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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(7): 2041-2053, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967813

RESUMO

Cyclocarya paliurus is commonly used for the prevention and treatment of hypertension, diabetes, and inflammation in South China. Although research on the anti-inflammatory effects of C. paliurus leaves has been reported, no active anti-inflammatory compounds have been identified. In the present study, RAW 264.7 cells were used to establish a bioactivity-guided identification model to verify the inhibitory effects of C. paliurus leaves on inflammation and identify the anti-inflammatory constituents. The active fraction was isolated to yield 18 dammarane triterpenoid saponins, including 11 new 3,4-seco-dammarane triterpenoid saponins (1-11), the structures of which were identified on the basis of analyses of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS) and comparison with literature data. Compounds 7, 8, 10, and 11 showed strong inhibition on nitric oxide (NO) productions, with IC50 values ranging from 8.23 to 11.23 µM. These four compounds significantly decreased the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, compound 7 decreased the expression of the proteins cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS), and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB/p65). In addition, the structure-activity relationships of the isolates were investigated. The results suggest that 3,4-seco-dammarane triterpenoid saponins may be used as potential anti-inflammatory drugs and warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Juglandaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Saponinas/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/imunologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Saponinas/química , Saponinas/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
2.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 135: 111014, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794804

RESUMO

Chemical liver and kidney injury have become a serious concern to human. Side effects occur when they are treated with medicine. The present study evaluated the preventive effect of Cyclocarya paliurus polysaccharides (CP) on hepatic and renal injury in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced mice. The results showed that CP treatment could effectively prevent H2O2-induced oxidative damage of NCTC-1469 cells. Administrated with CP could ameliorate the body weight loss and organ swelling of mice induced by the 0.2% CCl4. Compared with the model group, CP groups have beneficial effects in decreasing ALT, AST, TBA and CRE levels in serum. In addition, the expression of CYP2E1 in the liver was also significantly decline after continuous administration of CP. Moreover, pre-administration of CP can improve the antioxidant status of liver and kidney (MDA and SOD, GSH-Px). Histopathological studies also supported the improvement of CP on liver and kidney of CCl4-induced mice. These results indicate that CP may be of therapeutic value in ameliorating the hepatic and renal oxidative stress caused by CCl4, through its antioxidant properties.


Assuntos
Tetracloreto de Carbono/toxicidade , Juglandaceae/química , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Citocromo P-450 CYP2E1/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
3.
Phytomedicine ; 66: 153130, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent form of chronic liver diseases. Cyclocarya paliurus (C. paliurus), an edible and medicinal plant in Chinese folk, has been demonstrated to ameliorate diabetes, obesity and lipid metabolism disorders. However, its effects on NAFLD and its potential molecular mechanism have not been clearly expounded. PURPOSE: The present study was designed to explore the therapeutic potential of triterpenic acids-enriched fraction from C. paliurus (CPT), as well as its underlying mechanism in vivo and in vitro models of NAFLD. METHODS: The metabolic effects and possible molecular mechanism of CPT were examined using HepG2 cells and primary hepatocytes (isolated from C57BL/6 J mice) models of fatty liver induced by palmitic acid (PA) and a high fat diet mouse model. RESULTS: In high fat diet-induced C57BL/6 J mice, CPT significantly reduced liver weight index, serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and hepatic TG, TC levels. Moreover, CPT dramatically decreased the contents of blood glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Meanwhile, CPT significantly increased the tyrosine phosphorylation level of IRS and the uptake of 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) in PA-induced HepG2 cells and primary hepatocytes fatty liver models. Furthermore, in PA-induced HepG2 cells and primary hepatocytes, CPT significantly decreased the number of lipid droplets and intracellular TG content. In addition, mechanism investigation showed that CPT increased the phosphorylation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (Akt) and glycogen synthase-3ß (GSK3ß) in vivo and in vitro models, which were abrogated by PI3K inhibitor LY294002 in vitro models. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that CPT may exert the therapeutic effects on NAFLD via regulating PI3K/Akt/GSK3ß pathway.


Assuntos
Juglandaceae/química , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Triterpenos/química
4.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(10)2019 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627470

RESUMO

Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal.) Iljinskaja, a unique species growing in southern China, is a multi-function tree species with medicinal, healthcare, material, and ornamental values. So far, sexual reproduction is the main method for extensive cultivation of C. paliurus plantations, but this is limited by low seed plumpness resulted from the character of heterodichogamy. Phenological observations have revealed the asynchronism of flower development in this species. However, its molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. To reveal molecular mechanism of heterodichogamy in C. paliurus, transcriptome of female (F) and male (M) buds from two mating types (protandry, PA; protogyny, PG) at bud break stage were sequenced using Illumina Hiseq 4000 platform. The expression patterns of both 32 genes related to flowering and 58 differentially expressed transcription factors (DETFs) selected from 6 families were divided four groups (PG-F, PG-M, PA-F, and PA-M) into two categories: first flowers (PG-F and PA-M) and later flowers (PA-F and PG-M). The results indicated that genes related to plant hormones (IAA, ABA, and GA) synthesis and response, glucose metabolism, and transcription factors (especially in MIKC family) played significant roles in regulating asynchronism of male and female flowers in the same mating type. The expression of DETFs showed two patterns. One contained DETFs up-regulated in first flowers in comparison to later flowers, and the other was the reverse. Nine genes related to flowering were selected for qRT-PCR to confirm the accuracy of RNA-seq, and generally, the RPKM values of these genes were consistent with the result of qRT-PCR. The results of this work could improve our understanding in asynchronism of floral development within one mating type in C. paliurus at transcriptional level, as well as lay a foundation for further study in heterodichogamous plants.


Assuntos
Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Juglandaceae/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Juglandaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
5.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223421, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613931

RESUMO

Cyclocarya paliurus is a unique tree species of that grows in southern China. The tree contains distinctive saponins in the leaf that has hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects. It was aimed to detect localization of saponins and suitable time of harvest for medicinal uses. Histochemical, cytochemical localization and UV-spectrophotometry were carried out in C. paliurus plant. We found that in all organs, the saponins were primarily located in the parenchyma cells and the highest saponins accumulation was in the palisade tissue in leaves. Cytochemical localization results indicated that saponins were mainly distributed in the chloroplast, vesicle, and plasmalemma. On average, the total saponins content in leaves (20.57 mg·g-1) was two and three times greater than in root (10.19 mg·g-1) and shoot (6.20 mg·g-1), respectively. Moreover, the saponins content in the leaf and root exhibited fluctuations, which were highest in September. Considering saponins levels and biomass, we conclude that harvesting all leaves in September is an economical and effective strategy for medicinal use in C. paliurus.


Assuntos
Juglandaceae/química , Saponinas/análise , Juglandaceae/citologia , Juglandaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Especificidade de Órgãos , Folhas de Planta/química
6.
Mol Med Rep ; 20(4): 3535-3542, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485627

RESUMO

The anti­hyperglycemic effects of Cyclocarya paliurus polysaccharide (CPP) have attracted increasing attention; however, limited research has been conducted on the potential effects of CPP on inhibiting tumor growth. The present study aimed to investigate the functions of CPP in combination with X­ray irradiation on colorectal cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms. SW480 cells were treated with various concentrations of CPP for 24, 48 and 72 h to determine cell viability using a Cell Counting Kit­8 assay. Then, the cells were divided into four groups as follows: Control, CPP (100 µmol/l), 8 Gy and CPP + 8 Gy. The proliferation and apoptosis, and colony formation of cells were detected using flow cytometry and plate clone formation assays, respectively. Reverse transcription­quantitative PCR and western blot analyses were conducted to determine the expression of proliferation and apoptosis­associated, and PI3K/Akt signaling­associated genes. Treatment with 75 µmol/l CPP for 48 h significantly decreased cell viability compared with untreated cells. CPP in combination with 8 Gy X­ray treatment significantly promoted the induction of apoptosis, and suppressed cell proliferation and clone formation compared with the control, CPP and 8 Gy groups. The detection of mRNA and protein expression levels by reverse transcription­PCR and western blotting demonstrated that CPP in combination with 8 Gy not only significantly decreased the expression of proliferation marker protein Ki­67, p53 and Bcl­2, but also upregulated the expression of cleaved caspase­3 and Bax, compared with the control. In addition, CPP and 8 Gy combined significantly attenuated the phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt. The present study demonstrated that the combination of CPP with X­ray irradiation suppressed SW480 cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis compared with the control, CPP and 8 Gy groups. The underlying mechanisms may involve inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células , Quimiorradioterapia , Neoplasias Colorretais , Juglandaceae/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/biossíntese , Polissacarídeos/química , Terapia por Raios X
7.
Behav Pharmacol ; 30(7): 596-604, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503068

RESUMO

Engelhardtia chrysolepis Hance (ECH) is a perennial plant used in traditional medicine. A major active ingredient of ECH is astilbin (ASB), which has recently been shown to have neuroprotective effects as well as to affect catecholamine neurotransmissions in brain areas such as the prefrontal cortex. In this study, we investigated the effects of ECH and ASB on long-term memory in mice using a battery of behavioral tests. Acute ECH treatments dose-dependently facilitated nonspatial, but not spatial, memory. ECH treatments also upregulated expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, the enzyme mediating catecholamine synthesis, in neuroblastoma cell culture. Acute ASB treatments similarly improved nonspatial memory, whereas chronic ASB treatments improved both nonspatial and spatial memory. In accordance with such behavioral effects, the increased ratio of tissue concentrations of dopamine metabolites over dopamine in striatal regions was observed in mice with chronic ASB treatments. These results suggest that ECH and its active ingredient ASB may facilitate long-term memory by modulating catecholamine transmission.


Assuntos
Flavonóis/farmacologia , Memória de Longo Prazo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Catecolaminas/metabolismo , Fagales/metabolismo , Juglandaceae/metabolismo , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo
8.
Phytomedicine ; 64: 153060, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401495

RESUMO

BACKGROUD: Diabetic nephropathy is the most serious complication of diabetes. Cyclocarya paliurus (CP), an herbal plant in China, has been reported the biological activity of anti-hyperglycemia. However, its effects on the diabetic nephropathy (DN) remain unclear. PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the potential role of CP and its underlying mechanisms on DN. STUDY DESIGN: In this study, the effects of triterpenic acids-enriched fraction from CP (CPT) on DN was evaluated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced rats and high glucose (HG)-induced HK-2 cells models. METHODS: After oral administration with or without CPT for 10 weeks, body weight, glucose, microalbumin, serum creatinine and blood urea in STZ-induced rats were detected. Histological analysis was performed to evaluate renal function of mice. Moreover, the level of autophagy was detected by western blot or immunostaining. In vitro, HG-induced HK-2 cell was conducted to evaluate the renal protection and mechanism of CPT. RESULTS: CPT dramatically decreased the levels of microalbumin, serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen and ameliorated increased mesangial matrix and glomerular fibrosis. In addition, we found the CPT prevented renal damage and cell apoptosis through the autophagy. Furthermore, CPT could increase the phosphorylation of AMPK and decrease its downstream effector phosphorylation of mTOR. Besides, the expression of LC3-II were locked by AMPK inhibitor dorsomorphin dihydrochloride (compound C), implying that the autophagy may be regulated with AMPK activation. CONCLUSION: These findings suggested that CPT might be a desired candidate against diabetes, potentially through AMPK-mTOR-regulated autophagy pathway.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Juglandaceae/química , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/análise , Creatinina/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/fisiopatologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/induzido quimicamente , Nefropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Glomérulos Renais/efeitos dos fármacos , Glomérulos Renais/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Fosforilação , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Estreptozocina/farmacologia
9.
Phytochemistry ; 163: 75-88, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030081

RESUMO

Cyclocarya paliurus (Batalin) Iljinsk is a medicinal plant belonging to the Juglandaceae family, and its leaves are used for a traditional sweet herbal tea with bioactivity against obesity and hyperglycaemia in China. It contains various bioactive specialised metabolites, such as flavonoids, triterpenes and their glucosides, while no glycosyltransferases (GTs) have been reported in C. paliurus to date. Herein, we identified and cloned the first glucosyltransferase C. paliurus GT1. The expression profiles of C. paliurus GT1 showed very high expression in young leaves, callus and branches, but relatively low expression in old leaves and bark and no expression in root. The recombinant C. paliurus GT1 protein was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and exhibited catalytic activity towards multiple flavonoids favouring substrate- and regio-specific biosynthesis. Further enzyme assays indicated a preference for certain hydroxyl group glucosylation by C. paliurus GT1. C. paliurus GT1 actively catalysed the glucosylation of flavones and flavonols, but it was less active towards isoflavones, flavanones or triterpenes. C. paliurus GT1 was also able to catalyse the attachment of sugars to the thiol (S-) or amine (N-) sites on aromatic compounds but not on aliphatic compounds. Molecular docking and site-directed mutagenesis analyses indicated that A43F, V84P, and M201Y dramatically altered the regio-selectivity and activity, and the W283M mutation and deletion of the V309-D320 region enhanced the activity and the formation of disaccharides. Herein, we present the identification and characterization of the first multi-functional glucosyltransferase in C. paliurus and provide a basis for understanding the biosynthesis of flavonoid glucosides. C. paliurus GT1 could be utilized as a synthetic biology tool for the synthesis of O-, N-, or S-glucosylated natural/unnatural products.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/biossíntese , Glucosídeos/biossíntese , Glucosiltransferases/análise , Juglandaceae/química , Flavonoides/química , Glucosídeos/química , Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Juglandaceae/metabolismo , Estereoisomerismo , Especificidade por Substrato
10.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 2976-2983, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31011149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to assess the hypoglycemic effect of Cyclocarya paliurus extract (CPE) on diabetes mellitus (DM) mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS A DM mouse model was established to test FBG, TC, and TG. The DM mice were divided into 3 groups: a DM group, a DM+CPE (0.5 g/Kg) group, and a DM+CPE (1.0 g/Kg) group. The FBG and body weight were measured. The glucose tolerance ability was determined by OGTT test. FINS was measured to calculate ISI and IRI. Serum MDA, SOD, and GSH-Px levels were detected. NIT-1 cells were cultured in vitro and divided into 4 groups: a control group, a STZ group, a STZ+CPE (80 µg/mL) group, and a STZ+CPE (160 µg/mL) group. Cell apoptosis and ROS content were assessed by flow cytometry. Cell proliferation was detected by EdU staining. RESULTS Compared with the control group, FBG, TC, and TG were significantly increased in the DM group. CPE gavage obviously reduced FBG level, increased body weight, enhanced glucose tolerance, elevated FINS level and ISI, and reduced IRI, all in a dose-dependent manner. CPE gavage reduced serum MDA content and increased SOD and GSH-Px enzyme activities in DM mice. STZ markedly enhanced ROS production, induced apoptosis, and inhibited proliferation in NIT-1 cells. CPE treatment clearly reduced ROS production and apoptosis, enhanced cell proliferation, and alleviated STZ damage to NIT-1 cells. CONCLUSIONS CPE has the effects of decreasing blood glucose and insulin resistance, and enhancing glucose tolerance in DM mice, which may be related to its effects of reducing oxidation and reduced apoptosis, and relieving STZ in pancreatic beta cell injury.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Juglandaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Glicemia/análise , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/análise , Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fitoterapia/métodos , Folhas de Planta/química , Triglicerídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/sangue
11.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 294(4): 1037-1048, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30976906

RESUMO

The SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein-like (SPL) is a plant-specific transcription factor that influences flowering and vegetative development. Although the SPL genes have been functionally analyzed in many species, studies on the evolutionary history of the whole gene family, and in the Juglandaceae specifically, have been limited. Here, we conducted a phylogenetic relationship analysis of the Juglandaceae SPL gene family compared with other land plant species. Our results showed that the SPL genes were divided into three major clades, all of which were further divided into ten small clades. Selection pressure analysis suggested that all SPL genes were exposed to purifying selection pressure during evolution. The purifying selection was smaller for the Juglandaceae SPL genes than for other angiosperms, indicating a greater susceptibility to functional differentiation in the Juglandaceae. The SPL proteins encoded by Clade 1 contained a branch-specific transmembrane structure and many conserved motif combinations at the C-terminal. We also detected many selection sites in these motif combinations. Expression analysis showed that Clade 1 genes had spatial and temporal differences and were highly expressed in various organs. The expression profile was closely related to the selection sites and motif combinations at the C-terminal. These observations represent essential entry points for revealing the functional differentiation of the SPL gene family. Our data presented here may provide a basis for future investigations of SPL genes in the Juglandaceae, especially for flower development and perhaps crop yield improvement.


Assuntos
Juglandaceae/genética , Seleção Genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Juglandaceae/classificação , Magnoliopsida/genética , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
12.
Food Funct ; 10(4): 1893-1902, 2019 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865735

RESUMO

Leaves of Cyclocarya paliurus (CP) have a potential antihyperglycemic effect, but its active compositions responsible for the beneficial properties remain unclear. The CP extract exhibited remarkable α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 31.5 ± 1.05 µg mL-1, much lower than that of the positive control acarbose (IC50 = 296.6 ± 1.06 µg mL-1). To identify the specific α-glucosidase inhibitors from the CP extract, affinity ultrafiltration coupled with ultra-performance liquid chromatography and quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UF-UPLC-Q/TOF-MS/MS) was developed and 11 potential α-glucosidase inhibitors from CP extract were identified. In vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory assay verified that quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside, quercetin, kaempferol, asiatic acid and genistein were primarily responsible for the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the CP extract. Further, a hypoglycemia test also verified that these α-glucosidase inhibitors had the potential to reduce post-prandial hyperglycaemia in C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, the molecular docking study revealed that these identified α-glucosidase inhibitors more easily occupy the active sites of α-glucosidase than does the positive control acarbose. These findings suggest the CP tea leaves are the potential source of a hypoglycaemic agent.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Hiperglicemia/enzimologia , Juglandaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , alfa-Glucosidases/química , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Folhas de Planta/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
13.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(8): 3967-3975, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30719705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a result of a low bioavailability, the majority of Cyclocarya paliurus flavonoids (CPF) remain in the large intestine where they accumulate to exert a modulatory effect on the intestinal micro-ecology. Therefore, the present study investigated the modulatory effect of CPF on intestinal microbiota. RESULTS: CPF dramatically ameliorated the obesity-induced gut dysbiosis. A significant decrease (P < 0.05) was observed in the ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes after CPF treatment for 8 weeks. Moreover, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways of biosynthesis of amino acids, the two-component system and ATP-binding cassette transporters enriched the most differentially expressed genes after CPF intervention. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study indicate that CPF might have prebiotic-like activity and could be used as a functional food component with potential therapeutic utility to prevent obesity-related metabolic disorders by manipulating the gut flora and affecting certain metabolic pathways, thus contributing to the improvement of human health. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Juglandaceae/química , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Disbiose/tratamento farmacológico , Disbiose/metabolismo , Disbiose/microbiologia , Feminino , Flavonoides/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Metagenômica , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/análise
14.
Molecules ; 24(1)2019 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30621331

RESUMO

Four previously undescribed compounds, including three rarely occurring seco-dammarane triterpenoid glycosides and a pentacyclic triterpenic acid, were isolated from a 70% ethanol extract of the leaves of Cyclocarya paliurus (Juglandaceae), along with eleven known triterpenoids. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic techniques, including 2D NMR and HRESIMS, as well as chemical methods. Among them, several triterpenoids enhanced insulin stimulated glucose uptake in both 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes. Furthermore, compound 1 dose-dependently increased glucose uptake through activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-p38 pathway. Collectively, triterpenoids from C. paliurus could be developed as insulin sensitizers, which might have therapeutic potential for insulin resistance and hyperglycemia.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/metabolismo , Juglandaceae/química , Terpenos/farmacologia , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/citologia , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Descoberta de Drogas , Glicosídeos/química , Insulina , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação
15.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 135: 111-118, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30529170

RESUMO

Cyclocarya paliurus has traditionally been used as medicine or nutraceutical foods. This study aims at investigating flavonoid accumulation in C. paliurus dependent on nitrogen availability and the following internal mineral nutrient balance under controlled condition. The 1-year-old seedlings of C. paliurus were grown in five different nitrogen levels. Along with the N gradient, C/N was significantly decreased, and the concentrations of phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium were changed within plant. In the leaves, the main accumulation organ in C. paliurus, the highest flavonoid accumulation was achieved in intermediate N level (N3), which was closely related to flavanone-3-hydroxylase (FHT) activity as they had the similar variation patterns. Correlation analysis suggested that internal mineral nutrient balance can significantly affect flavonoid accumulation, especially for Mg within plant. These data revealed that nitrogen availability and the following altered internal mineral balance can significantly affect flavonoid accumulation. This study can provide the basis for developing new agricultural practices to maintain high yield while still keeping the nutritional value of crop or medicinal plants.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/metabolismo , Juglandaceae/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Juglandaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Magnésio/metabolismo , Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Potássio/metabolismo
16.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; 21(2): 157-164, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29210285

RESUMO

Two new tetralone derivatives, named cyclopalosides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the leaves of Cyclocarya paliurus by column chromatography on silica gel, reversed-phase C18 silica gel and preparative HPLC. Their chemical structures were established on the basis of extensive analyses of spectroscopic data. Their structural characteristic is tetralone glycoside with a caffeoyl unit. The antioxidant activities of compound 1 were evaluated by using hydroxyl, superoxide anion, and DPPH radical scavenging assay.


Assuntos
Juglandaceae/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Tetralonas/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo , Estrutura Molecular , Picratos , Tetralonas/química
17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 123: 343-349, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445074

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of CPP on the DNA methylation and expressions of lipid metabolism-related genes (leptin and MTTP) in hyperlipidemic rats. After 8 weeks intervention of CPP, the abdominal wall fat index, liver weight, the serum concentrations of TC, TG and LDL-C were significantly decreased, while HDL was increased. In addition, DNA methylation was analyzed by bisulfite sequencing method, and the mRNA expression levels of leptin and MTTP were detected by Q-PCR. The results showed that CPP could considerably decrease DNA methylation levels of leptin (regions from -694 ~ -370 bp contains 14 CpGs and -324 ~ -29 bp contains 18 CpGs) and MTTP (region from -350 ~ -1 bp contains 11 CpGs) promoters in the liver with the maximum decrease rate of 43.2%, 40.2% and 7.7%, respectively. In parallel, the mRNA contents of leptin and MTTP were dramatically down-regulated. In conclusion, the present findings demonstrated that CPP can regulate the level of mRNA by controlling DNA methylation levels in the liver, thereby reducing blood lipids.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperlipidemias/dietoterapia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/patologia , Juglandaceae/química , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Triglicerídeos/sangue
18.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 34(12): 182, 2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30478689

RESUMO

Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) plays a critical role in ethanol fermentation. However, during the fermentation, yeast cells are exposed to the accumulation of ethanol, which significantly affect the cell growth and the target product yield. In the present work, we employed RNA-sequence (RNA-seq) to investigate the ameliorate effect of Cyclocarya paliurus (C. paliurus) triterpenoids on S. cerevisiae under the ethanol stress. After C. paliurus triterpenoids intervention (0.3% v/v), 84 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, including 39 up-regulated and 45 down-regulated genes. The addition of triterpenoids decreased the filamentous and invasive growth of cells, and benefit to the redox balance and glycolysis. This study offers a global view through transcriptome analysis to understand the molecular response to ethanol in Sc131 by the treatment of C. paliurus triterpenoids, which may be helpful to enhance ethanol tolerance of S. cerevisiae in the fermentation of Chinese fruit wine.


Assuntos
Etanol/efeitos adversos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Juglandaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/ultraestrutura , China , Regulação para Baixo , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Fermentação , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicólise , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , NADP/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Triterpenos/química , Regulação para Cima , Vinho
19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 43(20): 4077-4083, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30486534

RESUMO

Modern research showed that components in the dried leaf of Cyclocarya paliurus. had various biological activities. The current quality control research was focused on content determination of polysaccharides and flavonoids, while there were less research on quantitative analysis of terpenes and phenolic acids. In this paper, the contents of 16 components of 3 kinds in C. paliurus leaf were determined by UPLC-QE-Orbitrap-MS. The results were as following: good linear relationship of 16 analytes existed within the studied concentration rages (R²>0.996), and RSDs were of <3.0% in the precision test and replicate test, with the average recovery rates 95.20%-104.4%, respectively. The results indicatod that the method is simple and accurate, which can be used for the comprehensive quality evaluation of C. paliurus leaf. The established method was applied to determine the contents of 12 batches of C. paliurus leaf from different areas, and the 16 analvtes contents in the samples could be different from several times to dozens times, which indicated that there might be significant quality difference in C. paliurus leaf from different areas.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/análise , Juglandaceae/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Polissacarídeos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise
20.
BMC Plant Biol ; 18(1): 306, 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30482158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The investigation of the genetic basis of local adaptation in non-model species is an interesting focus of evolutionary biologists and molecular ecologists. Identifying these adaptive genetic variabilities on the genome responsible can provide insight into the genetic mechanism of local adaptation. RESULTS: We investigated the spatial distribution of genetic variation in 22 natural populations of Pterocarya stenoptera across its distribution area in China to provide insights into the complex interplay between multiple environmental variables and adaptive genetic differentiation. The Bayesian analysis of population structure showed that the 22 populations of P. stenoptera were subdivided into two groups. Redundancy analysis demonstrated that this genetic differentiation was caused by the divergent selection of environmental difference. A total of 44 outlier loci were mutually identified by Arlequin and BayeScan, 43 of which were environment-associated loci (EAL). The results of latent factor mixed model analysis showed that solar radiation in June (Sr6), minimum temperature of the coldest month (Bio6), temperature seasonality (Bio4), and water vapor pressure in January (Wvp1) were associated with the highest numbers of EAL. Sr6 was associated with the ecological habitat of "prefered light", and Bio6 and Wvp1 were associated with the ecological habitat of "warm and humid environment". CONCLUSIONS: Our results provided empirical evidence that environmental variables related to the ecological habitats of species play key roles in driving adaptive differentiation of species genome.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Variação Genética , Juglandaceae/genética , China , Marcadores Genéticos , Genética Populacional , Genoma de Planta
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