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1.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(10): 10449-10458, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940145

RESUMO

Effects of Polygonum equisetiforme extracts against dichlorvos were investigated in the commercial clam Ruditapes decussatus. The toxicity of this pesticide was firstly tested in R. decussatus gill and digestive gland tissues using five doses varying from 0.05 to 1 mg/l during 2, 4, and 7 days. Results showed that 0.05 mg/l of DDVP induced oxidative stress and neurotoxicity in R. decussatus after 2 days of exposure. Investigations of the effects of P. equisetiforme extracts in R. decussatus exposed to 0.25 mg/l of DDVP were made in clams receiving three concentrations (0.009, 0.045, and 0.09 g/l) during 4 and 7 days. Antioxidant enzymes SOD and CAT as well as H2O2 content and AChE were quantified by colorimetric method. Four days of exposure to DDVP increased SOD and CAT activities and enhances H2O2 content. AChE levels decreased considerably following DDVP exposure, although a restoration in the enzyme activity was observed with P. equisetiforme extract (E3 = 0.09 g/l). Overall, P. equisetiforme extract at concentration (E1 = 0.009 g/l) prevents oxidative stress caused by DDVP, while 0.09 g/l of P. equisetiforme extract induced an effect similar to that obtained with DDVP alone. Nevertheless, this concentration was found effective for the restoration of the AChE activity.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Polygonum , Animais , Catalase , Diclorvós , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais , Superóxido Dismutase
2.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227099, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923204

RESUMO

Polygonum is the largest genus of Polygonaceae and 5 species are reported in Tunisia. In order to characterized flower, seed, and fruit development in Polygonum, flower and fruit of Polygonium equisetiforme (var. graecum and peyerinhoffi), P. aviculare and P. maritimum, collected from Tunisia, were examined. Flowers are composed of five oblong tepals. P. equisetiforme and P. aviculare have whitish-pink distylous flowers with dimorphism of style, filament and anther height, pollen diameter and stigma size. In contrast, P. maritimum shows white homostylous flowers. The floral vasculature showed that the tepals are inserted in one whorl and their traces arise independently in 3+2 manner. The eight stamens are arranged in a 5+3 manner and the staminal bundles arise independently in the two whorls. The epidermis and endothecium cells width were higher in P. maritimum and the lowest endothecium width was observed in P. aviculare. Polygonum aviculare and P. equisetiforme showed circular pollen with shallow colpi and trilobite pollen shape with deep colpi, while P. maritimum rarely showed shallow colpi. The ovule is anatropous with basal placentation in P. equisetiforme and P. aviculare and apical placentation in P. maritimum. The young seed coat was formed by an endotesta with thick-walled cells, a mesotesta and exotesta with thin-walled cells and a tegmen composed of radially elongated cells. The fruits of the studied species are trigonous with ovate-lanceolate shape. In P. aviculare, the exocarp is thicker compared to the two other species, in P. equisetiforme, the mature exocarp consists of smaller rectangular cells with narrow cavities, and in P. maritimum showed a thinner exocarpIn conclusion, P. equisetiforme and P. aviculare are a typically distylous species from the morphological point of view and we discussed the significance of heterostyly in Polygonaceae. From this first morpho-anatomical study of Polygonum species in North Africa, we can conclude mainly that there is no significant difference between P. equisetiforme var. graecum and var. peyerinhoffi supporting a taxonomic grouping of these two varieties.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Classificação , Polygonum/classificação , Polygonum/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polygonum/anatomia & histologia , Polygonum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Especificidade da Espécie , Tunísia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896073

RESUMO

Rapid discovery of active ingredients from complex matrices is one of great challenges for modern drug development. Traditional methods often require many sample treatment steps, including an extraction step with exclusively dedicated solvents followed by repeated separation and activities assessment. This present work described an integrated analytical setup for natural antioxidants discovery in which the online extraction (OLE) of a solid sample is directly coupled to its analysis by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry and 2,2'-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) antioxidant assay (OLE-HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS-ABTS). This developed approach makes sample extraction, chromatographic separation and chemical detection, and antioxidant assay integrated into a single HPLC injection and was successfully applied for the rapid discovery of natural antioxidant bioactives from Polygonum viviparum. A total of 21 secondary metabolites were characterized according to their retention times, ultraviolet (UV) spectra, exact mass and fragmentation ions in MS/MS spectra, and 18 of them displayed antioxidant activity (response as negative peaks in antioxidant assay). This work describes a simple, green and efficient approach to minimize the sample consumption (only 0.4 mg was required) and eliminate complex sample treatment procedures. The developed OLE-HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS-ABTS system offers new perspectives for rapid chemical profiling of natural products and their antioxidants discovery.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/instrumentação , Microextração em Fase Líquida/instrumentação , Polygonum/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/instrumentação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Microextração em Fase Líquida/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
4.
Food Chem ; 310: 125840, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806390

RESUMO

Despite the extensive use of Polygonum chinense (PC) as a detoxifying ingredient of Chinese cool tea, the efficacy of different PC varieties remains underexplored. Herein, we compare the chemical profiles and antioxidant/anti-inflammatory activities of the aqueous extracts of two PC varieties, namely P. chinense var. chinense (PCC) and P. chinense var. hispidum (PCH). Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MSMS) and multivariate analysis are used to rapidly identify extract components, while DPPH radical scavenging and xylene-induced mice ear edema assays are used to evaluate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, respectively. Correlation analysis reveals that ellagic acid and quercitrin contents are positively correlated with the magnitude of the anti-inflammatory effect, and the adopted technique is concluded to allow for the rapid discrimination of PC varieties used in Chinese cool tea formulations.


Assuntos
Polygonum/química , Chás de Ervas/análise , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/estatística & dados numéricos , Ácido Elágico/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Extratos Vegetais/química , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Quercetina/análise , Quercetina/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Xilenos/toxicidade
5.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; 22(1): 17-23, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389260

RESUMO

Two new isobenzofuranone derivatives, polyphthaliside A (1) and polyphthaliside B (2), and a new isocoumarin derivative, polyisocoumarin (3), were isolated from Polygonum cuspidatum. Their structures were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. The cytotoxicity activity and PTP1B inhibitory activity of compounds 1-3 were estimated and none of them exhibited activities at a concentration of 10 µM.


Assuntos
Fallopia japonica , Polygonum , Glicosídeos , Isocumarinas , Estrutura Molecular , Fenóis
6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112232, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606534

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: 2,3,5,4'-Tetrahydroxy-stilbene-2-O-ß-D-glucoside (TSG) is the main active component of Polygoni Multiflori Radix, a root of the homonymous plant widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. TSG has protective effects on the liver, reduces cholesterol and possesses anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, and anti-atherosclerotic properties. However, the pharmacological effects and mechanisms of action of Polygonum multiflorum on atherosclerosis (AS) have not been studied yet. PURPOSE: The aim of this research was to study the effects of Polygoni Multiflori Radix Praeparata (PMRP) and its major active chemical constituent TSG on AS in ApoE-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice fed with high fat diets to provide a scientific basis in the use of PMRP and TSG against cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: High fat diet induced AS in ApoE-/- mice were treated with PMRP, TSG (low and high doses), and simvastatin (SIM) for 8 weeks. At the end of the treatment, mouse serum lipid levels, triglycerides (TG), and total cholesterol (TC) were measured by an oxidase method (other indicators were determined by ELISA), while the content in oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and the expression of inflammatory factors such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in the serum and aortic samples were measured by ELISA. Atherosclerotic plaque morphology was evaluated by oil red O in thoracic aorta. In addition, 16S rDNA-V4 hypervariable region genome sequence of all microbes in the fecal sample from each group was analyzed to evaluate potential structure changes in the gut microbiota after treatment with PMRP and TSG. RESULTS: TSG markedly inhibited AS plaque formation in ApoE-/- mice. Furthermore, PMRP and TSG improved lipid accumulation by reducing TG and ox-LDL levels. TSG inhibited inflammation by the down-regulation of IL-6, TNF-α, VCAM-1 and MCP-1 expression in serum, and PMRP inhibited inflammation by reducing VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and CCRA expression in aortic tissue. In addition, TSG reduced or prevented AS by the regulation of the composition of the overall gut microbiota, such as Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Tenericutes, Proteobacteria phyla, Akkermensia genera and Helicobacter pylori. CONCLUSION: PMRP and TSG improved lipid accumulation and inflammation, and regulated the intestinal microbial imbalance in ApoE-/- mice. TSG exerted a preventive effect in the development and progression of AS.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Polygonum/química , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Aorta/patologia , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Aterosclerose/patologia , Quimiocina CCL2/imunologia , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/etiologia , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/imunologia , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout para ApoE , Estilbenos/uso terapêutico , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/imunologia , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/metabolismo
7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(20): 4397-4404, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872624

RESUMO

To explore the immune status of patients with drug-induced liver injury caused by Polygonum multiflorum preparations,and analyze their immune characteristics. Case-control design was used to collect the cases of drug-induced liver injury caused by P. multiflorum preparations through key specialized surveillance. Five matching factors,namely type of P. multiflorum preparations,gender,age,basic diseases and concomitant medication were controlled. According to the ratio of 1 ∶ 1,cases of patients who took P. multiflorum preparations but with no liver injury were monitored at prospective hospitals. The demographic information,disease information,medication information and laboratory examination information of the two groups were recorded,and venous blood was collected. The gene sequence was detected by high-throughput sequencing technology,and the characteristics of TCR immune repertoire of the two groups were analyzed. A total of 46 pairs of patients were enrolled in the study. The results showed significant differences in the number of CDR3 and clone species,the length of amino acid sequence in CDR3 region,the abundance of V gene and J gene,the cross-linking of V-J gene and the diversity of immune repertoire between patients with drug-induced liver injury and patients without liver injury. The immunohistochemical diversity and high-frequency V-J cross-linking characteristics of patients with liver injury caused by P. multiflorum preparations were found,which provided a reference for screening out drug users to reduce the occurrence of liver injury caused by P. multiflorum preparations.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Fallopia multiflora , Polygonum , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T
8.
Molecules ; 24(21)2019 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717895

RESUMO

Polygonum capitatum Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don is traditionally used by Hmong for the treatment of urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis. Information regarding the pharmacokinetic behavior of the extract in the condition of pyelonephritis is lacking. In the present study, we aimed to compare the pharmacokinetic properties of gallic acid (GA), protocatechuic acid (PCA), and quercitrin (QR)-the main bioactive constituents in the herb-in normal and pyelonephritis rats. The plasma samples were collected at various time points after administration of a single dose of Polygonum capitatum extract. The plasma level of GA, PCA, and QR at the designed time points was determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) and drug concentration versus time plots were constructed to estimate the pharmacokinetic parameters. The AUC(0-t), AUC(0-∞), MRT(0-t), and CL of GA, PCA, and QR in pyelonephritis rats was significantly different from those of the normal rats. The results indicated that the three constituents have higher rate of uptake and slower rate of elimination in the rats with pyelonephritis, suggesting altered rate and extent of drug metabolism.


Assuntos
Ácido Gálico/farmacocinética , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacocinética , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Polygonum/química , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Pielonefrite/tratamento farmacológico , Pielonefrite/metabolismo , Quercetina/farmacocinética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
9.
Carbohydr Polym ; 226: 115307, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582055

RESUMO

In this study, Polygonum Cillinerve polysaccharide (PCP) was extracted, and characterized by high performance gel permeation chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy. The results showed that PCP was composed of glucose, it was α-D-glucan and the backbone of PCP was consisted of repeating units of (1→4)-α-D-Glucose. In addition, the antioxidant potential of PCP was assessed in vitro. The results showed that PCP had strong hydroxyl radical scavenging ability, some DPPH scavenging ability and good reducing power. Moreover, the results of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays showed that PCP at 15.625-0.975 µg/mL could significantly improve the level of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, and could significantly decrease the level of myeloperoxidase, malondialdehyde and xanthine oxidase in macrophages. These results indicated that PCP could potentially be developed as a natural antioxidant.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Polygonum/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/química , Animais , Camundongos , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
IET Nanobiotechnol ; 13(7): 736-741, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573543

RESUMO

Biosynthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) using biomass is now one of the best methods for synthesising NPs due to their nontoxic and biocompatibility. Plants are the best choice among all biomass to synthesise large-scale NPs. The objectives of this study were to synthesise zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) using Anjbar (root of Persicaria bistorta) [An/ZnO-NPs] and investigate the cytotoxic and anti-oxidant effects. For this purpose, the An/ZnO-NPs were synthesised by using Bistort extract and characterised using UV-Visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope, field emission scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffraction and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The cytotoxic effects of the An/ZnO-NPs on MCF-7 cells were followed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays at 24, 48, and 72 h. Nuclear morphology changed and apoptosis in cells was investigated using acridine orange/propodium iodide (AO/PI) staining and flow cytometry analysis. The pure biosynthesised ZnO-NPs were spherical in shape and particles sizes ranged from 1 to 50 nm. Treated MCF-7 cells with different concentrations of ZnO-NPs inhibited cell viability in a time- and dose-dependent manner with IC50 about 32 µg/ml after 48 h of incubation. In flow cytometry analysis the sub-G1 population, which indicated apoptotic cells, increased from 12.6% at 0 µg/ml (control) to 92.8% at 60 µg/ml, 48 h after exposure. AO/PI staining showed that the treated cells displayed morphologic evidence of apoptosis, compared to untreated groups.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polygonum/química , Óxido de Zinco/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Feminino , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Teste de Materiais , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Óxido de Zinco/química
11.
Chin J Nat Med ; 17(7): 535-544, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514985

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to investigate the protective effects of a small molecular fraction (SMF) of Polygoni multiflori Radix Praeparata (PMRP) in a cyclophosphamide (CTX) induced anemia mouse model. Small molecular fraction of PMRP was prepared and identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-TOF-MS). In pharmacology, we examined the peripheral hemogram and thymus and spleen index. The content of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in serum was mensurated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); The level of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum and spleen tissue homogenate were detected, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) was assayed in spleen. The results show that SMF can significantly accelerate the recovery of peripheral hemogram, increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes and GM-CSF in serum and spleen. SMF also increases the number of spleen cells, improves bone marrow pathology. In conclusion, the SMF of PMRP promoted the recovery of hematopoietic function in a CTX-induced anemia mouse, which can support SMF to be used as an adjunct to chemotherapy to counteract its side effects.


Assuntos
Anemia/tratamento farmacológico , Ciclofosfamida/toxicidade , Hematopoese/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Polygonum/química , Anemia/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Estrutura Molecular , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/metabolismo , Baço/patologia , Timo/efeitos dos fármacos , Timo/metabolismo
12.
Oecologia ; 191(2): 389-396, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435756

RESUMO

Habitats with fluctuating resource conditions pose specific challenges to plants, and they often favor a small subset of species that includes exotic invaders. These species must possess a superior ability to capitalize on resource pulses through faster resource uptake or greater resource-use efficiency. We addressed this question in an experiment with invasive knotweed, a noxious invader of temperate ecosystems that is known to benefit from nutrient fluctuations. We used stable isotopes to track the uptake and use efficiency of a nitrogen pulse in competition pairs between knotweed and five native competitors. We found that nitrogen pulses indeed promoted knotweed invasion and that this is explained by a superior efficiency in turning the taken-up extra nitrogen into biomass, rather than capturing an overproportional share of the nitrogen. Thus, temporary increases in nutrient availability might help knotweed to invade natural environments, such as river banks or nitrogen-polluted margins and wastelands, where nutrient fluctuations occur. Our experiment shows that resource-use efficiency can drive invasion under fluctuating resource conditions, and that stable isotopes help to understand these processes.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Polygonum , Biomassa , Ecossistema , Plantas
13.
Molecules ; 24(15)2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374997

RESUMO

In recent years, heavy metals (HMs) levels in soil and vegetation have increased considerably due to traffic pollution. These pollutants can be taken up from the soil through the root system. The ability of plants to accumulate HMs into their tissues can therefore be used to monitor soil pollution. The aim of this study was to test the ruderal species Senecio vulgaris L., Polygonum aviculare L., and Poa annua L., as possible candidates for biomonitoring Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb in multiple environments. The soils analyzed in this work came from three different environments (urban, woodland, and ultramafic), and therefore deeply differed for their metal content, texture, pH, and organic matter (OM) content. All urban soils were characterized by high OM content and presence of anthropogenic metals like Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cu. Woodland soils were sandy and characterized by low metal content and low OM content, and ultramafic soils had high Ni and Cr content. This soil variability affected the bioindication properties of the three studied species, leading to the exclusion of most metals (Zn, Cu, Cr, Cd, and Pb) and one species (P. aviculare) due to the lack of linear relations between metal in soil and metal in plants. Senecio vulgaris and Poa annua, conversely, appeared to be good indicators of Ni in all the soils tested. A high linear correlation between total Ni in soil and Ni concentration in P. annua shoots (R2 = 0.78) was found and similar results were achieved for S. vulgaris (R2 = 0.88).


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/química , Plantas Daninhas/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , China , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Plantas Daninhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Poa/química , Polygonum/química , Senécio/química , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
14.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 175: 112760, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382117

RESUMO

As a kind of replenishing Chinese medicine, polygoni multiflori radix praeparata (PMP) had high application value in clinic. However, with the increase of clinical applications, more and more hepatotoxicity reports have been reported which had shown has a dose-time-toxicity dependent correlation of PMP hepatotoxicity. Therefore, it was particularly important to investigate the safe and effective dose of PMP in clinical drug administration. At the same time, reliable and sensitive biomarkers were used to characterize phenotypic biochemical disturbances in the body, thereby reflecting the hepatotoxicity mechanism caused by PMP, and providing a basis for clinical drug safety. 10, 20, and 40 g·kg-1 doses PMP were intragastricly administered to rats respectively for consecutive 28 days. serum and liver tissue were collected to measure biochemical markers using blood biochemical analyzers and observe the histopathological examination. Serum metabonomics studies were performed by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS to reveal the dose-dependent biochemical disturbances caused by PMP. Compared with the blank group, the results of biochemical analysis showed that the indicators were significantly changed in the medium dose and high dose groups. however, there was no significant difference in the low dose group. A total of 12 characteristic metabolites were obtained through metabolomic analysis. The topological analysis involved 7 metabolic pathways, resulting in significant disturbance in amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism, and bile acid metabolism. Through comprehensive histopathological examination and biochemical analysis, we concluded that the dose of 20 g·kg-1 and 40 g·kg-1 PMP water extracts lead to liver damage after taking over four weeks, and the toxicity was enhanced as the dose increased. The identification method was used to characterize the disorder of hepatic metabolism induced by PMP in a dose-dependent manner. The experimental results provided the basis for the further study of the different doses of hepatotoxicity of PMP, and also provided a warning to the clinical dosage of PMP for a long time.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Polygonum/efeitos adversos , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Raízes de Plantas/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
15.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(10): 2156-2162, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355575

RESUMO

Ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry( UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) method was applied to analyze the prototypes and metabolites of the effective components of Polygonum orientale in SD rat serum and urine. The separation was performed on Agilent Eclipse Plus C_(18) column( 2. 1 mm×100 mm,1. 8 µm),with 0. 1% formic acid solution( A)-acetonitrile( B) as the mobile phase for gradient elution. Mass spectrometry data of biological samples were obtained under positive and negative electrospray ion mode. By comparing chromatogram differences between blank samples and drug treatment samples,prototype components and metabolites of the effective components of P. orientale extract were identified. The results showed that 12 metabolites were detected in serum and 26 metabolites in urine( including cross-components) of rats. The main metabolic pathways included hydrogenation,hydroxylation,glucuronidation,sulfation reaction,and methylation-glucuronidation,etc. The method established in this study was reliable and effective for studying the metabolic characteristics of the effective components of P. orientale in rats,and it can provide a reference for further studies on therapeutic material basis of this herb.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacocinética , Flores/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/sangue , Compostos Fitoquímicos/urina , Polygonum/química , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
16.
Lipids Health Dis ; 18(1): 128, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polygonum Multiflorum Thunb(PMT) has multiple biological effects, such as anti-inflammatory, lipid-lowering, anti-aging and so on. Therefore, D-galactose-induced aging mice were used to study the effect of PMT on fatty acid metabolism and its underlying mechanism. METHODS: C57BL/6 male mice were randomly divided into normal group, aging model group, PMT intragastrical administration group (high, Medium, low); model group and PMT intragastrical administration group Daily intraperitoneal injection D-galactose 800 mg·ml- 1·Kg- 1 to establish subacute aging model; PMT intragastrical administration group at the same time to intragastrical PMT extract (1 g·ml- 1·Kg- 1, 0.6 g·ml- 1·Kg- 1, 0.3 g·ml- 1·Kg- 1), normal group injection and intragastrical equivalent saline for 60 consecutive days. By detecting the oxidation index of liver to judge the efficacy of PMT, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was used to quantitatively analyze the fatty acid content in liver. RESULTS: Finally, we found that PMT improved the enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in aging mice, and reduce the enzyme activity of malondialdehyde (MDA), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). The content of fatty acids such as C18:1, C18:2, C18:3 N3, C20:2 and C20:3 N3 decreased significantly in senescent mice (P < 0.05) as evidenced by GC-MS analysis, whereas, these fatty acids increased significantly after treatment of PMT (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: PMT improves the content of liver fatty acids in aging mice induced by D-galactose through, enhancing the activity of anti-oxidant enzymes.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polygonum/química , Envelhecimento/patologia , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/classificação , Galactose/toxicidade , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química
17.
J Plant Physiol ; 240: 152994, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226543

RESUMO

Polygonum minus Huds. is a medicinal aromatic plant rich in terpenes, aldehydes, and phenolic compounds. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is a plant signaling molecule commonly applied to elicit stress responses to produce plant secondary metabolites. In this study, the effects of exogenous MeJA treatment on the composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in P. minus leaves were investigated by using a metabolomic approach. Time-course changes in the leaf composition of VOCs on days 1, 3, and 5 after MeJA treatment were analyzed through solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The VOCs found in MeJA-elicited leaves were similar to those found in mock-treated leaves but varied in quantity at different time points. We focused our analysis on the content and composition of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and green leaf volatiles (GLVs) within the leaf samples. Our results suggest that MeJA enhances the activity of biosynthetic pathways for aldehydes and terpenes in P. minus. Hence, the production of aromatic compounds in this medicinal herb can be increased by MeJA elicitation. Furthermore, the relationship between MeJA elicitation and terpene biosynthesis in P. minus was shown through SPME-GC-MS analysis of VOCs combined with transcriptomic analysis of MeJA-elicited P. minus leaves from our previous study.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Polygonum/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Acetatos/administração & dosagem , Ciclopentanos/administração & dosagem , Oxilipinas/administração & dosagem , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Polygonum/química
18.
Int J Phytoremediation ; 21(12): 1225-1233, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140289

RESUMO

This study examined how different nitrogen (N) forms and application levels promote plant growth and assist in manganese (Mn) remediation of Polygonum pubescens Blume (P. pubescens) cultured in soil with a high Mn level. The effects of ammonium chloride (a) and urea (u), at three application levels (10, 20, and 30 mg L-1 N) and control (no N addition, CK) on the growth, Mn accumulation, and enzymatic anti-oxidative defenses of P. pubescens were examined. In general, both ammonium-N and urea-N promoted the plant mass and height of P. pubescens. The total Mn amount of roots, stems, and leaves in N treatments were higher (p < 0.05) than that of CK. The ammonium-N treatments showed greater plant biomass and Mn accumulation compared to the urea-N ones. In general, the accumulations of Mn, Cr, Zn, and Cu were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the N fertilizer treatment than those in the control; while the accumulations of Pb were higher (p < 0.05) in P. pubescens across all N fertilizer treatments than those in the control. The N addition decreased the contents of O2- and H2O2 in the leaves of P. pubescens, while increasing the activities of enzymatic anti-oxidative defenses.


Assuntos
Polygonum , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Fertilizantes , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Manganês , Nitrogênio , Solo
19.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 3279-3287, 2019 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Giant knotweeds originating from East Asia, such as Reynoutria japonica, and Reynoutria sachalinensis, and their hybrid such as Reynoutria x bohemica, are invasive plants in Europe and North America. However, R. japonica is also a traditional East Asian drug (Polygoni cuspidati rhizoma) used in Korean folk medicine to improve oral hygiene. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of acetone extracts of Reynoutria species against dominant caries pathogen such as Streptococcus mutans and alternative pathogens, as well as characterize the phytochemical composition of extracts and examine their cytotoxicity. MATERIAL AND METHODS Ultrasonic extraction was used to obtain polyphenol-rich extracts. The extracts were characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. To test bacterial viability, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) against S. mutans, S. salivarius, S. sanguinis, and S. pyogenes were determined. The cytotoxicity of the extracts to human fibroblasts derived from gingiva was evaluated using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. RESULTS The R. japonica extract had the highest bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity against pathogens causing caries, mainly dominant caries pathogen S. mutans (mean MIC 1000 µg/mL and MBC 2000 µg/mL), which was most likely associated with a higher content of stilbene aglycons and anthraquinone aglycons in the extract. Moreover, the R. japonica extract demonstrated the lowest cytotoxic effect on human fibroblasts and exhibited cytotoxic activity only at the concentration causing the death of all S. mutans. CONCLUSIONS The results indicate that the R. japonica acetone extract can be considered as a natural, antimicrobial agent for caries control.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polygonum/química , Adulto , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Extremo Oriente , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Gengiva/citologia , Gengiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Espécies Introduzidas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Cultura Primária de Células , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Mycorrhiza ; 29(3): 167-180, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929039

RESUMO

Although only a relatively small proportion of plant species form ectomycorrhizae with fungi, it is crucial for growth and survival for a number of widespread woody plant species. Few studies have attempted to investigate the fine scale spatial structure of entire root systems of adult ectomycorrhizal (EcM) plants. Here, we use the herbaceous perennial Bistorta vivipara to map the entire root system of an adult EcM plant and investigate the spatial structure of its root-associated fungi. All EcM root tips were sampled, mapped and identified using a direct PCR approach and Sanger sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region. A total of 32.1% of all sampled root tips (739 of 2302) were successfully sequenced and clustered into 41 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). We observed a clear spatial structuring of the root-associated fungi within the root system. Clusters of individual OTUs were observed in the younger parts of the root system, consistent with observations of priority effects in previous studies, but were absent from the older parts of the root system. This may suggest a succession and fragmentation of the root-associated fungi even at a very fine scale, where competition likely comes into play at different successional stages within the root system.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Micobioma , Micorrizas/classificação , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Polygonum/microbiologia , Biologia Computacional , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico , Micorrizas/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia do Solo
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