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1.
Molecules ; 24(21)2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671906

RESUMO

The root of Rumex crispus L. has been shown to possess anti-gout and anti-diabetic properties, but the compounds responsible for these pharmaceutical effects have not yet been reported. In this study, we aimed to isolate and purify active components from the root of R. crispus, and to evaluate their anti-radical, anti-gout and anti-diabetic capacities. From the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract, two compounds, chrysophanol (1) and physcion (2), were isolated by column chromatography with an elution of hexane and EtOAc at a 9:1 ratio. Their structures were identified by spectrometric techniques including gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), X-ray diffraction analyses and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The results of bioassays indicated that (1) showed stronger activities than (2). For antioxidant activity, (1) and (2) exhibited remarkable DPPH radical scavenging capacity (IC50 = 9.8 and 12.1 µg/mL), which was about two times stronger than BHT (IC50 = 19.4 µg/mL). The anti-gout property of (1) and (2) were comparable to the positive control allopurinol, these compounds exerted strong inhibition against the activity of xanthine oxidase (IC50 = 36.4 and 45.0 µg/mL, respectively). In the anti-diabetic assay, (1) and (2) displayed considerable inhibitory ability on α-glucosidase, their IC50 values (IC50 = 20.1 and 18.9 µg/mL, respectively) were higher than that of standard acarbose (IC50 = 143.4 µg/mL). Findings of this study highlight that (1) and (2) may be promising agents to treat gout and diabetes, which may greatly contribute to the medicinal properties of Rumex crispus root.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Rumex/química , Xantina Oxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear de Carbono-13 , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Xantina Oxidase/metabolismo , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
2.
Am J Bot ; 106(10): 1356-1364, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513723

RESUMO

PREMISE: Sexual dimorphism in flowering phenology traits may have evolved under sexual selection and vector-mediated selection. The conspicuous sexual dimorphism and sex-specific selection pressures in flowering phenology traits have been investigated mainly in entomophilous dioecious plants, whereas little is known about this in anemophilous plants. METHODS: We examined sexual dimorphism in flowering onset, flowering peak, flowering duration, maximum proportion of open flowers per inflorescence branch, maximum proportion of newly opening flowers on a given date per branch, and longevity of individual flowers in natural Rumex acetosa populations. Correlations between flowering phenology traits and the degree of flowering overlap with the opposite sex were examined. We also tested whether the overlap of female flowering with male flowering enhanced seed set in female plants. RESULTS: Little sexual dimorphism was observed in flowering onset, peak, duration, and maximum proportion of newly opening flowers. Females had greater floral longevity and greater maximum proportion of open flowers than males. Flowering overlap with the opposite sex significantly increased with the maximum proportion of newly opening flowers and decreased with temporal deviation in the flowering peak in both sexes. Females with greater flowering overlap with males set more seeds in two of the three study populations. CONCLUSIONS: In wind-pollinated R. acetosa, little sexual dimorphism in phenological traits may have evolved to achieve synchronous flowering with the opposite sex. Our results suggest that, in angiosperms, not only common selection but also anemophily-specific selection may shape little sexual dimorphism in R. acetosa, unlike in entomophilous plants.


Assuntos
Rumex , Feminino , Flores , Inflorescência , Polinização , Reprodução , Caracteres Sexuais
3.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(3): 919-926, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278700

RESUMO

Due to increasing the use of antifungal drugs, the development of resistance in some Candida species and the consumption of the side effects of chemical drugs, use of new resources, especially medicinal plants are very important. The aim of this study was to investigate of anti-Candida and antioxidant activities of hydroalcohlic extract from leaves of Rumex obtusifolius. The Rumex obtusifolius Leaves were extracted using Ethyl acetate; methanol and distilled water (6:3:1) by Sox helet system. The hydroalcoholic extraction of Rumex obtusifolius was evaluated for their antioxidant capacities using in vitro methods; including 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, ß-Carotene bleaching test and reducing power assay. Total free phenolics, total flavonoids content and as well as the antifungal activity were also examined. The components of extract were analyzed via GC-Mass instrument. The extract was screened against 40 isolated pathogenic Candida species such as C. albicans and C. glabrata through agar diffusion method. The hydroalcoholic extract can strongly scavenge DPPH radical and its antioxidant capacities which are high correlated with the total free Phenolics and total flavonoids. Also, the extract had high capability inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation and the reducing ability. This study revealed a higher antioxidant capacity in the leaves of Rumex obtusifolius compared with control groups. The minimum inhibitory concentration values within 24 and 48 hours were 200-250µg/µL for C. albicans and 250µg/µL for C. glabrata. The extract includes high amounts of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity showing is significant. Also, the results confirmed that leaves extract had a potential in anti-Candida activity and suggesting that it could be utilized as a potential source of herbal medicine drugs and natural antioxidants to prevent diseases associated with free radical, anti-fungal disease and food preservation.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rumex/química , Antifúngicos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Flavonoides/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Polifenóis/análise , beta Caroteno/química
4.
New Phytol ; 224(1): 132-145, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218693

RESUMO

Root exudates play an important role in ecosystem response to climate change, but the functional consequences of drought-induced changes in the quality of root exudates are unknown. Here, we addressed this knowledge gap in a unique experimental approach. We subjected two common grassland species that differ widely in their growth strategies and root systems, the grass Holcus lanatus and the forb Rumex acetosa, to 2 wk of drought. We collected root exudates and soils at the end of the drought and after 2 wk of recovery and readded all root exudates to all soils in a fully reciprocal set-up to measure root-exudate-induced respiration. We found that soil treatment was unimportant for determining root-exudate-induced respiration. By contrast, root exudates collected from plants that had experienced drought clearly triggered more soil respiration than exudates from undroughted plants. Importantly, this increased respiration compensated for the lower rates of root exudation in droughted plants. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism through which drought can continue to affect ecosystem carbon cycling, and a potential plant strategy to facilitate regrowth through stimulating microbial activity. These findings have important implications for understanding plant and ecosystem response to drought.


Assuntos
Ciclo do Carbono , Secas , Ecossistema , Holcus/fisiologia , Exsudatos de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/citologia , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Rumex/fisiologia , Biomassa , Carbono/metabolismo , Respiração Celular , Holcus/microbiologia , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia , Rumex/microbiologia , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Especificidade da Espécie
5.
J Insect Sci ; 19(2)2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222322

RESUMO

Poecilus lucublandus (Say), Pterostichus mutus (Say), and Harpalus rufipes (De Geer) are abundant Carabidae in lowbush blueberry fields and may contribute to weed seed predation. We used laboratory no-choice test experiments to determine if these beetles feed on seeds of hair fescue (Festuca filiformis Pourr., Poales: Poaceae), poverty oatgrass (Danthonia spicata L.), and red sorrel (Rumex acetosella L., Caryophyllales: Polygonaceae), which are common weeds in lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait., Ericales: Ericaceae) fields. Poecilus lucublandus and P. mutus did not feed on seeds of the test weed species, but H. rufipes consumed on average over 30 seeds of each species. There are other weed seeds in blueberry fields that could be palatable to P. lucublandus and P. mutus, which warrants further research on the granivory potential of these important carabid species.


Assuntos
Besouros , Festuca , Rumex , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Sementes
6.
Inflamm Res ; 68(7): 569-579, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055607

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Natural products are well known as the source of drugs in the treatment of allergic inflammation. Chrysophanol, an anthraquinone from the AST2017-01 extract, showed a beneficial anti-inflammatory effect on activated human mast cells in our previous study. However, a regulatory effect of AST2017-01 and chrysophanol on mast cell proliferation induced by thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) remains unclear. The present study determined the anti-proliferative effect and the fundamental mechanism of AST2017-01 and chrysophanol in mast cells. METHODS: We evaluated an anti-proliferative effect of AST2017-01 and chrysophanol in TSLP-stimulated human mast cell line, HMC-1. RESULTS: Without cytotoxicity, AST2017-01 and chrysophanol decreased mast cells growth and Ki67 mRNA expression increased by TSLP. AST2017-01 and chrysophanol enhanced expressions of p53 and Bax, whereas inhibited expression of Bcl-2. AST2017-01 and chrysophanol restored caspase-3 activity which was decreased by TSLP. AST2017-01 and chrysophanol suppressed expressions of murine double minute-2 protein and phosphorylated-signal transducer and activator of transcription six which are associated with the regulation of p53 protein. AST2017-01 and chrysophanol decreased levels of interleukin (IL)-13, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Moreover, AST2017-01 and chrysophanol reduced mRNA expressions of TSLP receptor and IL-7 receptor α. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, this study proposes that AST2017-01 and chrysophanol may be promising candidates for the development of potent anti-inflammatory or health functional foods.


Assuntos
Antraquinonas/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Misturas Complexas/farmacologia , Cordyceps/química , Mastócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Rumex/química , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas , Humanos , Mastócitos/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-mdm2/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT6/metabolismo
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 679: 365-377, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085416

RESUMO

Human health and environment have been continuously getting exposure to toxic chemicals including nanomaterial; therefore, nontoxicity has recently attracted huge amount of attention. In this study, RU-AgNPs were synthesized by a green synthesis procedure and evaluated for their toxicity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as well as on zebrafish embryos via apoptotic pathway. The synthesized RU-AgNPs were average in size (20-25 nm) with a negative surface charge of -13.43 mV. As a result, RU-AgNPs potentiated the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HUVECs as confirmed by the results of immunoblotting analysis using apoptotic markers, such as Bax, Bcl2, and cytochrome C. Moreover, the induction of apoptosis in HUVECs was also authenticated in a dose-dependent manner after the treatment with RU-AgNPs by the Incucyte analysis. In vivo trials conducted on zebrafish visualized the mortality, malformation, and imbalanced in the heart rate, and cell death of the whole embryo, including severe morphological changes in the yolk sac and the tail of zebrafish. Furthermore, the results of western blot analysis demonstrated the increasing intensity of apoptotic biomarkers such as Bax, Bcl2, and Cyto C, including enhanced production of ROS, validating the cell death in zebrafish larvae. In addition, chemically functionalized silver nanoparticles found to be more cytotoxic than biogenic functionalized silver nanoparticles. Above-mentioned findings clearly demonstrate that Ru-AgNPs cause the toxicity via ROS-induced apoptotic pathway. Therefore, it is necessary to decide RU-AgNPs toxicity levels before being used in any biomedical application.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo , Prata/toxicidade , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Rumex/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra
8.
Inflamm Res ; 68(5): 387-395, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30874868

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: AST2017-01 is developed to be used for treatment and prevention of allergic diseases and composed of processed-Cordyceps militaris and processed-Rumex crispus. But, effect of AST2017-01 remains unclear in an allergic rhinitis (AR). So, this study aimed to explore the effects of AST2017-01 in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced AR animal model. METHODS: OVA-induced AR animals were orally administered AST2017-01 and chrysophanol, an active component of AST2017-01 for 10 days. RESULTS: In mice with AR, AST2017-01 and chrysophanol markedly decreased number of rubs, IgE, histamine, thymic stromal lymphopoietin, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in serum or nasal mucosa tissues. Moreover, activities and protein levels of caspase-1 were markedly diminished by oral administration of AST2017-01 and chrysophanol. Declines of macrophage inflammatory protein-2, intercellular adhesion molecules-1, eosinophil, and mast cells were also noted in nasal mucosa tissues of AST2017-01 and chrysophanol groups. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these findings indicate that AST2017-01 has an anti-allergic effect as a therapeutic agent or functional food for treating and preventing AR.


Assuntos
Antialérgicos/uso terapêutico , Cordyceps , Rinite Alérgica/tratamento farmacológico , Rumex , Animais , Antraquinonas/farmacologia , Antraquinonas/uso terapêutico , Antialérgicos/farmacologia , Caspase 1/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eosinófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eosinófilos/imunologia , Feminino , Mastócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mastócitos/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mucosa Nasal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Nasal/imunologia , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Ovalbumina , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Rinite Alérgica/imunologia
9.
Nutrients ; 11(3)2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866501

RESUMO

Rumex japonicus Houtt. (RJ) is traditionally used in folk medicines to treat patients suffering from skin disease in Korea and other parts of East Asia. However, the beneficial effect of RJ extract on atopic dermatitis (AD) has not been thoroughly examined. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of RJ on AD in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with RJ inhibited the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) as well as the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) stimulated in HaCaT cells. The five-week-old Balb/c mice were used as an AD-like mouse model by treating them with 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB). Topical administration of RJ to DNCB-treated mice significantly reduced clinical dermatitis severity, epidermal thickness, and decreased mast cell and eosinophil infiltration into skin and ear tissue. These results suggest that RJ inhibits the development of AD-like skin lesions by regulating the skin inflammation responses in HaCaT cells and Balb/c mice. Thus, RJ may be a potential therapeutic agent for AD.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica , Queratinócitos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Rumex , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Dermatite Atópica/induzido quimicamente , Dermatite Atópica/metabolismo , Dinitroclorobenzeno/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
10.
Fitoterapia ; 134: 1-4, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30708045

RESUMO

Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extract of fermentation broth of one symbiotic strain Fusarium oxysporum ZZP-R1 derived from coastal plant Rumex madaio Makino, one traditional Chinese medicine used as a treatment of inflammation and toxication, yielded two novel compounds, fusariumins C (1) and D (2). Chemical structures of 1 and 2 were respectively determined as one meroterpene with cyclohexanone moiety and a sesquiterpene ester with a conjugated triene and an unusual oxetene ring by a combination of spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR, mass spectrometry, and optical rotation analysis, as well as by comparison with literature data. Bioassay results indicated that compound 1 displayed potent activity against Staphyloccocus aureus with an MIC value of 6.25 µM, and compound 2 had a moderate inhibitory effect on S. aureus with an MIC value of 25.0 µM. It was the first report that phytochemical investigation of Fusarium strain from R. madaio Makino led to isolation of new antimicrobial agents.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Fusarium/química , Rumex/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , China , Cumarínicos/isolamento & purificação , Fermentação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 162: 66-81, 2019 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30223144

RESUMO

Rumex tunetanus is an untapped resource with no available information about their chemical composition. That is why, the present study has conducted comprehensive metabolites profiling of the hydromethanol extracts of the Rumex tunetanus flowers and stems using RP-UHPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS. As results, 60 compounds were characterized for the first time in Rumex tunetanus between them, 18 photochemical were firstly identified in the Polygonaceae family in negative ionization mode. In this regard, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide and (-)-epicatechin gallate were the most abundant phenolic compounds in flowers and stems, respectively. Moreover, positive correlations were found between the antioxidant activity measured by DPPH and FRAP assays with the total phenolic compounds (r = 0.98; r = 0.99, respectively) and the abundance of some phenolic subfamilies such as hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids, flavonols and flavones with r > 0.86. The compounds displaying significant (P < 0.01) and good correlations with the antioxidant activity (r > 0.93) were hydroxybenzoic acid, rutin, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin and luteolin-7-O-rutinoside. In conclusion, Rumex tunetanus flowers and stems showed different bioactive compound profiles and significant antioxidant properties and could be further used in food and nutraceutical industries.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa/métodos , Flores/metabolismo , Metabolômica/métodos , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Rumex/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Rumex/classificação
12.
Protoplasma ; 256(1): 237-247, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30073414

RESUMO

The translocation hypothesis regarding the origin of the XX/XY1Y2 sex chromosome system was tested with reference to the F1 hybrids between two chromosomal races of Rumex hastatulus. The hybrids derived from reciprocal crossing between the Texas (T) race and the North Carolina (NC) race were investigated for the first time with respect to the meiotic chromosome configuration in the pollen mother cells, pollen viability, and sex ratio. A sex chromosome trivalent in the NC × T males and two sex chromosome bivalents in the T × NC males were detected. The observed conjugation patterns confirmed the autosomal origin of the extra chromosome segments occurring in the North Carolina neo-sex chromosomes. Decreased pollen viability was found in the T × NC hybrid in contrast to the NC × T hybrid and the parental forms. Moreover, only in the T × NC hybrid sex ratio was significantly female-biased (1:1.72). Thus, Haldane's rule for both male fertility and male rarity was shown in this hybrid. According to the authors' knowledge, R. hastatulus is just the second plant with sex chromosomes in which Haldane's rule was evidenced.


Assuntos
Rumex/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cromossomos Sexuais/metabolismo , Translocação Genética/genética
13.
Food Chem ; 274: 686-690, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30372995

RESUMO

The suitability of post-packaging gamma radiation treatment for preserving total folates or vitamin B9 in watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) and buckler sorrel (Rumex induratus Boiss. & Reut.) during storage at 4 °C was evaluated. Comparable amounts of total folates were found in fresh, non-stored samples of both species. In watercress, the irradiation treatment of up to 5 kGy reduced the loss of total folates caused by 7 days of storage. In turn, the 12-day storage period did not affect the total folate content of buckler sorrel (while the 2 kGy dose decreased the initial levels), evidencing that packaging and refrigeration are enough for preservation. These results suggest that the suitability of post-packaging irradiation for preserving total folates may depend not only on the applied dose but also on the plant matrix under analysis. In addition, new data useful to complete food composition tables or databases is provided.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ácido Fólico/análise , Raios gama , Nasturtium/efeitos da radiação , Rumex/efeitos da radiação , Temperatura Baixa , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Nasturtium/química , Rumex/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
14.
Nat Prod Res ; 33(17): 2554-2559, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29553812

RESUMO

Chemical composition, antioxidant, anticancer, and antimacrobial activities of essential oil obtained from leaves of Rumex nervosus has been evaluated here for the first time. GC/MS analysis reveals the presence of Palmitoleic Acid (28.35%) and Palmitic acid, (25. 37%) as their methyl ester as major components. The essential oil showed significant DPPH radical scavenging activity (94.907 ± 0.1089% and 94.003 ± 0.0749%) at concentration (100 and 80) µg/mL respectively. The oil showed promising activity against staph aureus, while showed weak activity against (Hela and 3T3) cell lines. The crude extract / fractions of R. nervosus (leaves) showed significant antioxidant activity at dose (100 and 80) µg/mL. Futhermore the crude showed significant activity against (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) cell lines with IC50 (20.5138 ± 0.933 and 25.1728 ± 0.9176) µg/mL respectively, and chloroform fraction showed good activity against (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) cell lines with IC50 (31.154 ± 0.965 and 42.269 ± 2.1045) µg/mL.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Rumex/química , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/análise , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Metanol , Camundongos , Folhas de Planta/química
15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 234: 216-224, 2019 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552992

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Emex spinosa (L.) Campd. (E. spinosa) locally known as "hillaioua" has always been used in folk medicine for the treatment of inflammation and pain. It is still being exploited by pharmaceutical companies for its potential remedial effects. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, the effects of E. spinosa (L.) Campd. against acute inflammation, pain and oxidative damage were evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total phenols and flavonoids were evaluated. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities the E. spinosa ethyl acetate fractions of the aerial (Es EtOAc-AP) and underground (Es EtOAc-R) parts were assessed on carrageenan-induced paw oedema (100 mg/kg BW) and acetic acid-induced writhing response (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg BW), respectively. The E. spinosa fractions effects on oxidative stress markers and inflammatory parameters were determined. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was performed to identify various chemical components. RESULTS: The ethyl acetate fractions were shown to be the most active thanks to their phenolic and flavonoid contents richness. Intraperitoneal administration of E. spinosa ethyl acetate fractions at 100 mg/kg BW, one hour before carrageenan injection, significantly inhibited the oedema formation by 89.31% and 97.7% for the aerial and underground parts respectively when compared to the reference drug "dexamethasone" (51.9%). Besides, a significant increase (p ≤ 0.001) of the dermal antioxidant enzymes (the superoxide dismutase (SOD)), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was observed five hours after carrageenan administration. The best restoration was obtained with Es EtOAc-R (82.04%, 93.55% and 93.55% respectively for SOD, CAT and GPx activities). Moreover, EtOAc-fractions treated mice proved their ability to restore both of CRP and fibrinogen (p < 0.001). In addition, E. spinosa EtOAc-fractions attenuated abdominal contractions (p < 0.05) by 71.69% and 82.41% for the aerial part and roots respectively at 150 mg/kg BW against 100% for dichlofenac sodium used as standard drug. The phytochemical analysis of Es EtOAc-AP and Es EtOAc-R by GC-MS may explain the obtained results. The analysis of the fractions demonstrated the presence of palmitic and linoleic acids known for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic capacities. CONCLUSIONS: These findings explain the traditional use of E. spinosa in folk medicine and suggest that E. spinosa fractions could be a promising herbal drug.


Assuntos
Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rumex/química , Acetatos/química , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos/isolamento & purificação , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carragenina/toxicidade , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Edema/patologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Camundongos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem
16.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 39(6): 772-779, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186147

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the phytochemicals and in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic potential of Rumex dentatus (R. dentatus) leaf extracts. METHODS: The total phenolics and flavonoids content of R. dentatus extracts were evaluated by the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride colorimetric methods respectively. Antioxidant potential of studied plant extracts was assessed through 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity, total reducing power and total antioxidant methods. Moreover, antibacterial and antifungal capacity was also evaluated by disc diffusion method against six clinically isolated multi-drug resistant bacterial strains as well as six fungal isolates. Further, cell cytotoxicity was also evaluated through 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. RESULTS: Ethanol extract showed highest total phenolic [(38.9 ± 1.5) µg gallic acid equivalent/mg] and total flavonoids [(17.2 ± 1.9) µg quercetin equivalent /mg] contents. Antioxidant assays indicated that ethanol and methanol extracts possess potent antioxidant potential. Moreover, it was observed that ethanol and hexane extracts have the potential to inhibit most of the tested multi-drug resistant bacterial strains while methanol, chloroform and hexane extracts could inhibit the growth of pathogenic fungal strains successfully. Among all the studied extracts, ethanolic extract showed highest cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cell line then Hep-2 and DU-145 cell lines by MTT assay with lowest IC50 of 47.3 µg/mL. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that R. dentatus could be a potent alternative candidate for treatment of microbial infections and for breast cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rumex/química , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2018: 4526352, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30533432

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a serious chronic metabolic disorder. Various diseases are being treated with medicinal plants and that is because of the less side effects of the current therapy. The diversity of plants in Armenia is due to the singularity of natural environment. However, biochemical activity of these plants has not been studied well. Thus, the goal was to investigate biochemical activity and antihyperglycemic properties of Rumex obtusifolius L. in rabbits with hyperglycemia. The high content of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and tannins has been determined in this plant extract. Oral administration of ethanol extract showed significant effect on hyperglycemia, reducing fasting glucose levels (57.3%, p<0.05), improving glucose tolerance, and increasing liver glycogen content (1.5-fold, p<0.01) compared to the hyperglycemic control group. Furthermore, ethanol extract of R. obtusifolius reduced total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and vice versa increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and also decreased liver enzymes levels (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase) compared with untreated group. These findings suggest that R. obtusifolius may have beneficial effects and should be supplement, as herbal remedy in the treatment of DM.


Assuntos
Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Medicina Tradicional , Rumex/química , Sementes/química , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Glicemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Jejum/sangue , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/enzimologia , Masculino , Músculos/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Coelhos
18.
Molecules ; 23(10)2018 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30257436

RESUMO

Phenolic compounds, hydroquinone and cinnamic acid derivatives have been identified as major allelochemicals with known phytotoxicity from allelopathic plant Acacia melanoxylon R. Br. Several phenolic compounds such as ferulic acid (FA), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (pHBA) and flavonoid (rutin, quercetin) constituents occur in the phyllodes and flowers of A. melanoxylon and have demonstrated inhibitory effects on germination and physiological characteristics of lettuce and perennial grasses. However, to date, little is known about the mechanisms of action of these secondary metabolites in broad-leaved weeds at ecophysiological level. The objective of this study was to determine the response of Rumex acetosa carbon isotope composition and other physiological parameters to the interaction of plant secondary metabolites (PSM) (FA and pHBA) stress and the usefulness of carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C) as indicative of the functional performance of intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) at level of plant leaf. R. acetosa plant were grown under greenhouse condition and subjected to PSM stress (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mM) for six days. Here, we show that FA and pHBA are potent inhibitors of Δ13C that varied from 21.0‰ to 22.9‰. Higher pHBA and FA supply enhanced/retard the Nleaf and increased the Cleaf while ratio of intercellular CO2 concentration from leaf to air (Ci/Ca) was significantly decreased as compared to control. Leaf water content and leaf osmotic potential were decreased following treatment with both PSM. The Ci/Ca decreased rapidly with higher concentration of FA and pHBA. However, iWUE increased at all allelochemical concentrations. At the whole plant level, both PSM showed pronounced growth-inhibitory effects on PBM and C and N concentration, root fresh/dry weight, leaf fresh/dry weight, and root, shoot length of C3 broad leaf weed R. acetosa. Carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) was correlated with the dry matter to transpiration ratio (transpiration efficiency) in this C3 species, but its heritability and relationship to R. acetosa growth are less clear. Our FA and pHBA compounds are the potent and selective carbon isotope composition (δ13C) inhibitors known to date. These results confirm the phytotoxicity of FA and pHBA on R. acetosa seedlings, the reduction of relative water content and the induction of carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) with lower plant biomass.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/química , Rumex/química , Carbono/química , Carbono/metabolismo , Isótopos de Carbono/química , Marcação por Isótopo/métodos , Nitrogênio/química , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/química , Osmose , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Rumex/metabolismo , Plântula/química , Plântula/genética , Água/química
19.
Biomed Res Int ; 2018: 3895834, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30175130

RESUMO

The increasing insect resistance against Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxins is a serious problem which makes it urgent to look for new eco-friendly strategies. Combining these toxins with other biomolecules is one of the promising strategies against insect pests. In this work, we evaluated the bioinsecticidal potential of Rumex tingitanus extracts and B. thuringiensis strain BLB250 against Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae. The chemical composition of the hexane extract, the most active fraction, was analyzed to validate the correlation between chemical composition and biological activity. Among the tested extracts, only the hexanic extract showed toxicity against first and second instar larvae with LC50 of 2.56 and 2.95 mg g-1, respectively. The Bacillus thuringiensis BLB250 delta-endotoxins showed toxicity with an LC50 of 56.3 µg g-1. Therefore, the investigated combinational effect of BLB250 delta-endotoxins and R. tingitanus hexane extract proved significant synergistic effect against S. littoralis larvae. The GC-MS analysis of R. tingitanus hexane extract showed the richness of this extract in phytosterols such as ß and γ-sitosterol (48.91%), campesterol (6.43%), and ß-amyrin (8.92%) which are known for their insecticidal activity. This novel finding highlights the potential use of this combination against insect pests to prevent the appearance of resistance problems.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Endotoxinas/farmacologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polygonaceae , Spodoptera , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/farmacologia , Proteínas Hemolisinas , Hexanos , Inseticidas , Larva , Lepidópteros , Rumex
20.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 31(5): 1917-1921, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30150189

RESUMO

Biological assays including; phytotoxicity, brine shrimp lethality, antileishmanial and insecticidal activities were carried out on crude methanolic extracts of stems and leaves of R. nervosus and their fraction namely; n-Hexane, CHCl3, EtOAc, and MeOH fractions. The highest significant phytotoxicty activity showed by chloroform, n-hexane fractions and crude extract of leaves, the growth regulation were (95%, 90% and 90%) respectively against Lemna minor, while ethyl acetate fraction and n-hexane fractions of stems displayed significant phytotoxicty (100% and 90%) respectively against Lemna minor at high dose (1000µg/ml). The results obtained from cytotoxicity assays revealed that none of the fractions are cytotoxic. The chloroform fraction of stems was showed good antileishmanial activity against L. major with LC50±S.D: 70.3±1.2 at µg/ml. The crude methanolic extracts of leaves, chloroform fraction and ethyl acetate fraction exhibited low mortality against tested insect Rhyzopertha dominica while, the rest of extracts were found almost inactive against insects species.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/farmacologia , Leishmania/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta , Caules de Planta , Rumex , Animais , Artemia , Inseticidas/isolamento & purificação , Leishmania/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
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