TGF-ß1, Smad2, smad3, Smad4 and TIMP2 were examined by qPCR and/or western blot. The expressions of apoptosis-related proteins were also detected using western blot analysis. RESULTS: EACR treatment markedly reduced the CCl4-induced elevation of serum aminotransferase activities, liver fibrosis indexes, and the extent of oxidative stress. EACR treatment also significantly reduced the accumulation of collagen and the immunostaining of α-SMA, TGF-ß1 and Smad2, 4 and 7 in the liver of CCl4 treated rats. In addition, EACR treatment markedly reversed the CCl4-induced increase in mRNA expression of COL-1a1, α-SMA, TIMP2, TGF-ß1, Smad2 and Smad4 and suppressed the expressions of α-SMA, TIMP2, TGF-ß1, smad2, 3 and 4, BAX and cleaved caspase-3 proteins. Meanwhile, EACR treatment also significantly elevated the mRNA expression of Smad7 and the protein expression of Smad7 and Bcl-2. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that EACR has protective activity against liver fibrosis. The anti-fibrotic activity of EACR in vivo is associated with enhanced antioxidant, apoptosis-inhibition and increased MMP-2/TIMP-2 expression ratio, and with modulation of TGF-ß1/Smad signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Oxalidaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Animais , Tetracloreto de Carbono/farmacologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 441, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plant-endophyte symbioses often revolve around nitrogen metabolism, and involve varying degrees of intimacy. Although evidence for vertical inheritance of nitrogen-fixing endophytic bacteria is increasing, it is confined mostly to crop plants, and to date no such system has been reported for geophytes. METHODS: Bacterial endophytes associated with Oxalis, the most species-rich geophytic genus form the Cape Flora in southern Africa was studied. Culturable endophytes were isolated from surface-sterilized vegetative and reproductive plant organs for six host species at three locations. Colonies of microbes on various artificial media were morphotyped, enumerated and identified using sequence data. Filter exclusion experiments were conducted to determine if endophytes were vertically transmitted to seeds, determine if mucilage plays a role to actively attract microbes from the soil and to assess microbial richness isolated from the mucilage of Oxalis seedlings. Fluorescent microscopy was implemented in order to visualize endophytic bacteria in cryo-sectioned seeds. RESULTS: Evidence for a novel, vertically transmitted symbiosis was reported. Communities of nitrogen-fixing and plant growth-promoting Bacillus endophytes were found to associate with selected Oxalis hosts from nitrogen-deficient environments of the Cape. Bacillus endophytes were ubiquitous and diverse across species and plant bodies, and were prominent in seeds. Three common nitrogen-fixing Bacillus have known oxalotrophic properties and appear to be housed inside specialised cavities (containing oxalates) within the plant body and seeds. CONCLUSIONS: The discovery of vertical transmission and potential benefits to both host and endophyte suggest a particularly tight mutualism in the Oxalis-endophyte system. This discovery suggests unexpected ways in which geophytes might avoid nitrogen deficiency, and suggest that such symbioses are more common than previously expected.


Assuntos
Bacillus/fisiologia , Endófitos/fisiologia , Bactérias Fixadoras de Nitrogênio/fisiologia , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Oxalidaceae/microbiologia , Simbiose , Fixação de Nitrogênio
3.
Arch Virol ; 164(11): 2849-2852, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502078

RESUMO

Arracacha virus B type (AVB-T) and oca (AVB-O) strains from arracacha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza) and oca (Oxalis tuberosa) samples collected in 1975 and two additional isolates obtained from arracacha (AVB-PX) and potato (AVB-6A) in Peru in 1976 and 1978, respectively, were studied. In its host responses and serological properties, AVB-PX most resembled AVB-T, whereas AVB-6A most resembled AVB-O. Complete genomic sequences of the RNA-1 and RNA-2 of each isolate were obtained following high-throughput sequencing of RNA extracts from isolates preserved for 38 (AVB-PX) or 32 (the other 3 isolates) years, and compared with a genomic sequence of AVB-O obtained previously (PV-0082). RNA-2 was unexpectedly divergent compared to RNA-1, with the nucleotide (nt) sequence identity of different AVB isolates varying by up to 76% (RNA-2) and 89% (RNA-1). The coat protein amino acid sequences were the most divergent, with AVB-O and AVB-6A having only 68% identity to AVB-T and AVB-PX. Since the RNA2 sequence differences between the two isolate groupings also coincided with host range, symptom, and serological differences, AVB demonstrates considerable intraspecific divergence.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral/genética , RNA Viral/genética , Secoviridae/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Magnoliopsida/virologia , Oxalidaceae/virologia , Peru , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Secoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Solanum tuberosum/virologia
4.
Am J Bot ; 106(6): 879-893, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31157415

RESUMO

PREMISE: Seed germination strategy has profound ecological and evolutionary consequences, with transitions between germination strategies receiving renewed recent attention. Oxalis from the Cape Flora, South Africa, has seeds with two contrasting germination strategies: orthodox and recalcitrant. The morphological gulf between these strategies (and potential intermediate morphologies) has been poorly quantified, with questions regarding their ecological function and evolution. We reconsidered this binary classification, emphasizing potential intermediate states. METHODS: Seed physiological traits were used to assign strategies to 64 Oxalis species. We tested for morphological/phenological signal corresponding to defined strategies with cluster, principal component, K-means clustering and discriminant analyses. RESULTS: We showed that an intermediate germination strategy does exist among Cape Oxalis, with two possible morphological groups within each strategy. These could reflect a continuum of germination states, where an ancestral orthodox strategy evolved toward a maximally recalcitrant peak, with a mosaic of intermediate states reflected in extant taxa. CONCLUSIONS: Environmental factors may affect germination strategy and distribution throughout the Cape because recalcitrant and intermediate species are confined to the winter rainfall region. They occupy specialized niches and may face adverse impacts under predicted climate change (hotter and drier winters), meriting focused future conservation.


Assuntos
Germinação/fisiologia , Oxalidaceae/fisiologia , Sementes/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Oxalidaceae/classificação , África do Sul
5.
Food Chem ; 296: 116-122, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202295

RESUMO

Oca (Oxalis tuberosa) is an underutilized species and represents a novel starch source. Composition and structure of starches from tubers of two commercial oca varieties grown in New Zealand were compared to those of normal maize and potato starches. The phosphorus content of oca starch was ∼60% of that of potato starch. The amylose content of oca starch (∼21%) was lower than that of maize and potato starches (concanavalin A precipitation method). The fine structure of oca amylopectin was much more similar to that of potato amylopectin than to that of maize amylopectin. Oca amylopectin had a shorter internal chain length and less fingerprint B-chains than potato amylopectin. The two oca starches were structurally and compositionally similar. Oca starch granules had a volume moment mean size of 34.5 µm and B-type polymorph. Comparative analysis suggested that oca starch has the potential to be developed as a novel starch source.


Assuntos
Oxalidaceae/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Amido/química , Zea mays/metabolismo , Amilopectina/análise , Amilose/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Nova Zelândia , Fósforo/análise , Difração de Raios X
6.
J R Soc Interface ; 16(151): 20180737, 2019 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958191

RESUMO

Autotomy is a self-defence strategy of sacrificing a body part for survival. This phenomenon is widespread in the animal kingdom (e.g. gecko's tail) but was never reported in plants. In this study, we characterize the autotomy mechanism in the leaves of an invasive plant of South African origin, Oxalis pes-caprae. When the leaves and flowers of this plant are pulled, they break easily at their base, leaving the rest of the plant intact. Microscopic observations of the leaves reveal an area of small cells and a marked notch at this designated breaking point. Mechanical analysis showed that the strength statistics of the petioles follow Weibull's function. A comparison of the function parameters confirmed that strength of the tissue at that point is significantly smaller than at other points along the petiole, while the toughness of the tissue at the notch and at mid-petiole are approximately the same. We conclude that leaf fracture in Oxalis is facilitated by an amplification of the far-field stress in the vicinity of local, but abrupt, geometrical modification in the form of a notch. This presents an autotomy-like defence mechanism which involves the sacrifice of vital organs in order to prevent the uprooting of the whole plant.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Modelos Biológicos , Oxalidaceae/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Oxalidaceae/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia
7.
Nat Prod Res ; 33(8): 1233-1236, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29683369

RESUMO

Two new alkyl glycosides, heptyl vicianoside (1) and methyl 2-O-ß-d-fucopyranosyl-α-l-arabinofuranoside (methyl caramboside, 4), were isolated from the sour fruit of Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae), along with octyl vicianoside (2), cis-3-hexenyl rutinoside (3), and methyl α-d-fructofuranoside (5). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Compounds 2, 3, and 5 were obtained from the genus Averrhoa for the first time. All the compounds were evaluated for in vitro α-glucosidase, pancreatic lipase, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities, but none of them were potent.


Assuntos
Averrhoa/química , Frutas/química , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores da Colinesterase , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Glicosídeos/análise , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Lipase/antagonistas & inibidores , Estrutura Molecular , Oxalidaceae/química , Análise Espectral
9.
Recent Pat Drug Deliv Formul ; 12(3): 170-178, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30039767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Herbal drugs are gaining exponential scientific recognition due to their distinct advantages. In the last 2-3 decades, a gradual increase in worldwide patents on herbal nanoformulations has been noted to address the solubility and bioavailability issues of phytoceuticals. Struvite or ammonium magnesium phosphate hexahydrate (NH4MgPO4.6H2O) is among the important urinary infection stones causing painful urological ailment. These smaller stones may bind together to form bigger staghorn calculus. Urinary tract infections caused by some gram positive and gram negative bacteria further enhance the chance of formation of such stones. Oxalis corniculata Linn. is an edible plant, traditionally used in the treatment of bacterial infections and kidney stones. However, there is no scientific evidence to relate the use of O. corniculata against struvite kidney stones. Hence, the antibacterial and struvite stones inhibition activity of the aqueous extract of Oxalis corniculata Linn. leaves and its biofabricated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was studied. METHODS: The aqueous extract of O. corniculata was prepared by Soxhlet extraction. AgNPs were synthesized using green technique and were characterized using UV and IR spectroscopy, XRD, TEM, DLS and zeta potential studies. Antibacterial activity of the aqueous extract and the silver nanoparticles was tested against E. coli (gram negative) and S. aureus (gram positive) species. Struvite stones were grown in a gel medium by in vitro single diffusion gel growth technique and its inhibition study was carried out using the extract and its biofabricated nanoparticles. RESULTS: The aqueous extract and its biofabricated AgNPs exhibited potent antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram negative strains of bacteria. The aqueous extract also effectively repressed the growth of struvite stones and led to the dissolution of stones, but the inhibitory effect was further enhanced by its biofabricated AgNPs. CONCLUSION: The present work confirms the inhibitory activity of the aqueous extract of edible O. corniculata and its biofabricated silver nanoparticles against urinary tract infection (UTI) causing bacteria and urolithiasis. Therefore, the consumption of O. corniculata in our daily diet may reduce the risk of UTI and urolithiasis.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cálculos/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxalidaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Prata/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Estruvita , Antibacterianos/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Patentes como Assunto , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Prata/química
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 160: 171-177, 2018 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29804013

RESUMO

The present study investigated remediation of mercury-contaminated soils using Oxalis corniculata L. combined with various enhancers (sodium thiosulfate, ammonium thiosulfate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid). The experiment was conducted using Oxalis corniculata seedlings planted in pots containing mercury loaded soils. Investigations included analysis of soil properties, plant growth conditions, ability of the plants to accumulate and extract mercury, and rhizosphere microorganism distribution. The maximal mercury content of the aerial parts and the mercury-translocation ratio of Oxalis corniculata treated with enhancers increased compared to Oxalis corniculata without enhancers. Compared with no enhancers, the theoretical reduction in phytoremediation time was about 50%, 25%, 20% and 21% when Oxalis corniculata was treated with sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3), ammonium thiosulfate ((NH4)2S2O3), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), respectively. The results indicated that the dominant species in rhizosphere soils varied with different enhancers. However, the evenness of background soils, rhizosphere soils of Oxalis corniculata, Oxalis corniculata treated with Na2S2O3, (NH4)2S2O3, EDTA and DTPA was not largely different at 0.62, 0.61, 0.57, 0.64, 0.61 and 0.63, respectively. These findings demonstrate that Oxalis corniculata treated with Na2S2O3 has the potential to recover and reclaim mercury-contaminated soils in pots.


Assuntos
Mercúrio/metabolismo , Oxalidaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Rizosfera , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Tiossulfatos/farmacologia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Ácido Edético/farmacologia , Oxalidaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oxalidaceae/metabolismo , Oxalidaceae/microbiologia , Ácido Pentético/farmacologia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiologia do Solo
11.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 29(2): 501-506, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29692064

RESUMO

Oxalis articulata, an alien clonal plant species, is widely cultivated in China as an ornamental species, and has escaped and became naturalized. Belowground storage in tubers of O. articulata may play a key role for the potential invasion. In this study, we investigated the responses of its clonal resource storage strategy to mowing, aiming to uncover the mechanism underlying their invasion from a perspective of clonal storage. We examined the changes of biomass in different organs, biomass allocation, and several functional traits of roots, tubers and leaves in O. articulata by conducting a greenhouse experiment. The results showed that significant main and interactive effects of mowing intensity and mowing frequency on some functional traits of leaves and roots were found. In contrast, tuber biomass and total biomass did not vary under different mowing treatments. The frequent mowing significantly increased the biomass allocation to tubers. These findings demonstrated that clonal storage, to some extent, could enhance the resistance of O. articulata to environmental disturbance, which might promote its invasiveness.


Assuntos
Oxalidaceae/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Biomassa , China , Espécies Introduzidas , Plantas
12.
Food Res Int ; 105: 989-995, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29433298

RESUMO

Brazil has the greatest vegetal biodiversity in the world, but products derived from native species are not optimally utilized. Oxalis cordata and Xylopia aromatica are two underutilized species whose leaves and fruits, respectively, have been used as food in the 19th century. In this study, we used chemical and in vitro assays to evaluate the potential of these species as functional foods. The inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase and DPP-IV were evaluated using the crude extracts and fractions ethyl acetate, butanol and water of these two species. For polyphenols determination, samples were prepared with different solvents and these were analysed by chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Finally, fatty acids profile was determinated by gas chromatography. The crude extract (IC50=0.84mg/ml), ethyl acetate extract (IC50=0.88mg/ml) an aqueous fraction (IC50=0.63mg/ml) of C. cordata were inhibitory on pancreatic lipase but inactive against dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV). Extracts from X. aromatica were inactive against the lipase pancreatic enzyme, but a butanolic fraction inhibited DPP-IV (IC50=0.71±0.05mg/ml). The phenolic acids orientin/isorientin, chlorogenic acid (0.32g/100g) and the flavonoid derivatives rutin (0.27g/100g), quercetin and luteolin were observed in all products. Additionally, fatty acid quantification showed that oleic (7.5g/100g) and linoleic acid (6.5g/100g) were predominant in X. aromatica fruit. This study confirms the potential for the use of both plants as functional foods due to their nutritional value, biological activity and important phytochemical content.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Alimento Funcional/análise , Lipase/antagonistas & inibidores , Valor Nutritivo , Oxalidaceae/química , Pâncreas/enzimologia , Xylopia/química , Fármacos Antiobesidade/química , Fármacos Antiobesidade/isolamento & purificação , Brasil , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/química , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/isolamento & purificação , Frutas/química , Pradaria , Lipase/isolamento & purificação , Lipase/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Solventes/química
13.
Food Chem ; 245: 890-898, 2018 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29287457

RESUMO

The aims of this research were to investigate if pulsed electric field (PEF) treatments caused cellular/structural alterations in Oxalis tuberosa (oca) tubers and if PEF treatment could reduce tuber oxalate levels. Whole oca tubers were treated with PEF at different electric field strengths up to 1.2 kV/cm. PEF treatments above 0.5 kV/cm caused tubers to soften, but differences in the electrical properties of the tuber tissues led to an uneven PEF effect with the tuber inner cores softening more than the middle regions. Cell viability tests confirmed the unevenness of the PEF effect, however PEF caused no changes in overall tuber/tissue structure. Even at high electric field strengths the cell remained largely intact and most starch grains were retained within the cells. Despite the retention of starch, PEF treatment reduced tuber oxalate contents by almost 50% in some tissues and could potentially aid the development of low oxalate oca-based foods.


Assuntos
Oxalatos/análise , Oxalidaceae/química , Oxalidaceae/efeitos da radiação , Amido/análise , Eletricidade , Manipulação de Alimentos , Tubérculos/química , Tubérculos/efeitos da radiação
14.
Nat Prod Res ; 32(6): 732-738, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28627294

RESUMO

The present work is focused on the characterisation of the polyphenolic content of an Oxalis pes-caprae L. leaf extract and on the evaluation of its bioactivity with particular interest on its vascular activity and antioxidant potential. The polyphenolic content was characterised by HPLC-DAD and LC-MS/MS. The vascular activity was evaluated according to the influence on the serotonergic and adrenergic systems of the human internal mammary artery (HIMA). Antioxidant and neuroprotective studies were also conducted. Several luteolin and apigenin derivatives were identified as main constituents of the extract, which did not present any contractile effect nor had any effect on the serotonergic system of HIMA. However, it showed antagonistic effect on the adrenergic system, inhibiting the contraction to noradrenaline (reduction of 58.44% of maximum contraction). The extract showed antioxidant activity and standardised luteolin and apigenin derivatives showed neuroprotective potential, particularly homoorientin.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Oxalidaceae/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Apigenina/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Luteolina/análise , Luteolina/farmacologia , Artéria Torácica Interna/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Norepinefrina/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/química , Ratos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
15.
J Helminthol ; 92(3): 309-316, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28595672

RESUMO

The in vitro larvicidal and in vivo anthelmintic effects of Oxalis tetraphylla hydroalcoholic extract (HE), against Haemonchus contortus in experimentally infected lambs, were assessed. We used a microtitration plate method, comprising the following two stages. Stage 1: 20 µl of water containing 200 sheathed H. contortus infective larvae (ShHcl) were deposited in every well of three series; then, the series 2 and 3 wells were treated with 80 µl 1% ivermectin and O. tetraphylla HE at 20 mg/ml, respectively. Stage 2: the same procedure was performed replacing the ShHcl with exsheathed larvae (ExShHcl). Evaluations were performed after 24 and 48 h. The total numbers of dead and live larvae were counted. A second experiment evaluated the reduction in nematode egg populations in the faeces of lambs treated orally with the O. tetraphylla HE. The 27 lambs used were divided into Groups 1, 2 and 3 (n = 9), which were administered water (positive control), levamisole 1 m (7.5 mg/kg body weight (BW), as a unique dose) and O. tetraphylla HE (20 mg/kg BW), respectively. The plant HE was administered daily for 8 days. The in vitro assay showed 80.9% and 86.5% larval mortality of ShHcl after 24 and 48 h, respectively, while the corresponding mortality values for ExShHcl were 97 and 99%, respectively. The in vivo assay showed variability in the eggs/gram of faeces (epg) values; however, at the end of the trial, the average reduction in the epg values of the O. tetraphylla HE group was 45.6% (P < 0.05). Oxalis tetraphylla HE contains compounds that belong to the flavonol group with anthelmintic activity.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxalidaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Álcoois/química , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/química , Fezes/parasitologia , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Técnicas In Vitro , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico
16.
PLoS One ; 12(12): e0190237, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29287103

RESUMO

Oxalis pes-caprae L. is a South African geophyte that behaves as an invasive in the eurimediterranean area. According to a long-established hypothesis, O. pes-caprae may have invaded Europe and the Mediterranean area starting from a single plant introduced in the Botanical Garden of Malta at the beginning of the 19th century. The aim of this work was to test this hypothesis, to track the arrival of O. pes-caprae in different countries of the Euro-Mediterranean area and to understand the pathways of spreading and particularly its starting point(s). Historical data attesting the presence of the plant in the whole Euro-Mediterranean region were collected from different sources: herbarium specimens, Floras and other botanical papers, plant lists of gardens, catalogs of plant nurseries and plant dealers. First records of the plant (both cultivated and wild) for each Territorial Unit (3rd level of NUTS) were selected and used to draw up a diachronic map and an animated graphic. Both documents clearly show that oldest records are scattered throughout the whole area, proving that the plant arrived in Europe and in the Mediterranean region more times independently and that its spreading started in different times from several different centers of invasion. Botanical gardens and other public or private gardens, nurseries and plant dealers, and above all seaside towns and harbors seemingly played a strategic role as a source of either intentional and unintentional introduction or spread. A geographic profiling analysis was performed to analyse the data. We used also techniques (Silhouette, Kmeans and Voronoi tessellation) capable of verifying the presence of more than one independent clusters of data on the basis of their geographical distribution. Microsatellites were employed for a preliminary analysis of genetic variation in the Mediterranean. Even if the sampling was insufficient, particularly among the populations of the original area, our data supported three main groups of populations, one of them corresponding to the central group of populations identified by GP analysis, and the other two corresponding, respectively, to the western and the eastern cluster of data. The most probable areas of origin of the invasion in the three clusters of observations are characterized by the presence of localities where the invasive plant was cultivated, with the exception of the Iberian cluster of observation where the observations in the field predate the data about known cultivation localities. Alternative possible reasons are also suggested, to explain the current prevalence of pentaploid short-styled plants in the Euro-Mediterranean area.


Assuntos
Oxalidaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Europa (Continente) , Região do Mediterrâneo , Filogeografia
17.
Nanoscale ; 9(41): 15753-15759, 2017 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28994849

RESUMO

Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) juice rich in vitamin C and polyphenolic antioxidants was used to synthesize branched gold nanoflowers. These biocompatible and stable gold nanoflowers show strong near-infrared absorption. They are successfully demonstrated to be highly efficient for both in vitro and in vivo photothermal therapy by using an 808 nm laser.


Assuntos
Ouro , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Neoplasias Experimentais/terapia , Fototerapia , Animais , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Química Verde , Humanos , Lasers , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Oxalidaceae/química
18.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 19(6): 994-1002, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28834046

RESUMO

Pollen and stigma size have the potential to influence male fitness of hermaphroditic plants, particularly in species presenting floral polymorphisms characterised by marked differences in these traits among floral morphs. In this study, we take advantage of the evolutionary transition from tristyly to distyly experienced by Oxalis alpina (Oxalidaceae), and examined whether modifications in the ancillary traits (pollen and stigma size) respond to allometric changes in other floral traits. Also, we tested whether these modifications are in accordance with what would be expected under the hypothesis that novel competitive scenarios (as in distylous-derived reproductive system) exert morph- and whorl-specific selective pressures to match the available stigmas. We measure pollen and stigma size in five populations of O. alpina representing the tristyly-distyly transition. A general reduction in pollen and stigma size occurred along the tristyly-distyly transition, and pollen size from the two anther levels within each morph converged to a similar size that was characterised by whorl-specific changes (increases or decreases) in pollen size of different anthers in each floral type. Overall, results from this study show that the evolution of distyly in this species is characterised not only by changes in sexual organ position and flower size, but also by morph-specific changes in pollen and stigma size. This evidence supports the importance of selection on pollen and stigma size, which increase fitness of remaining morphs following the evolution of distyly, and raises questions to explore on the functional value of pollen size in heterostylous systems under pollen competition.


Assuntos
Flores/fisiologia , Oxalidaceae/fisiologia , Pólen/fisiologia , Evolução Biológica , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Oxalidaceae/anatomia & histologia , Pólen/anatomia & histologia , Reprodução/fisiologia
19.
Ann Bot ; 119(4): 507-516, 2017 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28110267

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Radially symmetrical, five-winged fossil fruits from the highly diverse early Eocene Laguna del Hunco flora of Chubut Province, Patagonia, Argentina, are named, described and illustrated. The main goals are to assess the affinities of the fossils and to place them in an evolutionary, palaeoecological and biogeographic context. Methods: Specimens of fossil fruits were collected from the Tufolitas Laguna del Hunco. They were prepared, photographed and compared with similar extant and fossil fruits using published literature. Their structure was also evaluated by comparing them with that of modern Ceratopetalum (Cunoniaceae) fruits through examination of herbarium specimens. Key Results: The Laguna del Hunco fossil fruits share the diagnostic features that characterize modern and fossil Ceratopetalum (symmetry, number of fruit wings, presence of a conspicuous floral nectary and overall venation pattern). The pattern of the minor wing (sepal) veins observed in the Patagonian fossil fruits is different from that of modern and previously described fossil Ceratopetalum fruits; therefore, a new fossil species is recognized. An apomorphy (absence of petals) suggests that the fossils belong within crown-group Ceratopetalum . Conclusions: The Patagonian fossil fruits are the oldest known record for Ceratopetalum . Because the affinities, provenance and age of the fossils are so well established, this new Ceratopetalum fossil species is an excellent candidate for use as a calibration point in divergence dating studies of the family Cunoniaceae. It represents the only record of Ceratopetalum outside Australasia, and further corroborates the biogeographic connection between the Laguna del Hunco flora and ancient and modern floras of the Australasian region.


Assuntos
Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Frutas/anatomia & histologia , Oxalidaceae/anatomia & histologia , Argentina , Evolução Biológica , Flores/anatomia & histologia
20.
BMC Evol Biol ; 16(1): 225, 2016 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27770776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The southern African Oxalis radiation is extremely morphologically variable. Despite recent progress in the phylogenetics of the genus, there are few morphological synapomorphies supporting DNA-based clades. Leaflet anatomy can provide an understudied and potentially valuable source of information on the evolutionary history and systematics of this lineage. Fifty-nine leaflet anatomical traits of 109 southern African Oxalis species were assessed in search of phylogenetically significant characters that delineate clades. RESULTS: A combination of 6 leaflet anatomical traits (stomatal position, adaxial epidermal cells, abaxial epidermal cells, mesophyll, sheath around vascular tissue, degree of leaflet conduplication) clearly support various clades defined by previous DNA-based phylogenetic work. Other, mostly continuous leaflet anatomical traits were highly variable and showed less phylogenetic pattern. CONCLUSIONS: Major and unexpected findings include the transition from ancestral hypostomatic leaflets to adaxially-located stomata in the vast majority of southern African Oxalis, the loss of semi-swollen AB epidermal cells and the gain of swollen adaxial and abaxial epidermal cells in selected clades, and multiple changes from ancestral bifacial mesophyll to isobilateral or homogenous mesophyll types. The information gathered in this study will aid in the taxonomic revision of this speciose member of the Greater Cape Floristic Region and provide a basis for future hypotheses regarding its radiation.


Assuntos
Oxalidaceae/anatomia & histologia , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Evolução Biológica , Duplicação Gênica , Células do Mesofilo/citologia , Oxalidaceae/genética , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta/citologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Estômatos de Plantas/citologia , Feixe Vascular de Plantas/citologia , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Tricomas/citologia
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