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1.
Plant Sci ; 291: 110329, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928686

RESUMO

Little is known regarding insect defense pathways in Setaria viridis (setaria), a model system for panicoid grasses, including Zea mays (maize). It is thus of interest to compare insect herbivory responses of setaria and maize. Here we use metabolic, phylogenetic, and gene expression analyses to measure a subset of jasmonic acid (JA)-related defense responses to leaf-chewing caterpillars. Phylogenetic comparisons of known defense-related maize genes were used to identify putative orthologs in setaria, and candidates were tested by quantitative PCR to determine transcriptional responses to insect challenge. Our findings show that while much of the core JA-related metabolic and genetic responses appear conserved between setaria and maize, production of downstream secondary metabolites such as benzoxazinoids and herbivore-induced plant volatiles are dissimilar. This diversity of chemical defenses and gene families involved in secondary metabolism among grasses presents new opportunities for cross species engineering. The high degree of genetic similarity and ease of orthologous gene identification between setaria and maize make setaria an excellent species for translational genetic studies, but the species specificity of downstream insect defense chemistry makes some pathways unamenable to cross-species comparisons.


Assuntos
Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Herbivoria , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Setaria (Planta)/genética , Zea mays/genética , Animais , Insetos , Setaria (Planta)/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo
2.
Planta ; 251(2): 46, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915928

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Five laccase genes are potentially involved in developmental lignification in the model C4 grass Setaria viridis and their different tissue specificities suggest subfunctionalization events. Plant laccases are copper-containing glycoproteins involved in monolignol oxidation and, therefore, their activity is essential for lignin polymerization. Although these enzymes belong to large multigene families with highly redundant members, not all of them are thought to be involved in lignin metabolism. Here, we report on the genome-wide characterization of the laccase gene family in the model C4 grass Setaria viridis and further identification of the members potentially involved in monolignol oxidation. A total of 52 genes encoding laccases (SvLAC1 to SvLAC52) were found in the genome of S. viridis, and phylogenetic analyses showed that these genes were heterogeneously distributed among the characteristic six subclades of the family and are under relaxed selective constraints. The observed expansion in the total number of genes in this species was mainly caused by tandem duplications within subclade V, which accounts for 68% of the whole family. Comparative phylogenetic analyses showed that the expansion of subclade V is specifically observed for the Paniceae tribe within the Panicoideae subfamily in grasses. Five SvLAC genes (SvLAC9, SvLAC13, SvLAC15, SvLAC50, and SvLAC52) fulfilled the criteria established to identify lignin-related candidates: (1) phylogenetic proximity to previously characterized lignin-related laccases from other species, (2) similar expression pattern to that observed for lignin biosynthetic genes in the S. viridis elongating internode, and (3) high expression in S. viridis tissues undergoing active lignification. In addition, in situ hybridization experiments not only confirmed that these selected SvLAC genes were expressed in lignifying cells, but also that their expression showed different tissue specificities, suggesting subfunctionalization events within the family. These five laccase genes are strong candidates to be involved in lignin polymerization in S. viridis and might be good targets for lignin bioengineering strategies.


Assuntos
Lacase/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo , Setaria (Planta)/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(5): 1276-1285, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965794

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis is one of the main causes of cardiovascular diseases. Our previous study indicated that a type of peroxidase derived from foxtail millet bran (FMBP) had prominent antitumor activities. In the present study, we found that FMBP had potential antiatherosclerosis effects. The results showed that FMBP treatment strongly suppressed lipid phagocytosis in both HASMCs and THP-1 cells by 52% and 49%, respectively. Further, FMBP significantly inhibited HASMCs migration by promoting transformation of HASMCs from synthetic to contractile, leading to the decrease of lipid phagocytosis. Simultaneously, FMBP repressed lipid uptake by reducing the expression of CD36 in THP-1 cells. In addition, FMBP reduced the secretion of inflammatory factor IL-1ß by inhibiting the expression of STAT3 in THP-1 cells. Interestingly, FMBP also had the same effects in models of atherosclerosis constructed with ApoE-/- mice, including decreased aortic lesion area, repressed aortic sinus CD36 and STAT3 expression, and elevated serum HDL-C concentration. Collectively, these results indicate that FMBP has great potential in preventing the development of atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Antígenos CD36/genética , Peroxidase/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Setaria (Planta)/enzimologia , Animais , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Apolipoproteínas E/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Antígenos CD36/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Setaria (Planta)/química , Células THP-1
4.
Mol Plant Microbe Interact ; 33(2): 272-283, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544655

RESUMO

Over the past decades, crop yields have risen in parallel with increasing use of fossil fuel-derived nitrogen (N) fertilizers but with concomitant negative impacts on climate and water resources. There is a need for more sustainable agricultural practices, and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) could be part of the solution. A variety of nitrogen-fixing, epiphytic, and endophytic plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) are known to stimulate plant growth. However, compared with the rhizobium-legume symbiosis, little mechanistic information is available as to how PGPB affect plant metabolism. Therefore, we investigated the metabolic changes in roots of the model grass species Setaria viridis upon endophytic colonization by Herbaspirillum seropedicae SmR1 (fix+) or a fix- mutant strain (SmR54) compared with uninoculated roots. Endophytic colonization of the root is highly localized and, hence, analysis of whole-root segments dilutes the metabolic signature of those few cells impacted by the bacteria. Therefore, we utilized in-situ laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to sample only those root segments at or adjacent to the sites of bacterial colonization. Metabolites involved in purine, zeatin, and riboflavin pathways were significantly more abundant in inoculated plants, while metabolites indicative of nitrogen, starch, and sucrose metabolism were reduced in roots inoculated with the fix- strain or uninoculated, presumably due to N limitation. Interestingly, compounds, involved in indole-alkaloid biosynthesis were more abundant in the roots colonized by the fix- strain, perhaps reflecting a plant defense response.


Assuntos
Herbaspirillum , Metaboloma , Setaria (Planta) , Herbaspirillum/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Setaria (Planta)/genética , Setaria (Planta)/metabolismo , Setaria (Planta)/microbiologia , Simbiose
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(22)2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731735

RESUMO

Foxtail millet (Setaria italica), which originated in China, has a strong tolerance to low nutrition stresses. However, the mechanism of foxtail millet tolerance to low-nitrogen stress is still unknown. In this study, the transcriptome of foxtail millet under low-nitrogen stress was systematically analyzed. Expression of 1891 genes was altered, including 1318 up-regulated genes and 573 down-regulated genes. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) analysis revealed that 3% of these genes were involved in membrane transport and 5% were involved in redox processes. There were 74 total transcription factor (TF) genes in the DEGs (differentially expressed genes), and MYB-like transcription factors accounted for one-third (25) of the TF genes. We systematically analyzed the characteristics, expression patterns, chromosome locations, and protein structures of 25 MYB-like genes. The analysis of gene function showed that Arabidopsis and rice overexpressing SiMYB3 had better root development than WT under low-nitrogen stress. Moreover, EMSA results showed that SiMYB3 protein could specifically bind MYB elements in the promoter region of TAR2, an auxin synthesis related gene and MYB3-TAR2 regulate pair conserved in rice and foxtail millet. These results suggested that SiMYB3 can regulate root development by regulating plant root auxin synthesis under low-nitrogen conditions.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Setaria (Planta)/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Nitrogênio/deficiência , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Setaria (Planta)/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
6.
Molecules ; 24(23)2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779254

RESUMO

Foxtail millet is considered a 'smart food' because of nutrient richness and resilience to environments. A diversity panel of 92 foxtail millet landraces preserved by Taiwan indigenous peoples containing amylose content (AC) in the range of 0.7% to 16.9% exhibited diverse physiochemical properties revealed by a rapid viscosity analyzer (RVA). AC was significantly correlated with 5 RVA parameters, and some RVA parameters were also highly correlated with one another. In comparison to rice, foxtail millet contained less starch (65.9-73.1%) and no significant difference in totals of resistant starch (RS), slowly digestible starch (SDS), hydrolysis index (HI), and expected glycemic index (eGI) according to in vitro digestibility assays of raw flour with similar AC. RS was significantly positively correlated with AC and four RVA parameters, cold paste viscosity (CPV), setback viscosity (SBV), peak time (PeT), and pasting temperature (PaT), implying that suitable food processing to alter physicochemical properties of foxtail millet might mitigate hyperglycemia. This investigation of pasting properties and digestibility of diverse foxtail millet germplasm revealed much variation and showed potential for multi-dimensional utilizations in daily staple food and food industries.


Assuntos
Variação Genética/genética , Milhetes/genética , Setaria (Planta)/genética , Amilose/genética , Farinha , Genótipo , Oryza/genética , Amido/genética , Taiwan , Temperatura , Viscosidade
7.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0225091, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714948

RESUMO

CBL-interacting protein kinases (CIPKs) have been shown to regulate a variety of environmental stress-related signalling pathways in plants. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv) is known worldwide as a relatively stress-tolerant C4 crop species. Although the foxtail millet genome sequence has been released, little is known about the functions of CIPKs in foxtail millet. Therefore, a systematic genome-wide analysis of CIPK genes in foxtail millet was performed. In total, 35 CIPK members were identified in foxtail millet and divided into four subgroups (I to IV) on the basis of their phylogenetic relationships. Phylogenetic and gene structure analyses clearly divided all SiCIPKs into intron-poor and intron-rich clades. Cis-element analysis subsequently indicated that these SiCIPKs may be involved in responses to abiotic stimuli, hormones, and light signalling during plant growth and development, and stress-induced expression profile analysis revealed that all the SiCIPKs are involved in various stress signalling pathways. These results suggest that the CIPK genes in foxtail millet exhibit the basic characteristics of CIPK family members and play important roles in response to abiotic stresses. The results of this study will contribute to future functional characterization of abiotic stress responses mediated by CIPKs in foxtail millet.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Setaria (Planta)/enzimologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Sequência Conservada , Evolução Molecular , Éxons/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes de Plantas , Íntrons/genética , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas Quinases/química , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Setaria (Planta)/efeitos dos fármacos , Setaria (Planta)/genética , Setaria (Planta)/fisiologia , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Commun Biol ; 2: 314, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453378

RESUMO

C4 photosynthesis is characterised by a CO2 concentrating mechanism that operates between mesophyll and bundle sheath cells increasing CO2 partial pressure at the site of Rubisco and photosynthetic efficiency. Electron transport chains in both cell types supply ATP and NADPH for C4 photosynthesis. Cytochrome b 6 f is a key control point of electron transport in C3 plants. To study whether C4 photosynthesis is limited by electron transport we constitutively overexpressed the Rieske FeS subunit in Setaria viridis. This resulted in a higher Cytochrome b 6 f content in mesophyll and bundle sheath cells without marked changes in the abundances of other photosynthetic proteins. Rieske overexpression plants showed better light conversion efficiency in both Photosystems and could generate higher proton-motive force across the thylakoid membrane underpinning an increase in CO2 assimilation rate at ambient and saturating CO2 and high light. Our results demonstrate that removing electron transport limitations can increase C4 photosynthesis.


Assuntos
Complexo Citocromos b6f/metabolismo , Complexo III da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Setaria (Planta)/fisiologia , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Complexo Citocromos b6f/genética , Complexo III da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Fluorescência , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Força Próton-Motriz/efeitos da radiação , Setaria (Planta)/genética , Setaria (Planta)/efeitos da radiação
9.
J Oleo Sci ; 68(8): 709-718, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292341

RESUMO

Foxtail millet (FM) is one of the oldest cultivated grain crops with a variety of nutritions, and foxtail millet bran (FMB), a by-product of FM milling process, is also rich in variety of nutrient substance. There are four classifications of FMB, namely coarse bran (FMCB), skin bran (FMSB), polished bran (FMPB) and mixed bran (FMMB). Because these nutrients are distributed within the different fractions of FMB, we compared some chemical composition and its oleochemical properties of four FMB samples. Results showed that the oil extracted from FMB is high value-added plant oil. It contains abundant unsaturated fatty acid (UFA), with the main UFAs were linoleic acid (65%~69%) and oleic acid (12~17%), which accounted for more than 80% of the lipids. The main triacylglycerols were trilinolein (LLL) and oleodilinolein (OLL). There were no evident difference on fatty acid, triacylglycerol and sterols profiles for FMSB, FMPB and FMMB, but the contents of amino acids, tocols, squalene and oryzanol were different.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/análise , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Setaria (Planta)/química , Óleos Vegetais/química
10.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 112(12): 1731-1738, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332634

RESUMO

A Gram-stain positive, short rod-shaped, aerobic, motile by means of gliding, yellow-pigmented actinobacterium, designated strain DD4aT, was isolated from dry yellow foxtail. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain DD4aT is closely related to Amnibacterium soli MB78T (98.4% similarity), Amnibacterium kyonggiense KSL51201-037T (98.2%) and Amnibacterium endophyticum 1T4Z-3T (97.43%). Strain DD4aT forms yellow colonies on R2A agar medium. The peptidoglycan was found to contains diaminopimelic acid (which is a diagnostic cell wall diamino acid), alanine, glutamic acid and lysine. The polar lipids diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, six unidentified glycolipids and an unidentified polar lipid were found to be present in strain DD4aT. The major cellular fatty acids anteiso-C15:0 (42.9%) and iso-C16:0 (34.6%) were found in strain DD4aT. The predominant respiratory quinones were found to be MK-11 and MK-12. The DNA G+C content of strain DD4aT is 73.9 mol%. DNA-DNA relatedness of strain DD4aT with A. soli MB78T, A. kyonggiense KSL51201-037T, and A. endophyticum 1T4Z-3T were 53.3% (± 1.1%), 47.0% (± 0.5%), and 47.9% (± 0.9%), respectively. The digital DNA-DNA hybridisation and average nucleotide identity values between strain DD4aT and A. kyonggiense KSL51201-037T were determined to be 26.1% and 82.7%. On the basis of phenotypic, genotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analysis, DD4aT represents a novel member of the genus Amnibacterium, for which the name Amnibacterium setariae sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain of Amnibacterium setariae is DD4aT (= KACC 19817T = JCM 32878T).


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/classificação , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Setaria (Planta)/microbiologia , Actinobacteria/genética , Aerobiose , Composição de Bases , Parede Celular/química , Análise por Conglomerados , Citosol/química , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Ácido Diaminopimélico/análise , Endófitos/genética , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Glicolipídeos/análise , Locomoção , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Peptidoglicano/análise , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Filogenia , Pigmentos Biológicos/análise , Quinonas/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
11.
Food Chem ; 299: 125115, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288161

RESUMO

The nutritional and antinutritional components of minor millets were correlated with mixolab dough mixing behavior and in vitro protein and starch digestibility. Total arabinoxylan (r = -0.53, p < 0.05) and dietary fiber (r = -0.66, p < 0.05) content significantly (p < 0.05) increased protein weakening. Peak viscosity negatively correlated with phenolic (r = -0.55, p < 0.05) content. The dietary fiber and phenolics suppressed retrogradation. Protein digestibility negatively correlated with tannin (r = -0.70, p < 0.05), phytic acid (r = -0.69, p < 0.05), phenolics (r = -0.79, p < 0.05), flavonoids (r = -0.72, p < 0.05) and total dietary fiber content (r = -0.84, p < 0.05). A positive correlation of resistant starch (RS) with total dietary fiber (r = 0.85, p < 0.05), phenolics (r = 0.89, p < 0.05), flavonoids (r = 0.83, p < 0.05), phytic acid (r = 0.43, p < 0.05) and tannin content (r = 0.79, p < 0.05) was observed. Millets predicted lower glycemic index than wheat and it was found to be negatively associated with the RS (r = -0.96, p < 0.05) and total dietary fiber content (r = -0.89, p < 0.05) and positively correlated (r = 0.98, p < 0.05) with rapidly digestible starch. The millets may be diversified for personalized nutrition and development of functional food.


Assuntos
Pão , Milhetes , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/farmacocinética , Amido/farmacocinética , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Digestão , Índice Glicêmico , Milhetes/química , Panicum/química , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química , Reologia , Setaria (Planta)/química , Amido/química , Triticum/química , Viscosidade , Xilanos/análise
12.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(1): 357, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: C4 photosynthesis is a key domain of plant research with outcomes ranging from crop quality improvement, biofuel production and efficient use of water and nutrients. A metabolic network model of C4 "lab organism" Setaria viridis with extensive gene-reaction associations can accelerate target identification for desired metabolic manipulations and thereafter in vivo validation. Moreover, metabolic reconstructions have also been shown to be a significant tool to investigate fundamental metabolic traits. RESULTS: A mass and charge balance genome-scale metabolic model of Setaria viridis was constructed, which was tested to be able to produce all major biomass components in phototrophic and heterotrophic conditions. Our model predicted an important role of the utilization of NH[Formula: see text] and NO[Formula: see text] ratio in balancing charges in plants. A multi-tissue extension of the model representing C4 photosynthesis was able to utilize NADP-ME subtype of C4 carbon fixation for the production of lignocellulosic biomass in stem, providing a tool for identifying gene associations for cellulose, hemi-cellulose and lignin biosynthesis that could be potential target for improved lignocellulosic biomass production. Besides metabolic engineering, our modeling results uncovered a previously unrecognized role of the 3-PGA/triosephosphate shuttle in proton balancing. CONCLUSIONS: A mass and charge balance model of Setaria viridis, a model C4 plant, provides the possibility of system-level investigation to identify metabolic characteristics based on stoichiometric constraints. This study demonstrated the use of metabolic modeling in identifying genes associated with the synthesis of particular biomass components, and elucidating new role of previously known metabolic processes.


Assuntos
Prótons , Setaria (Planta)/metabolismo , Biomassa , Celulose/biossíntese , Genoma de Planta , Lignina/biossíntese , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Modelos Biológicos , Fotossíntese , Polissacarídeos/biossíntese , Setaria (Planta)/genética
13.
Food Chem ; 295: 147-155, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174743

RESUMO

Influence of different pre-treatments (Ultra-sonication, heat-moisture treatment (HMT) and acid hydrolysis) on the functional properties, in vitro binding capacity and structural properties of succinylated foxtail millet starch were investigated. The degree of substitution was found to be higher in the succinylated starch pretreated by sonication (USFS-0.39). Pre-treatment of succinylated starch by citric acid (ASFS) had markedly increased the resistant starch content. In vitro studies have confirmed that USFS exhibited the highest cholesterol binding capacity at both pH 2.0 (1.86 mg/g) and pH 7.0 (3.12 mg/g) owing to the chemical bonding and entrapment of cholesterol molecules in the starch matrix. FT-IR had confirmed the cross-linking of succinic anhydride as indicated by the presence of a new peak at 1724 cm-1. This study concludes that prior treatment of succinylated starch by ultra-sonication is an efficient way to improve the resistant starch content and principally in vitro cholesterol and bile acid/salts binding ability.


Assuntos
Setaria (Planta)/metabolismo , Amido/química , Anidridos Succínicos/química , Amilose/análise , Colesterol/química , Colesterol/metabolismo , Ácido Cítrico/química , Hidrólise , Estrutura Molecular , Sonicação , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Amido/metabolismo
14.
Food Chem ; 295: 214-223, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174752

RESUMO

The profiles of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of dehulled foxtail millets were studied. Twenty-one phenolics were detected in the free fraction, including a series of nine hydroxycinnamic acid spermidines reported for the first time and three flavonoid C-glycosides of kaempferol and apigenin. Twenty-three phenolic acid derivatives were detected in the bound fraction with ferulic acid being the predominant phenolic acid, as well as four ferulic acid dimers (DFAs) reported for the first time in foxtail millet. Total phenolic contents (TPC) of free and bound fractions varied from 161.86 to 224.47 mg ferulic acid equivalent (FAE)/kg DW, 170.69 to 294.75 mg FAE/kg DW, respectively. Antioxidant activities, based on the DPPH, ABTS+ and ORAC assays, were determined for all extracts related to TPC. Dehulled foxtail millet contains a diverse profile of phenolic compounds potentially suitable for development of functional foods with unique antioxidant properties.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Ácidos Cumáricos/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Fenóis/análise , Setaria (Planta)/química , Amidas/análise , Amidas/química , Antioxidantes/química , Ácidos Cumáricos/química , Análise de Alimentos , Glicosídeos/análise , Glicosídeos/química , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Quempferóis/química , Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química
15.
Plant Sci ; 285: 239-247, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203889

RESUMO

Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is a nutrient-rich food source traditionally grown in arid and semi-arid areas, as it is well adapted to drought climate. Yet there is limited information as how the crop responses to the changing climate. In order to investigate the response of foxtail millet to elevated [CO2] and the underlying mechanism, the crop was grown at ambient [CO2] (400 µmol mol-1) and elevated [CO2] (600 µmol mol-1) in an open-top chamber (OTC) experimental facility in North China. The changes in leaf photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence, biomass, yield and global gene expression in response to elevated [CO2] were determined. Despite foxtail millet being a C4 photosynthetic crop, photosynthetic rates (PN) and intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUEi), were increased under elevated [CO2]. Similarly, grain yield and above-ground biomass also significantly increased (P <  0.05) for the two years of experimentation under elevated [CO2]. Increases in seeds and tiller number, spike and stem weight were the main contributors to the increased grain yield and biomass. Using transcriptomic analyses, this study further identified some genes which play a role in cell wall reinforcement, shoot initiation, stomatal conductance, carbon fixation, glycolysis / gluconeogenesis responsive to elevated [CO2]. Changes in these genes reduced plant height, increased stem diameters, and promote CO2 fixation. Higher photosynthetic rates at elevated [CO2] demonstrated that foxtail millet was not photosynthetically saturated at elevated [CO2] and its photosynthesis response to elevated [CO2] were analogous to C3 plants.


Assuntos
Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Setaria (Planta)/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomassa , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Produção Agrícola , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Setaria (Planta)/genética , Setaria (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Setaria (Planta)/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Molecules ; 24(9)2019 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060302

RESUMO

Proso and foxtail millets are widely cultivated due to their excellent resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and high nutritional value. Starch is the most important component of millet kernels. Starches with different amylose contents have different physicochemical properties. In this study, starches in proso (non-waxy and waxy) and foxtail millets (non-waxy and waxy) were isolated and investigated. All the starch granules had regular polygonal round shapes and exhibited typical "Maltese crosses". These four starches all showed bimodal size distribution. The waxy proso and foxtail millets had higher weight-average molar mass and branching degree and lower average chain length of amylopectin. These four starches all presented A-type crystallinity; however, the relative crystallinity of waxy proso and foxtail millets was higher. The two waxy millets had higher onset temperature, peak temperature, conclusion temperature, and gelatinization enthalpy. However, the two non-waxy millets had higher setback viscosity, peak time, and pasting temperature. The significantly different physicochemical properties of waxy and non-waxy millet starches resulted in their different functional properties.


Assuntos
Panicum/química , Setaria (Planta)/química , Amido/química , Fenômenos Químicos , Peso Molecular , Temperatura
17.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0214542, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107873

RESUMO

Long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) in plant genomes differ in abundance, structure and genomic distribution, reflecting the large number of evolutionary lineages. Elements within lineages can be considered populations, in which each element is an individual in its genomic environment. In this way, it would be reasonable to apply microevolutionary analyses to understand transposable element (TE) evolution, such as those used to study the genetic structure of natural populations. Here, we applied a Bayesian method to infer genetic structure of populations together with classical phylogenetic and dating tools to analyze LTR-RT evolution using the monocot Setaria italica as a model species. In contrast to a phylogeny, the Bayesian clusterization method identifies populations by assigning individuals to one or more clusters according to the most probabilistic scenario of admixture, based on genetic diversity patterns. In this work, each LTR-RT insertion was considered to be one individual and each LTR-RT lineage was considered to be a single species. Nine evolutionary lineages of LTR-RTs were identified in the S. italica genome that had different genetic structures with variable numbers of clusters and levels of admixture. Comprehensive analysis of the phylogenetic, clusterization and time of insertion data allowed us to hypothesize that admixed elements represent sequences that harbor ancestral polymorphic sequence signatures. In conclusion, application of microevolutionary concepts in genome evolution studies is suitable as a complementary approach to phylogenetic analyses to address the evolutionary history and functional features of TEs.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Genética Populacional , Retroelementos/genética , Setaria (Planta)/genética , Sequências Repetidas Terminais/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Ligação Genética , Genoma de Planta , Filogenia , Setaria (Planta)/classificação
18.
Zygote ; 27(3): 126-130, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104646

RESUMO

SummaryIsolated gametes can be used to investigate fertilization mechanisms, and probe distant hybridization between different species. Pollen grains of wheat and Setaria viridis are tricellular, containing sperm cells at anthesis. Sperm from these plants were isolated by breaking open pollen grains in a osmotic solution. Wheat ovules were digested in an enzyme solution for 20 min, and then transferred to an isolation solution without enzymes to separate egg cells from ovules. The fusion of wheat egg cells with wheat and S. viridis sperm was conducted using an electro-fusion apparatus. Under suitable osmotic pressure (10% mannitol), calcium concentration of 0.001% (CaCl2·2H2O), and a 30-35 V alternating electric field for 15 s, egg cells and sperm adhered to each other and became arranged in a line. Electroporation of the plasma membrane of egg cells and sperm using a 300-500 V direct-current electric field (45 µs amplitude pulse) caused them to fuse.


Assuntos
Óvulo Vegetal/citologia , Pólen/citologia , Setaria (Planta)/citologia , Triticum/citologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Eletroporação/métodos , Fertilização , Pressão Osmótica , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 178: 9-16, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980964

RESUMO

Recently, sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been considered to be a beneficial bio-regulator in animals. However, the positive roles of SO2 in plant adaptation to drought stress are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the physiological and molecular changes that are induced by SO2 fumigation to improve the drought tolerance of foxtail millet seedlings. The relative water content in the leaves of drought-stressed seedlings was significantly improved by pre-exposure to 30 mg/m3 SO2. These responses might be related to decreased stomatal apertures and a reduced leaf transpiration rate, which were induced by SO2 under drought conditions. In addition, the SO2 pretreatment markedly enhanced proline accumulation in the leaves of drought-stressed seedlings, which was supported by increased Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) activity, decreased proline dehydrogenase (ProDH) activity, and the corresponding transcripts. Moreover, the SO2 application upregulated the enzyme activity of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) in the leaves of drought-stressed plants, as well as their transcripts, which contributed to the scavenging of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and alleviated drought-induced oxidative damage, as indicated by the decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level in SO2-pretreated plants. Together, these results indicate that the application of SO2 might enhance drought tolerance by reducing stomatal apertures, increasing proline accumulation, and promoting antioxidant defence in foxtail millet seedlings. This study presents new insight into the beneficial roles of SO2 in plant responses to drought stress.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Secas , Fumigação , Setaria (Planta)/efeitos dos fármacos , Dióxido de Enxofre/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Prolina/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Setaria (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Setaria (Planta)/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Plant Genome ; 12(1)2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951094

RESUMO

Millets are small-seeded cereals predominantly cultivated and consumed by millions of poor people living in developing countries in Asia and Africa. Limited availability of genomic resources hinders studies of nutrient transport in millets. Two species, foxtail millet [ (L.) P. Beauv.] and its wild relative green foxtail [ (L.) P. Beauv.], are considered to be suitable models to study the genomics of other millets. Understanding the nutrient mobilization of millets is essential for improving nutrient use efficiency and biofortification in millets and other cereal crops. Millets are adapted for low-input agriculture, so understanding and improving the phosphate use efficiency of these plants is important because (i) subsistence farmers cannot afford to buy expensive phosphate fertilizers and (ii) the phosphate rock used for phosphate fertilizer production is depleting quickly. In this minireview, I discuss various studies on nutrient transport in millets and highlight phosphate transport studies. I report the identification and phylogenetic and multiple sequence analyses of 12 PHosphate Transporter1 (PHT1) family genes and proteins of green foxtail for the first time. With the exception of PHT1;5, all other green foxtail PHT1 transporters are closely clustered with foxtail millet PHT1 transporters. The multiple sequence analysis of SvPHT1s revealed that the key residues involved in phosphate and H-binding and transport are well conserved, as in other PHT1 transporters. Efforts need to be undertaken to understand and improve phosphate uptake and utilization in millets to strengthen food security in the developing world.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Milhetes/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Fosfato/genética , Setaria (Planta)/genética , Simulação por Computador , Modelos Genéticos , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Fosfato/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Setaria (Planta)/metabolismo
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