Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 87
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Filtros aplicados
Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(18): 10079-10088, 2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327609

RESUMO

Grasses are among the most resilient plants, and some can survive prolonged desiccation in semiarid regions with seasonal rainfall. However, the genetic elements that distinguish grasses that are sensitive versus tolerant to extreme drying are largely unknown. Here, we leveraged comparative genomic approaches with the desiccation-tolerant grass Eragrostis nindensis and the related desiccation-sensitive cereal Eragrostis tef to identify changes underlying desiccation tolerance. These analyses were extended across C4 grasses and cereals to identify broader evolutionary conservation and divergence. Across diverse genomic datasets, we identified changes in chromatin architecture, methylation, gene duplications, and expression dynamics related to desiccation in E. nindensis It was previously hypothesized that transcriptional rewiring of seed desiccation pathways confers vegetative desiccation tolerance. Here, we demonstrate that the majority of seed-dehydration-related genes showed similar expression patterns in leaves of both desiccation-tolerant and -sensitive species. However, we identified a small set of seed-related orthologs with expression specific to desiccation-tolerant species. This supports a broad role for seed-related genes, where many are involved in typical drought responses, with only a small subset of crucial genes specifically induced in desiccation-tolerant plants.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Eragrostis/genética , Genômica , Poaceae/genética , Cromatina/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Dessecação , Secas , Eragrostis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Água/metabolismo
2.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(17): 21442-21454, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277415

RESUMO

In this work, lovegrass (Cpa), an abundant grass of the Poaceae family, was employed as feedstock for the production of activated carbon in a conventional furnace using ZnCl2 as a chemical activator. The prepared material (Cpa-AC) was characterized by pH of the point of zero charges (pHpzc), Boehm's titration method, CHN/O elemental analysis, ATR-FTIR, N2 adsorption/desorption curves, and SEM. This carbon material was used for adsorption of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and sodium diclofenac (DFC). FTIR analysis identified the presence of O-H, N-H, O-C=O), C-O, and aromatic ring bulk and surface of (Cpa-AC) adsorbent. The quantification of the surface functional groups showed the presence of a large amount of acidic functional groups on the surface of the carbon material. The isotherms of adsorption and desorption of N2 confirm that the Cpa-AC adsorbent is mesopore material with a large surface area of 1040 m2 g-1. SEM results showed that the surface of Cpa-AC is rugous. The kinetic study indicates that the system followed the pseudo-second-order model (pH 4.0). The equilibrium time was achieved at 45 (ASA) and 60 min (DCF). The Liu isotherm model best fitted the experimental data. The maxima sorption capacities (Qmax) for ASA and DFC at 25 °C were 221.7 mg g-1 and 312.4 mg g-1, respectively. The primary mechanism of ASA and DFC adsorption was justified considering electrostatic interactions and π-π interactions between the Cpa-AC and the adsorbate from the solution.


Assuntos
Eragrostis , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adsorção , Carvão Vegetal , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Poaceae
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 884, 2020 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060277

RESUMO

Teff (Eragrostis tef) is a cornerstone of food security in the Horn of Africa, where it is prized for stress resilience, grain nutrition, and market value. Here, we report a chromosome-scale assembly of allotetraploid teff (variety Dabbi) and patterns of subgenome dynamics. The teff genome contains two complete sets of homoeologous chromosomes, with most genes maintaining as syntenic gene pairs. TE analysis allows us to estimate that the teff polyploidy event occurred ~1.1 million years ago (mya) and that the two subgenomes diverged ~5.0 mya. Despite this divergence, we detect no large-scale structural rearrangements, homoeologous exchanges, or biased gene loss, in contrast to many other allopolyploids. The two teff subgenomes have partitioned their ancestral functions based on divergent expression across a diverse expression atlas. Together, these genomic resources will be useful for accelerating breeding of this underutilized grain crop and for fundamental insights into polyploid genome evolution.


Assuntos
Eragrostis/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Planta , África , Eragrostis/classificação , Filogenia , Tetraploidia
4.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 839, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Weeping lovegrass (Eragrostis curvula [Shrad.] Nees) is a perennial grass found in semi-arid regions that is well adapted for growth in sandy soils and drought conditions. E. curvula constitutes a polymorphic complex that includes cytotypes with different ploidy levels (from 2x to 8x), where most polyploids are facultative apomicts, although both sexual reproduction and full apomixis have been reported in this species. Apomixis is thought to be associated with silencing of the sexual pathway, which would involve epigenetic mechanisms. However, a correlation between small RNAs and apomixis has not yet been conclusively established. RESULTS: Aiming to contribute to the elucidation of their role in the expression of apomixis, we constructed small RNA libraries from sexual and apomictic E. curvula genotypes via Illumina technology, characterized the small RNA populations, and conducted differential expression analysis by comparing these small RNAs with the E. curvula reference transcriptome. We found that the expression of two genes is repressed in the sexual genotype, which is associated with specific microRNA expression. CONCLUSION: Our results support the hypothesis that in E. curvula the expression of apomixis leads to sexual repression.


Assuntos
Eragrostis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Sequência Conservada , Epigênese Genética , Eragrostis/metabolismo , Genótipo , MicroRNAs/química , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/metabolismo , Reprodução/genética , Reprodução Assexuada/genética
5.
Planta ; 250(3): 769-781, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270598

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Despite the relatively little attention given to tef, the value chain is quickly transforming and is expected to further do so in the near future. Tef is called an "orphan" crop in Ethiopia as it receives relatively little attention from the Ethiopian government and from international donors. Given the low yields of tef compared to other crops, it is often viewed as a low-priority crop and relatively little is known about the value chain of tef. We fill some of this knowledge gap in this paper. We illustrate tef's importance in Ethiopia's food systems and the rapid changes upstream, midstream, and downstream in its value chain. We show that tef production and productivity is rapidly increasing and that tef markets are improving over time. More specifically, using a growth decomposition analysis, we find that while the expansion of land and labor use have been important sources of growth in tef production, the relative contributions of modern input use and agricultural extension have been increasing over time. We also show that tef has greater economic potential, with comparatively more of it consumed by the better-off segments of the population, indicating that its importance is likely to grow over time as income grows in the country. Using reasonable assumptions on income growth, urbanization, and commercialization, we estimate that national tef consumption and marketed output will increase by about 250 and 300%, respectively, over a 20-year period.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Eragrostis , Produção Agrícola/economia , Produção Agrícola/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos Agrícolas/economia , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eragrostis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Etiópia , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos
6.
Planta ; 250(3): 753-767, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222492

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Tef is a resilient crop from the Horn of Africa with significant importance in food and nutrition security, and currently gaining global popularity as health and performance food. Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] is the most important cereal of Ethiopia in terms of production, consumption and cash crop value. In Ethiopia, tef is annually grown on about 3 million ha with total grain production of over 5 million tons. As such, it accounts for about 30% of the total cultivated area and one-fifth of the gross grain production of all cereals cultivated in the country. In spite of its supreme economic and agricultural significance in Ethiopia, its productivity is relatively low with national average yield of about 1.7 t/ha. This has primarily been due to the very little scientific improvement done on the crop. Tef has still been an "orphan crop" since it is globally a very much under-researched crop owing to its localized importance. Scientific research on tef in Ethiopia began in the late 1950s. The main objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the significance and major production constraints of tef, and the major achievements made to date in various tef research aspects including breeding, agronomy, crop protection, and agricultural economics and extension. Based on these reviews, the paper eventually concludes with remarks on the way forward by emphasizing on the identification of the major gaps and the improvement efforts required for realizing the ever-needed breakthrough in the productivity and production of the crop. The major focal areas of future efforts include increasing productivity of both grain and biomass, systematic conservation and mining of the genetic resources, tackling the lodging malady, mechanization of the crop's husbandry, understanding the overall physiology of the crop especially with respect to stress tolerance, unraveling the nutritional qualities, and development of recipes and value-added products.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Eragrostis , Produção Agrícola , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eragrostis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Etiópia , Valor Nutritivo
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(7): 1973-1981, 2019 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30685966

RESUMO

Eragrostis plana (Nees) is an allelopathic plant with invasive potential in South American pastures. To isolate and identify phytotoxic compounds from leaves and roots of E. plana, a bioassay-directed isolation of the bioactive constituents was performed. This is the first report on a new diterpene carbon skeleton, neocassane, and of three new neocassane diterpenes, neocassa-1,12(13),15-triene-3,14-dione, 1; 19-norneocassa-1,12(13),15-triene-3,14-dione, 2; and 14-hydroxyneocassa-1,12(17),15-triene-3-one, 3, identified from the roots. Compounds 1, 2, and 3 inhibited the growth of duckweed by 50% at concentrations of 109 ± 28, 200 ± 37, and 59 ± 15 µM, respectively. Compound 2 was fungicidal to Colletotrichum fragariae, Colletotrichum acutatum, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The compounds identified here could explain the allelopathy of E. plana. The description of the newly discovered compounds, besides contributing to the chemical characterization of the species, may be the first step in the study of the potential of these compounds as bioherbicides.


Assuntos
Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Eragrostis/química , Herbicidas , Agrostis/efeitos dos fármacos , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Colletotrichum/efeitos dos fármacos , Diterpenos/química , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Herbicidas/química , Herbicidas/isolamento & purificação , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Alface/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química
8.
Eur J Nutr ; 58(5): 2011-2018, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29936535

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Teff, an iron-rich staple grain in Ethiopia, is consumed mainly in the form of teff injera (TI). Studies on the association of TI consumption with anemia are limited. We aimed to determine the association of frequencies of TI consumption with anemia, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: We conducted a hospital-based case-control study involving 592 pregnant women: 187 anemic cases, and 405 non-anemic controls. TI consumption was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Multiple logistic regression, adjusted for dietary and non-dietary covariates, was performed to determine the relation of TI consumption to anemia status. RESULTS: We found that a decrease in frequency of TI consumption was significantly associated with an increase in the likelihood of anemia (p-trend = 0.009). Compared with everyday TI consumption, the adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of anemia associated with the other frequencies of teff consumption were 1.50 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.71, 3.23; p = 0.285] for every other day, 2.13 (95% CI 1.03, 4.41; p = 0.04) for 1-2 times a week, and 3.17 (95% CI 1.62, 6.22; p < 0.001) for once in 2 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Teff consumption was associated with reduced odds of anemia in pregnant women. Further studies are warranted, including determining the feasibility and effectiveness of TI use for anemia prevention. REGISTRATION: The study was registered as https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03251664 .


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Dieta/métodos , Eragrostis , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
9.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 16421, 2018 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30401902

RESUMO

Iminosugars are carbohydrate mimics that are useful as molecular probes to dissect metabolism in plants. To analyse the effects of iminosugar derivatives on germination and seedling growth, we screened a library of 390 N-substituted iminosugar analogues against Arabidopsis and the small cereal Eragrostis tef (Tef). The most potent compound identified in both systems, N-5-(adamantane-1-yl-ethoxy)pentyl- L-ido-deoxynojirimycin (L-ido-AEP-DNJ), inhibited root growth in agar plate assays by 92% and 96% in Arabidopsis and Tef respectively, at 10 µM concentration. Phenocopying the effect of L-ido-AEP-DNJ with the commercial inhibitor (PDMP) implicated glucosylceramide synthase as the target responsible for root growth inhibition. L-ido-AEP-DNJ was twenty-fold more potent than PDMP. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis of ceramide:glucosylceramide ratios in inhibitor-treated Arabidopsis seedlings showed a decrease in the relative quantity of the latter, confirming that glucosylceramide synthesis is perturbed in inhibitor-treated plants. Bioinformatic analysis of glucosylceramide synthase indicates gene conservation across higher plants. Previous T-DNA insertional inactivation of glucosylceramide synthase in Arabidopsis caused seedling lethality, indicating a role in growth and development. The compounds identified herein represent chemical alternatives that can overcome issues caused by genetic intervention. These inhibitors offer the potential to dissect the roles of glucosylceramides in polyploid crop species.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Grão Comestível/efeitos dos fármacos , Eragrostis/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosiltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Açúcares/química , Açúcares/farmacologia , Animais , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Eragrostis/genética , Eragrostis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eragrostis/metabolismo , Glucosilceramidas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0201661, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30071087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Teff is a staple food in Ethiopia that is rich in dietary fiber. Although gaining popularity in Western countries because it is gluten-free, the effects of teff on glucose metabolism remain unknown. AIM: To evaluate the effects of teff on body weight and glucose metabolism compared with an isocaloric diet containing wheat. RESULTS: Mice fed teff weighed approximately 13% less than mice fed wheat (p < 0.05). The teff-based diet improved glucose tolerance compared with the wheat group with normal chow but not with a high-fat diet. Reduced adipose inflammation characterized by lower expression of TNFα, Mcp1, and CD11c, together with higher levels of cecal short chain fatty acids such as acetate, compared with the control diet containing wheat after 14 weeks of dietary treatment. In addition, beige adipocyte formation, characterized by increased expression of Ucp-1 (~7-fold) and Cidea (~3-fold), was observed in the teff groups compared with the wheat group. Moreover, a body-weight matched experiment revealed that teff improved glucose tolerance in a manner independent of body weight reduction after 6 weeks of dietary treatment. Enhanced beige adipocyte formation without improved adipose inflammation in a body-weight matched experiment suggests that the improved glucose metabolism was a consequence of beige adipocyte formation, but not solely through adipose inflammation. However, these differences between teff- and wheat-containing diets were not observed in the high-fat diet group. CONCLUSIONS: Teff improved glucose tolerance likely by promoting beige adipocyte formation and improved adipose inflammation.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Bege/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Eragrostis/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Bege/patologia , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Glicemia/análise , Temperatura Corporal , Antígeno CD11c/genética , Antígeno CD11c/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/química , Fezes/química , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Proteína Desacopladora 1/genética , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo
11.
Plant Sci ; 274: 181-192, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30080602

RESUMO

By the end of the century, atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]a) could reach 800 ppm, having risen from ∼200 ppm ∼24 Myr ago. Carbon dioxide enters plant leaves through stomata that limit CO2 diffusion and assimilation, imposing stomatal limitation (LS). Other factors limiting assimilation are collectively called non-stomatal limitations (LNS). C4 photosynthesis concentrates CO2 around Rubisco, typically reducing LS. C4-dominated savanna grasslands expanded under low [CO2]a and are metastable ecosystems where the response of trees and C4 grasses to rising [CO2]a will determine shifting vegetation patterns. How LS and LNS differ between savanna trees and C4 grasses under different [CO2]a will govern the responses of CO2 fixation and plant cover to [CO2]a - but quantitative comparisons are lacking. We measured assimilation, within soil wetting-drying cycles, of three C3 trees and three C4 grasses grown at 200, 400 or 800 ppm [CO2]a. Using assimilation-response curves, we resolved LS and LNS and show that rising [CO2]a alleviated LS, particularly for the C3 trees, but LNS was unaffected and remained substantially higher for the grasses across all [CO2]a treatments. Because LNS incurs higher metabolic costs and recovery compared with LS, our findings indicate that C4 grasses will be comparatively disadvantaged as [CO2]a rises.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Pradaria , Estômatos de Plantas/metabolismo , Poaceae/metabolismo , Árvores/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Combretum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Combretum/metabolismo , Combretum/fisiologia , Eragrostis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eragrostis/metabolismo , Eragrostis/fisiologia , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Fabaceae/fisiologia , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II , Estômatos de Plantas/fisiologia , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poaceae/fisiologia , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Árvores/fisiologia , Ulmaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ulmaceae/metabolismo , Ulmaceae/fisiologia
12.
Food Chem ; 264: 34-40, 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29853385

RESUMO

The effect of sourdough amount and storage time on starch digestibility and estimated glycemic index (eGI) of tef bread was investigated. The rapidly digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) of 0-30% sourdough fresh tef breads ranged from 49 to 58, 16 to 29 and 20 to 26 g/100 g starch, respectively. Storage of tef breads up to 5 days decreased the RDS by more than 2-fold while SDS and RS increased by 2 and 3 fold, respectively. The eGI for fresh and stored breads ranged from 39 to 89. Addition of sourdough increased the eGI of fresh breads while no uniform pattern was seen in the stored breads. As the storage time increased, all the breads showed a decrease in eGI. In vivo study is necessary to further investigate the effect of sourdough on GI of tef bread.


Assuntos
Pão , Eragrostis , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Índice Glicêmico , Amido/metabolismo , Digestão , Farinha , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(23): 23315-23327, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29872978

RESUMO

Eragrostis plana Nees leaves, abundant lignocellulosic biomass, was used as carbon source for preparation of activated carbon, by using microwave-assisted pyrolysis and chemical activation. The novel activated carbon (MWEPN) was characterised by FTIR, CHN elemental analysis, Boehm's titration method, TGA, SEM, N2 adsorption/desorption curves and pH of the point of zero charge (pHpzc). Afterwards, the adsorbent was successfully employed for adsorption of the two emerging contaminants (caffeine and 2-nitrophenol). The results indicated that MWEPN had a predominantly mesoporous structure with a high surface area of 1250 m2 g-1. FTIR analysis indicated the presence of carbonyl, hydroxyl and carboxylic groups on the surface of MWEPN. The Boehm analysis showed the existence of the high amount of acid moieties on the surface of activated carbon. Adsorption kinetic indicated that the system followed the Avrami fractional order at the optimal pH of 7. The equilibrium time was attained at 30 min. The Liu isotherm model better described the isothermal data. Based on the Liu isotherm, the maximum sorption capacities (Qmax) of caffeine and 2-nitrophenol adsorbed onto activated carbon at 25 °C were 235.5 and 255.8 mg g-1, respectively.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Eragrostis/química , Micro-Ondas , Pirólise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Água/química , Adsorção , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Folhas de Planta/química , Purificação da Água/métodos
14.
J Anim Sci ; 96(8): 3420-3432, 2018 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29788095

RESUMO

Teff (Eragrostis tef cv. Moxie), a warm-season annual grass, could be an excellent forage for beef cattle. However, there is limited information on its nutritive value to cattle when harvested at different stages of maturity. Thus, the objective of this research was to determine the effect of feeding teff hay harvested at the boot (BT), early-heading (EH), or late-heading (LH) stages of maturity on nutrient intake, ruminal fermentation characteristics, omasal nutrient flow, and N utilization in beef cattle. Six ruminally cannulated beef heifers (mean initial BW ± SD, 476 ± 32.6) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 28-d periods (18 d for adaptation and 10 d for measurements). Dry matter intake was measured daily. Indwelling pH loggers were used to measure ruminal pH from days 21 to 28. Ruminal fluid and omasal digesta were collected from days 26 to 28 to determine fermentation characteristics and omasal nutrient flow. Fecal and urine samples to quantify N excretion were also collected (days 26 to 28). Blood samples for plasma urea-N (PUN) determination were collected 3 h post-feeding on day 28. There were no changes (P > 0.28) in the ADF or NDF content of teff with advancing maturity, but indigestible NDF increased (P < 0.01) with increasing maturity. Maturity had no effect (P ≥ 0.14) on DMI, and ruminal total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration, pH, digestibility, and outflow of DM, OM, NDF, ADF, and CP. However, the CP content of BT hay was greater (P < 0.01) than for EH and LH hay (18.1, 14.1, and 11.5%, respectively, DM basis), and this resulted in the higher CP intake (P < 0.01) for heifers fed the BT than the EH and LH hay. Consequently, ruminal ammonia-N (NH3-N) concentration was greater (P < 0.01) for heifers fed BT than EH and LH hay, thereby possibly explaining the tendency for a decrease (P = 0.08) in PUN concentration, and a decrease (P < 0.01) in the excretion of total N, urine N, and urea-N (UUN) with advancing maturity. However, fecal N excretion (g/d) did not differ (P = 0.76). In conclusion, despite a decrease in CP intake and ruminal NH3-N concentration, feeding beef heifers EH and LH compared to BT teff hay did not compromise ruminal digestion and outflow of DM, OM, NDF, ADF, and CP, and microbial protein synthesis. Advancing maturity in teff hay also resulted in a decrease in the excretion of total N and urine N and UUN when fed to cattle.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ingestão de Energia , Eragrostis , Amônia/metabolismo , Animais , Digestão , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Fezes/química , Feminino , Fermentação , Valor Nutritivo , Omaso/metabolismo , Poaceae , Rúmen/química , Rúmen/metabolismo
15.
Food Chem ; 263: 265-274, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29784316

RESUMO

Reliable data on polyphenol in teff, an increasingly important food crop, is currently lacking. This study investigated the structural and quantitative profile of soluble and bound polyphenols in white and brown teff grown in Ethiopia and USA using LC-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry. Thirty-four phenolic compounds (32 newly identified in teff), mostly flavones and phenolic acid derivatives, were characterized. Unusually high levels of flavones were present in both white (1398-2049 µg/g), and brown (1720-1847 µg/g) teff soluble fractions. Interestingly, white teff exclusively contained apigenin derivatives, whereas brown teff contained mainly luteolin derivatives, mostly di-C-linked-glycosides. Additionally, non-extractable procyanidins (condensed tannins) were detected in brown teff only. Phenolic acids (600-728 µg/g) were mostly present in bound fractions, dominated by ferulic acid. Polyphenol profiles of Ethiopian and USA grown grains were similar. The high levels of the relatively rare flavones in teff may have important implications in chronic disease prevention.


Assuntos
Eragrostis/química , Flavonas/química , Fenóis/análise , Apigenina/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ácidos Cumáricos/análise , Ácidos Cumáricos/química , Eragrostis/metabolismo , Etiópia , Fenóis/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Estados Unidos
16.
Br J Nutr ; 119(8): 880-886, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29644949

RESUMO

Contamination of foods with extrinsic (soil) Fe is common in developing countries. However, the bioavailability of this extrinsic Fe and the extent to which it contributes to Fe nutrition remains unknown. The present study compared the bioavailability of laboratory- and field-threshed teff (Eragrostisis tef (Zucc) Trotter) to evaluate the bioavailablity of extrinsic soil Fe that resulted from the traditional threshing of the staple grain. Using sequential extraction, Fe was fractionated and its solubility was evaluated. The contribution of the additional extrinsic (soil) Fe to the Hb regeneration of Fe-depleted rats was evaluated using a rat Hb depletion-repletion assay. Weanling male Wistar rats (n 24) were fed Fe-deficient diet for 21 d, and were then repleted for 14 d with diets: either laboratory-threshed teff (35 mg Fe/kg; n 8), field-threshed teff (35 mg intrinsic Fe/kg+ 120 mg soil Fe/kg; n 8), or FeSO4 (control; n 8). Fe content of field-threshed teff (29·4 mg/100 g) was four times greater than that of the laboratory-threshed (6·7 mg/100 g) teff (P<0·05). Soil contamination significantly increased the exchangeable, acid-soluble and reducible fractions obtained after sequential extraction. The relative biological value of the field-threshed teff (88 %) was higher than that of the laboratory-threshed (68 %) teff (P<0·05). Soil Fe can contribute to Hb regeneration in Fe-deficient rats. Considering that contamination of foods with soil is common in Ethiopia and other developing countries, it needs to be accounted for in the design and implementation of fortification programmes to prevent excessive intakes. Human studies are needed to confirm the present findings.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/tratamento farmacológico , Eragrostis/metabolismo , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Solo/química , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Análise de Alimentos , Ferro/farmacocinética , Ferro/farmacologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
17.
Nutrients ; 10(4)2018 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29649158

RESUMO

This study analysed the contents of thirty-six mineral and trace elements in teff (Eragrostis tef L.) grains. What is more, dietary intakes were calculated. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to assess mineral and trace element contents. Consequently, the appropriate Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) or adequate intake (AI), and provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) or provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI) values for adults were determined according to the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) and Institute of Medicine (IOM) regulations. Teff is a significant contributor to RDAs and AIs for females in the following order: Mn > Cu > Zn ≥ Mg > Fe ≥ P and Ca. For males, teff contributes in the order, Mn > Cu > Fe > Zn ≥ P ≥ Mg > and Ca. The concentration of arsenic (65.9 µg/kg) in brown teff originating in Bolivia exceeded the average acceptable value set by Reg. No. 1881 of 6-50 µg/kg in cereals consumed in the EU. The PTWIs or PTMIs for Al, Cd, Sn and Hg were all under 7%, which is below the limits of toxic element intake related to the body weight of 65 kg for adult females and 80 kg for males, set by the FAO/WHO. Teff grains can be recommended as a valuable and safe source of minerals and trace elements.


Assuntos
Dieta , Grão Comestível/química , Eragrostis/química , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Minerais/análise , Avaliação Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Recomendações Nutricionais , Oligoelementos/análise , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Grão Comestível/efeitos adversos , Eragrostis/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Minerais/efeitos adversos , Estado Nutricional , Medição de Risco , Oligoelementos/efeitos adversos
18.
Plant Sci ; 269: 136-142, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29606211

RESUMO

Genetic erosion of crops has been determined way back in the 1940s and accelerated some twenty years later by the inception of the Green Revolution. Claims that the revolution was a complete triumph remain specious, especially since the massive production boost in the global big three grain crops; wheat, maize, and rice that happened back then is unlikely to recur under current climate irregularities. Presently, one of the leading strategies for sustainable agriculture is by unlocking the genetic potential of underutilized crops. The primary focus has been on a suite of ancient cereals and pseudo-cereals which are riding on the gluten-free trend, including, among others, grain amaranth, buckwheat, quinoa, teff, and millets. Each of these crops has demonstrated tolerance to various stress factors such as drought and heat. Apart from being the centuries-old staple in their native homes, these crops have also been traditionally used as forage for livestock. This review summarizes what lies in the past and present for these underutilized cereals, particularly concerning their potential role and significance in a rapidly changing world, and provides compelling insights into how they could one day be on par with the current big three in feeding a booming population.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Grão Comestível/genética , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Amaranthus/genética , Chenopodium quinoa/genética , Mudança Climática , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Eragrostis/genética , Fagopyrum/genética , Humanos , Milhetes/genética
19.
J Dairy Sci ; 101(7): 5984-5990, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29680651

RESUMO

Groundwater depletion is one of the most pressing issues facing the dairy industry in arid regions. One strategy to improve the industry's drought resilience involves feeding drought-tolerant forage crops in place of traditional forage crops such as alfalfa and corn silage. The objective of this study was to assess the productivity of lactating dairy cows fed diets with teff hay (Eragrostis tef) as the sole forage. Teff is a warm-season annual grass native to Ethiopia that is well adapted to drought conditions. Nine multiparous Holstein cows (185 ± 31 d in milk; mean ± standard deviation) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 diets in a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 18-d periods (14 d acclimation and 4 d sampling). Diets were either control, where dietary forage consisted of a combination of corn silage, alfalfa hay, and native grass hay, or 1 of 2 teff diets (teff-A and teff-B), where teff hay [13.97 ± 0.32% crude protein, dry matter (DM) basis] was the sole forage. All 3 diets were formulated for similar DM, crude protein, and nonfiber carbohydrate concentrations. Control and teff-A were matched for concentrations of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) from forage (18.2 ± 0.15% of DM), and teff-B included slightly less, providing 16.6% NDF from forage. Dry matter intake, milk and component production, body weight, body condition score, as well as DM and NDF digestibility were monitored and assessed using mixed model analysis, with significance declared at P < 0.05. Treatment had no effect on dry matter intake (28.1 ± 0.75 kg/d). Similarly, treatment had no effect on milk production (40.7 ± 1.8 kg/d). Concentrations of milk fat (3.90 ± 0.16%) and lactose (4.68 ± 0.07%) were also unaffected by treatment. Teff-A and teff-B increased milk protein concentration compared with the control (3.07 vs. 3.16 ± 0.09%). Treatment had no effect on energy-corrected milk yield (43.4 ± 1.3 kg/d), body weight, or body condition score change. Additionally, treatment had no effect on total-tract DM or NDF digestibility. Results from this study indicate that teff hay has potential to replace alfalfa and corn silage in the diets of lactating dairy cattle without loss of productivity.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Eragrostis/fisiologia , Lactação , Ração Animal , Animais , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Eragrostis/metabolismo , Etiópia , Feminino , Fermentação , Medicago sativa , Rúmen , Silagem , Zea mays
20.
J Plant Physiol ; 224-225: 163-172, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29656008

RESUMO

Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter], a staple food crop in the Horn of Africa and particularly in Ethiopia, has several beneficial agronomical and nutritional properties, including waterlogging and drought tolerance. In this study, we performed microRNA profiling of tef using the Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform, analyzing both shoots and roots of two tef genotypes, one drought-tolerant (Tsedey) and one drought-susceptible (Alba). We obtained more than 10 million filtered reads for each of the 24 sequenced small cDNA libraries. Reads mapping to known miRNAs were more abundant in the root than shoot tissues. Thirteen and 35 miRNAs were significantly modulated in response to drought, in Alba and Tsedey roots, respectively. One miRNA was upregulated under drought conditions in both genotypes. In shoots, nine miRNAs were modulated in common between the two genotypes and all showed similar trends of expression. One-hundred and forty-seven new miRNA mature sequences were identified in silico, 22 of these were detected in all relevant samples and seven were differentially regulated when comparing drought with normal watering. Putative targets of the miRNA regulated under drought in root and shoot tissues were predicted. Among the targets were transcription factors such as CCAAT-HAP2, MADS and NAC. Verification with qRT-PCR revealed that five of six potential targets showed a pattern of expression that was consistent with the correspondent miRNA amount measured by RNA-Seq. In general, candidate miRNAs involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of the tef response to drought could be included in next-generation breeding programs.


Assuntos
Secas , Eragrostis/fisiologia , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética , Eragrostis/genética , Genótipo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Brotos de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA