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1.
J Econ Entomol ; 112(5): 2049-2054, 2019 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218348

RESUMO

This paper estimates the economic value of ecosystem services provided by Brazilian native bee, Xylocopa spp. Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae), pollination on a scale relevant to individual smallholder farmers that produce yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims). The study areas are located in the vicinity of Pedro de Toledo and Itariri (Sao Paulo State-Brazil), in the Atlantic Forest region. The local economy is based on family farms, small stores, and ecotourism. The value was obtained using the ecological economics Avoided Cost Method, also known as replacement cost. Farms from this region informally hire temporary day laborers to supplement natural pollination with manual pollination of passion fruit flowers, so the cost of contracting temporary laborers was used to estimate the economic value of bee pollination. The value of pollination services was estimated at US$ 2,583.00 per hectare over 2 yr of P. edulis farming. Our estimates based on passion fruit farmer surveys and ecological valuation over 2 yr suggest that manual pollination accounts for 44-48% of production costs and results in a loss of ~58% of profits when wild bee pollination services are not available and manual pollination is required. We suggest that smallholder farmers follow the suggestions of previous studies and conserve adequate forest habitat for bee nesting and foraging, plan pesticide use around flowering and pollination, and supplement bee populations to maximize the benefit of the pollination ecosystem service and profits.


Assuntos
Passiflora , Passifloraceae , Animais , Abelhas , Brasil , Ecossistema , Fazendas , Frutas , Malpighiales , Polinização
2.
Glycoconj J ; 35(6): 511-523, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30306293

RESUMO

Plant lectins are gaining interest because of their interesting biological properties. Several Adenia species, that are being used in traditional medicine to treat many health ailments have shown presence of lectins or carbohydrate binding proteins. Here, we report the purification, characterization and biological significance of N-Acetyl galactosamine specific lectin from Adenia hondala (AHL) from Passifloraceae family. AHL was purified in a single step by affinity chromatography on asialofetuin Sepharose 4B column, characterized and its fine sugar specificity determined by glycan array analysis. AHL is human blood group non specific and also agglutinates rabbit erythrocytes. AHL is a glycoprotein with 12.5% of the carbohydrate, SDS-PAGE, MALDI-TOF-MS and ESI-MS analysis showed that AHL is a monomer of 31.6 kDa. AHL is devoid of DNase activity unlike other Ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs). Glycan array analysis of AHL revealed its highest affinity for terminal lactosamine or polylactosamine of N- glycans, known to be over expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma and colon cancer. AHL showed strong binding to human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells with MFI of 59.1 expressing these glycans which was effectively blocked by 93.1% by asialofetuin. AHL showed dose and time dependent growth inhibitory effects on HepG2 cells with IC50 of 4.8 µg/ml. AHL can be explored for its clinical potential.


Assuntos
Acetilgalactosamina/metabolismo , Lectinas/isolamento & purificação , Passifloraceae/química , Açúcares/metabolismo , Acetilgalactosamina/química , Animais , Desoxirribonucleases/metabolismo , Haptenos/metabolismo , Hemaglutinação , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Lectinas/química , Peso Molecular , Monossacarídeos/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Polissacarídeos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Suínos
3.
Plant Signal Behav ; 13(4): e1451710, 2018 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29533122

RESUMO

Previous study reported a novel type of self-discrimination in the tendrils of the vine Cayratia japonica (Vitaceae). However, whether self-discrimination in tendrils is common in vine plant species has not been elucidated. Here, we investigated whether tendrils of Momordica charantia var. pavel (Cucurbitaceae), Cucumis sativus (Cucurbitaceae) and Passiflora caerulea (Passifloraceae) can discriminate self and non-self plants. We also investigated whether the tendrils of M. charantia and C. sativus can discriminate differences in cultivars to determine the discrimination ability for genetic similarity. We found that tendrils of the M. charantia and P. caerulea were more likely to coil around non-self plant than self plants, but not in C. sativus. Our findings support the common occurrence of self-discrimination in tendrils in different plant taxa, although some species lacked it. Furthermore, tendrils of M. charantia more rapidly coil around different cultivars than around same cultivars. The tendrils of M. charantia may can discriminate differences in cultivars.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae/metabolismo , Momordica charantia/metabolismo , Passifloraceae/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Cucurbitaceae/genética , Momordica charantia/genética , Passifloraceae/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética
4.
Am J Bot ; 104(12): 1857-1866, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29212767

RESUMO

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The plant fossil record for the neotropics is still sparse and temporally discontinuous. The location and description of new fossil material are fundamental for understanding evolutionary and biogeographic patterns of lineages. A new fossil record of Passifloraceae from the late Eocene of Colombia is described in this study. METHODS: Plant fossils were collected from a new locality from the Eocene Esmeraldas Formation. Eighteen fossil seeds were selected, described, and compared with fossil and extant angiosperm seeds based on the literature and herbarium collections. Taxonomic affinities of the fossil seeds within Passifloraceae s.l. were evaluated by comparing morphological characters of the seeds in a phylogenetic context. Stratigraphic information associated with the fossil locality was used to interpret the environment and taphonomic processes associated with fossil deposition. KEY RESULTS: A new seed fossil genus and species, Passifloroidesperma sogamosense gen. and sp. nov., is described and associated with the subfamily Passifloroideae based on the presence of a foveolate seed surface, ruminate endosperm, and a seed coat with prismatic palisade cells. The depositional environment of the locality is described as a floodplain associated with river channels. CONCLUSIONS: A detailed review of the Passifloraceae fossil record indicates that P. sogamosense is the oldest confirmed record of Passifloraceae. Its late Eocene age provides a minimum age that can be used as a calibration point for the crown Passifloroideae node in future dating analyses that together with its neotropical geographic location can shed light on the origin and diversification of the subfamily.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Fósseis , Passifloraceae/anatomia & histologia , Passifloraceae/classificação , Colômbia , Especificidade da Espécie
5.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 101: 242-251, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27188539

RESUMO

The Atlantic Forest is one of the most species-rich ecoregions in the world. The historical origins of this richness and the evolutionary processes that produced diversification and promoted speciation in this ecosystem remain poorly understood. In this context, focusing on Passiflora contracta, an endemic species from the Atlantic Forest distributed exclusively at sea level along forest edges, this study aimed to characterize the patterns of genetic variability and explore two hypotheses that attempt to explain the possible causes of the genetic diversity in this region: the refuge and riverine barrier theories. We employed Bayesian methods combined with niche modeling to identify genetically homogeneous groups, to determine the diversification age, and identify long-term climate stability areas to species survival. The analyses were performed using molecular markers from nuclear and plastid genomes, with samples collected throughout the entire geographic distribution of the species, and comparisons with congeners species. The results indicated that populations were genetically structured and provided evidence of demographic stability. The molecular markers indicated the existence of a clear structure and the presence of five homogeneous groups. Interestingly, the separation of the groups coincides with the geographical locations of local rivers, corroborating the hypothesis of rivers acting as barriers to gene flow in this species. The highest levels of genetic diversity and the areas identified as having long-term climate stability were found in the same region reported for other species as a possible refuge area during the climatic changes of the Quaternary.


Assuntos
Passifloraceae/classificação , Evolução Biológica , DNA de Plantas/química , DNA de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , DNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Florestas , Fluxo Gênico , Variação Genética , Passifloraceae/genética , Filogenia , Rios , Análise de Sequência de DNA
6.
Genet Mol Res ; 14(4): 15376-89, 2015 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26634503

RESUMO

The Ward-MLM procedure was used to evaluate genetic variation in four backcross progenies and in their parents, hybrid F1 HD13 and donor parent Passiflora sublanceolata. Sixteen quantitative descriptors and five qualitative characteristics of relevance to ornamental flower production were assessed. Using the pseudo-F and pseudo-T² criteria, we identified four groups among these plants in two evaluation periods. In both evaluations, the BC1 plants showed greater dissimilarity to their recurrent parent, but showed high genetic similarity with the P. sublanceolata parent. The first two canonical variables produced by the Ward-MLM procedure accounted for over 90% of the variation in both evaluation periods, enabling the representation of diversity through two-dimensional graphics. Groups II and IV were formed in the first assessment period. Groups I and IV formed in the second period and showed plants with selection potential. We found that it was essential to use both qualitative and quantitative variables for this analysis. Assessments of quantitative descriptors indicate that the selection of BC1 plants can be performed in any of the four progenies. Because of the similarities observed for some floral descriptors between BC1 and the P. sublanceolata parent, a second generation backcross was not recommended. However, the selection of BC1 plants for evaluation and direct use as an ornamental cultivar, or as a resource in other breeding programs, can be recommended.


Assuntos
Passiflora/genética , Passifloraceae/genética , Seleção Artificial/genética , Cruzamento/métodos , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Flores/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Genótipo , Análise Multivariada
7.
J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol ; 26(3): 301-12, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25153375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adenia cissampeloides (Planch ex. Hook) Harms (Passifloraceae) leaf infusion is used in traditional African medicine as a stimulant to treat depression and insanity. Thus, this study investigates antidepressant and anxiolytic activities of the hydroethanol leaf extract of Adenia cissampeloides (ACE) in mice. METHODS: ACE (50-200 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered to mice 1 h before behavioral studies; the forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), elevated-plus maze test (EPM) hole-board test (HBT) and open field test (OFT). In addition, the probable mechanisms of antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like actions of ACE were also investigated. RESULTS: ACE (100 and 200 mg/kg) produced significant (p<0.01) reduction in immobility, along with a significant increase in swimming activity (75.20%) and climbing (190.00%), respectively, similar to anti-immobility effect of imipramine in the FST. Also, in TST, ACE (100 and 200 mg/kg) treatment significantly (p<0.01) reduced the immobility time by 35.60%, and 35.27%, respectively, which was similar to anti-immobility effect of fluoxetine (32.50%). However, the antidepressant-like effect produced by ACE was prevented (p<0.01) by yohimbine (α2-adrenoceptor antagonist), or sulpiride (dopamine D2 receptor antagonist) pretreatment. ACE (50 and 100 mg/kg) treatment (p<0.01) increased number (41.67%) and duration of head-dips (52.27%) in HBT. Similarly, ACE (50-200 mg/kg) increased duration of open arm entries (p<0.001) in EPM. However, this effect was reversed (p<0.001) by pretreatment of mice with cyproheptadine (5-HT2 receptor antagonist) (60.87%). CONCLUSIONS: Findings from these studies revealed antidepressant-like effect of ACE mediated through interaction with dopamine D2- receptor or α2-adrenoceptor. Also an anxiolytic-like effect through interaction with 5-HT2 receptors.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos/farmacologia , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Passifloraceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Fluoxetina/farmacologia , Elevação dos Membros Posteriores/métodos , Masculino , Camundongos , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Natação/fisiologia
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 152(3): 424-43, 2014 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24468305

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Half a dozen of the currently accepted 135 Turnera species are used in traditional medicine, most notably Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult. which is one of the most highly appreciated plant aphrodisiacs. Other traditional uses of Turnera L. species include the treatment of anaemia, bronchitis, cough, diabetes, fever, fungal disease, gastrointestinal complaints, pain, pulmonary and respiratory diseases, skin disorders, and women׳s health problems. Additionally, Turnera species are used as abortives, expectorants, and laxatives. PHYTOCHEMISTRY: Flavonoids (22 different compounds), maltol glucoside, phenolics, cyanogenic glycosides (7 different compounds), monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, triterpenoids, the polyterpene ficaprenol-11, fatty acids, and caffeine have been found in the genus Turnera. BIOACTIVITY: Bioactivities experimentally proven for members of the genus Turnera encompass antianxiety, antiaromatase, antibacterial including antimycobacterial, antidiabetic, antioxidant, adapatogenic, antiobesity, antispasmodic, cytotoxic, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, and aphrodisiac activities. Most of these activities have so far been investigated only in chemical, cell based, or animal assays. In contrast, the antiobesity activity was also investigated in a study on healthy human subjects and with a herbal preparation containing among other ingredients Turnera diffusa leaves. Moreover, the enhancement of female sexual function was assessed in humans; again the product contained besides Turnera diffusa other potentially bioactive ingredients. However, with only few exceptions, most of the traditional uses and the experimentally verified bioactivities can currently not be related to a particular compound or compound class. A notable exception is the flavonoid apigenin, which was identified animal experiments as the antinociceptive principle of Turnera diffusa. CONCLUSION: In this review, the current knowledge on ethnobotanical uses of members of the genus Turnera, the secondary metabolites reported from Turnera, and experimentally documented bioactivities from Turnera extracts and pure compounds derived from Turnera extracts are compiled. Moreover, some of the most interesting avenues for future research projects are being discussed briefly. These include in particular the aphrodisiac activity of Turnera diffusa and the antibiotic activity potentiating effect of Turnera ulmifolia L. against aminoglycoside resistant bacteria.


Assuntos
Passifloraceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Turnera/química , Animais , Etnobotânica , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Folhas de Planta
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24311855

RESUMO

The antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activities of a Ghanaian medicinal plant namely Adenia lobata Engl (Passifloraceae), used to treat diabetes mellitus in traditional medicine, was investigated. The dried stem powder of A. lobata was successively extracted by Soxhlet with petroleum ether and 70% ethanol to obtain the crude petroleum ether (PEAL: yield =1.1 w/w %) and ethanol (EEAL: yield = 5.4 w/w %) extracts. The extracts were assessed for their antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activities. The antihyperglycaemic activity of PEAL and EEAL were determined in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (70 mg/kg body weight). Five groups of diabetic rats were given 150, 300 and 600 mg/kg body weight of PEAL and EEAL orally once daily for 20 days. Glibenclamide (5 mg/kg body weight) was used as positive control while distilled water (5 ml) acted as the normal diabetic control. The blood glucose levels were monitored initially for 6 hours and subsequently over 24 days. Both extracts exhibited statistically significant (p< 0.001) antihyperglycaemic activity throughout the study period, with EEAL showing the greatest activity. The antioxidant properties of the petroleum ether and ethanol extracts of A. lobata (PEAL and EEAL) were evaluated using five assays; total phenolic content, total antioxidant capacity, reducing power, DPPH scavenging effect and lipid peroxidation activity. In all these assays, the antioxidant properties increased with increasing concentration of the extracts.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Passifloraceae/química , Fenóis/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Masculino , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Caules de Planta , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
10.
Naturwissenschaften ; 100(10): 901-11, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23949306

RESUMO

Interspecific competition in herbivorous insects remains a controversial issue. To date, many studied systems have not met assumptions of the traditional competition theory, and a new paradigm has been emerging. We examined the behavioral and life-history consequences of common host plant use of Heliconius erato and Dryas iulia (Nymphalidae) in relation to Passiflora suberosa (Passifloraceae). Larvae of the former use the apical portion of this host; the latter is presumably able to explore all plant parts. We assessed host use pattern in relation to leaf age, when reared either alone (D. iulia) or together (D. iulia and H. erato). Larval feeding choice tests with respect to leaf age were performed, and performance was recorded. Observations were made to assess antagonistic behavior of H. erato and D. iulia towards each other, if any. Similarly to H. erato, D. iulia fed on the young leaves significantly more than the mature ones; larvae were not induced to prefer mature leaves. First instars of H. erato used only the apical parts of P. suberosa and displayed aggressive behavior towards D. iulia, which moved to the lower shoot portions. Larval mortality and development time of both species significantly increased when reared together; such performance costs were more pronounced in D. iulia than H. erato. Our study gathers evidences that use of P. suberosa by these heliconian butterflies represent a case of competitive exclusion resulting in niche differentiation, where costs are higher for D. iulia than H. erato.


Assuntos
Borboletas/fisiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Passifloraceae/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Larva , Folhas de Planta , Brotos de Planta
11.
Evolution ; 67(8): 2273-83, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23888850

RESUMO

Biological systems are remarkably robust in the face of environmental, mutational, and developmental perturbations. Analyses of molecular networks reveal recurrent features, such as modularity, that have been implicated in robustness and evolvability. Multiple theoretical models account for these features, yet few empirical tests of these models exist. Here I develop a set of broadly applicable methodologies to enable expanded empirical evaluation of model predictions. The methodologies focus on the inference and analysis of networks that depict evolutionary correlations among characters. I apply these methodologies to analyze an evolutionary network at a larger scale of organization among 42 stem anatomical and morphological characters of 52 species in the genus Adenia (Passifloraceae). I evaluate a model predicting that modular evolutionary networks will evolve in response to environmental change. The evolutionary network of Adenia is modular and "small-world," and the three diagnosed modules correspond roughly to functions of transport, storage, and mechanical support. The phylogenetically informed analyses suggest that the storage module is more impacted by environmental change than expected by chance. These results corroborate the hypothesis that modularity reduces the impact of environmental change, but this result requires further empirical evaluation that can be aided by the proposed methods in additional study systems.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Modelos Genéticos , Passifloraceae/classificação , Passifloraceae/genética , Passifloraceae/anatomia & histologia
12.
Ann Bot ; 112(4): 701-9, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23380241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Early ontogenetic stages of myrmecophytic plants are infrequently associated with ants, probably due to constraints on the production of rewards. This study reports for the first time the anatomical and histological limitations constraining the production of extrafloral nectar in young plants, and the implications that the absence of protective ants imposes for plants early during their ontogeny are discussed. METHODS: Juvenile, pre-reproductive and reproductive plants of Turnera velutina were selected in a natural population and their extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) per leaf were quantified. The anatomical and morphological changes in EFNs during plant ontogeny were studied using scanning electron and light microscopy. Extrafloral nectar volume and sugar concentration were determined as well as the number of patrolling ants. KEY RESULTS: Juvenile plants were unable to secrete or contain nectar. Pre-reproductive plants secreted and contained nectar drops, but the highest production was achieved at the reproductive stage when the gland is fully cup-shaped and the secretory epidermis duplicates. No ants were observed in juvenile plants, and reproductive individuals received greater ant patrolling than pre-reproductive individuals. The issue of the mechanism of extrafloral nectar release in T. velutina was solved given that we found an anatomical, transcuticular pore that forms a channel-like structure and allows nectar to flow outward from the gland. CONCLUSIONS: Juvenile stages had no ant protection against herbivores probably due to resource limitation but also due to anatomical constraints. The results are consistent with the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis. As plants age, they increase in size and have larger nutrient-acquiring, photosynthetic and storage capacity, so they are able to invest in defence via specialized organs, such as EFNs. Hence, the more vulnerable juvenile stage should rely on other defensive strategies to reduce the negative impacts of herbivory.


Assuntos
Formigas , Passifloraceae/anatomia & histologia , Passifloraceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Néctar de Plantas/metabolismo , Animais , Simbiose
13.
J Evol Biol ; 26(3): 660-73, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23331370

RESUMO

Hybridization between closely related lineages is a mechanism that might promote substantive changes in phenotypic traits of descendants, resulting in transgressive evolution. Interbreeding between divergent but morphologically similar lineages can produce exceptional phenotypes, but the potential for transgressive variation to facilitate long-term trait changes in derived hybrid lineages has received little attention. We compare pollinator-mediated selection on transgressive floral traits in both early-generation and derived hybrid lineages of the Piriqueta cistoides ssp. caroliniana complex. The bowl-shaped flowers of morphotypes in this complex have similar gross morphologies and attract a common suite of small insect pollinators. However, they are defined by significant differences in characters that generate pollinator interest and visitation, including floral area and petal separation. In common garden experiments, patterns of pollen deposition in early-generation recombinant hybrids indicate that Piriqueta's pollinators favour flowers with greater area and reduced petal separation. Changes in floral morphology in derived hybrid lineages are consistent with predictions from selection gradients, but the magnitude of change is limited relative to the range of transgressive variation. These results suggest that hybridization provides variation for evolution of divergent floral traits. However, the potential for extreme transgressive variants to contribute to phenotypic shifts may be limited due to reduced heritability, evolutionary constraints or fitness trade-offs.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Passifloraceae/fisiologia , Polinização/fisiologia , Seleção Genética , Animais , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Flores/genética , Flores/fisiologia , Genótipo , Herbivoria , Hibridização Genética , Insetos/fisiologia , Passifloraceae/anatomia & histologia , Passifloraceae/genética , Fenótipo , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 66(3): 824-32, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23178742

RESUMO

The four species of the central African genus Barteria show variation in habitat and in degree of association with ants. Whereas B. solida, restricted to submontane forests, attracts opportunistic ants to extrafloral nectar, the three other species, found in lowland rainforests (B. fistulosa, B. dewevrei) and in littoral scrub (B. nigritana), possess stem domatia of varying shapes and degrees of specialisation, hosting either non-specific arboreal ants (B. nigritana, some B. dewevrei) or two large species of ants of the genus Tetraponera Smith, 1852 that are specific to some species of Barteria (B. fistulosa, some B. dewevrei). We aimed to investigate whether this variation represents an evolutionary trend toward increasing specialisation of mutualism or the reduction or loss of myrmecophytic traits. For this, we determined phylogenetic relationships within the genus using DNA sequences (primarily nuclear ITS) and microsatellite genotypes (11 loci) on a large sample of individuals, mostly from Cameroon and Gabon. The two types of markers support an initial dichotomy that groups B. dewevrei with B. nigritana and B. fistulosa with B. solida respectively. Within these pairs, species do not appear reciprocally monophyletic. At microsatellite loci, B. nigritana forms a clade embedded within B. dewevrei; and within both B. solida and B. fistulosa, geographical populations show levels of differentiation similar to that observed between populations of B. solida and B. fistulosa. Geographic distance alone does not account for genetic differentiation between species, which indicates reproductive isolation. Divergence in each of the two pairs implies evolutionary transitions in habitat and in myrmecophytism. Specialised mutualism with specific ant species of the genus Tetraponera has been lost in species found in more marginal habitats.


Assuntos
Formigas/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Variação Genética , Passifloraceae/genética , Passifloraceae/fisiologia , Simbiose/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Teorema de Bayes , Camarões , Primers do DNA/genética , Gabão , Funções Verossimilhança , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
15.
Proc Biol Sci ; 279(1744): 3940-7, 2012 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22859596

RESUMO

Usually studied as pairwise interactions, mutualisms often involve networks of interacting species. Numerous tropical arboreal ants are specialist inhabitants of myrmecophytes (plants bearing domatia, i.e. hollow structures specialized to host ants) and are thought to rely almost exclusively on resources derived from the host plant. Recent studies, following up on century-old reports, have shown that fungi of the ascomycete order Chaetothyriales live in symbiosis with plant-ants within domatia. We tested the hypothesis that ants use domatia-inhabiting fungi as food in three ant-plant symbioses: Petalomyrmex phylax/Leonardoxa africana, Tetraponera aethiops/Barteria fistulosa and Pseudomyrmex penetrator/Tachigali sp. Labelling domatia fungal patches in the field with either a fluorescent dye or (15)N showed that larvae ingested domatia fungi. Furthermore, when the natural fungal patch was replaced with a piece of a (15)N-labelled pure culture of either of two Chaetothyriales strains isolated from T. aethiops colonies, these fungi were also consumed. These two fungi often co-occur in the same ant colony. Interestingly, T. aethiops workers and larvae ingested preferentially one of the two strains. Our results add a new piece in the puzzle of the nutritional ecology of plant-ants.


Assuntos
Formigas/fisiologia , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Fabaceae/fisiologia , Passifloraceae/fisiologia , Simbiose , Animais , Benzenossulfonatos/química , Camarões , Comportamento Alimentar , Guiana Francesa , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/química
16.
J Plant Res ; 125(4): 489-97, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22274921

RESUMO

A phylogenetic analysis of Passifloraceae sensu lato was performed using rbcL, atpB, matK, and 18S rDNA sequences from 25 genera and 42 species. Parsimony analyses of combined data sets resulted in a single most parsimonious tree, which was very similar to the 50% majority consensus tree from the Bayesian analysis. All nodes except three were supported by more than 50% bootstrap. The monophyly of Passifloraceae s.l. as well as the former families, Malesherbiaceae, Passifloraceae sensu stricto, and Turneraceae were strongly supported. Passifloraceae s.s. and the Turneraceae are sisters, and form a strongly supported clade. Within Passifloraceae s.s., the tribes Passifloreae and Paropsieae are both monophyletic. The intergeneric relationships within Passifloraceae s.s. and Turneraceae are roughly correlated with previous classification systems. The morphological character of an androgynophore/gynophore is better used for characterizing genera grouping within Passifloraceae s.s. Other morphological characters such as the corona and aril are discussed.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/genética , DNA de Plantas , Variação Genética , Passifloraceae/classificação , Passifloraceae/genética , Filogenia , Plastídeos/genética , Teorema de Bayes , DNA Ribossômico , Evolução Molecular , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 128(2): 526-32, 2010 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19799991

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Passiflora alata is an official species of Brazilian Pharmacopoeia and its aerial parts are used as medicinal plant by local population as well as constitutes many phytomedicines commercialized in Brazil as sedative. AIMS OF STUDY: To evaluate the acute and sub-acute toxicity and genotoxicity of an aqueous spray-dried extract (PA) of Passiflora alata (2.6% flavonoids). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The acute and the sub-acute toxicity was evaluated in mice and rats, respectively. Behavioural, biochemical, hematological, histological and urine parameters were considered. Genotoxicity was assessed by using micronucleus test performed in peripheral blood and bone marrow cells and comet assay in peripheral blood leukocytes. RESULTS: Mice deaths were not observed up to 4800 mg/kg, p.o., single dose. Rats treated with aqueous extract at dose of 300 mg/kg, p.o., for 14 days did not present biochemical, hematological or histopathological significant alterations when compared to control group. However, these rats showed signs of irritability and did not show weight gain. In addition, mice acutely treated with extract 150, 300 and 600 mg/kg, p.o., presented DNA damage determined by comet assay in peripheral blood cells 3h after treatment. The effect of lower doses (12.5, 25 and 50mg/kg, p.o.) was evaluated at 3, 6 and 24h after treating. Only PA 50mg/kg (p.o.) induced significant damage at 3 and 6h. The maximum damage induction was observed at 6h. When the animals received PA 12.5, 25 or 50mg/kg/day during 3 days (i.e., 72h treatment) DNA damage (comet and micronucleus tests) increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: In conclusion Passiflora alata presented genotoxic effect and deserves further toxicity evaluation in order to guarantee its safety for human use.


Assuntos
Passiflora/toxicidade , Passifloraceae/toxicidade , Plantas Medicinais/toxicidade , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Brasil , Ensaio Cometa , Dano ao DNA , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Flavonoides/toxicidade , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/toxicidade , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Testes para Micronúcleos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Água/farmacologia
18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 45(4): 407-13, 2009 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19591862

RESUMO

Volkensin, isolated from Adenia volkensii, is one of the most toxic type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP), exerting its biological function by inhibiting protein synthesis. Despite the high sequence identity with type 2 RIPs, including ricin, volkensin shows interesting peculiar properties. In this work a computational model building of volkensin was performed. The volkensin electrostatic potential charge distribution, the hydrophobic profile and the surface topology analyses were also carried out to aid the understanding of structure-function relationships of this potent toxin. Volkensin surface topology was probed by applying a limited proteolysis approach with the aim to gain insights into volkensin conformational features.


Assuntos
Modelos Moleculares , Passifloraceae/enzimologia , Proteínas Inativadoras de Ribossomos Tipo 2/química , Proteínas Inativadoras de Ribossomos Tipo 2/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Simulação por Computador , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Conformação Proteica , Alinhamento de Sequência , Eletricidade Estática , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Propriedades de Superfície
19.
Neotrop Entomol ; 38(6): 741-5, 2009.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20098919

RESUMO

The biology of Holhymenia rubiginosa Breddin is described on sweet-passion-fruit, Passiflora alata, and the developmental time, viability and thermal requirements of the egg stage, the developmental time and mortality of the nymphal stage, and adult longevity and reproductive parameters were assessed. Insects were reared at laboratory controlled conditions (25 + or - 1 degrees Celsius, 65 + or - 10% RH, photophase 12h) on branches of P. alata, 20% honey solution and pollen. The lower thermal threshold (10.8 degrees Celsius) and thermal requirements (140.8 DD) for egg development were determined using four temperatures (17, 21, 25 and 30 degrees Celsius). The average egg development time (days) and viability were 25.4 + or - 0.45, 88%; 13.2 + or - 0.28, 88%; 8.8 + or - 0.16, 94%; and 7.7 + or - 0.17, 92%, at 17, 21, 25 and 30 + or - 1 degrees Celsius, respectively. When reared at 25 + or - 1 degrees Celsius, the first instar had the shortest development time (4.0 + or - 0.02 days) and the second the longest (15.7 + or - 3.50 days), which also had the highest mortality (75%). Males and females had similar longevity (185.3 + or - 17.52 days for females and 133.6 + or - 18.94 days for males). Females mated 33.0 + or - 7.71 times, with a mean duration of 99.0 + or - 9.25 min, laying 11.5 + or - 2.55 eggs/female. Periods of pre-oviposition, oviposition and post-oviposition were respectively 96.4 + or - 18.08; 88.5 + or - 23.48 and 19.3 + or - 12.18 days.


Assuntos
Hemípteros/fisiologia , Passifloraceae/parasitologia , Animais
20.
Nat Prod Res ; 22(15): 1370-8, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19023797

RESUMO

The anaesthetic activities of steam distillates of Adenia gummifera stem on Apis mellifera were evaluated by a diffusion method. Live, direct and fractional (61-80 degrees C fraction) distillates had greater anaesthetic effect while vacuum distillates were mild. The anaesthetic activity significantly increased with concentration up to 6% (v/v), and then it levelled off, while excessive exposure was lethal. The number of bees in a given volume had no significant effect on anaesthetic activity but container volume (F(cal) = 66.4; F(3,8) = 4.07) and bee-distillate distance (F(cal) = 31.0; F(2,6) = 5.14) did, suggesting the rate of diffusion of active component could be the determining factor. The active component is likely to contain amines and the rest halogenated alkane.


Assuntos
Anestésicos/farmacologia , Abelhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Passifloraceae/química , Aminas/farmacologia , Anestésicos/economia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mel/economia , Hidrocarbonetos Halogenados/farmacologia , Caules de Planta/química , Zimbábue
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