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1.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(17): 21364-21375, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277416

RESUMO

The interactions between Cd and Zn in their effects on plants are inconsistent and difficult to predict. A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of Cd and Zn and their interactions on root morphology and metal translocation in two populations of Hylotelephium spectabile (Boreau) H. Ohba (Crassulaceae, HB1 and HB2). Both populations showed relative tolerance to high levels of Cd and Zn, except that the leaf biomass of HB1 significantly decreased by 44.6% with 5-mg/L Cd plus 10-mg/L Zn. Root growth was inhibited in both populations by addition of 20-mg/L Zn under Cd stress, while 10-mg/L Zn showed little impact on the root growth inhibition of HB2. Roots with diameter 0.1-0.4 mm contributed most of the total root length (RL) and root surface area (RSA) of H. spectabile. In both populations, these root parameters showed greater suppression with the combined stress of Cd plus Zn than under Cd or Zn single stress, except by adding 10-mg/L Zn under Cd stress. Moreover, HB2 maintained relatively higher RL and RSA than HB1 under the different treatments, which implied that HB2 might possess a more effective mechanism than HB1 for coping in response to Cd and Zn stress. The addition of Zn not only affected the absorption of Cd but also significantly affected the distribution of Cd in different tissues of H. spectabile. A low level of Zn led to increased Cd in the stem of HB2, but an increase in Cd in the leaf and root of HB1. Addition of 10-mg/L Zn led to a significant increase by 188% and 170% in Cd accumulation in aboveground part of HB2 under 2- and 5-mg/L Cd stress, whereas the addition of Zn had little effect on Cd accumulation in HB1. Thus, strong positive interactions of Cd and Zn occurred in HB2, which showed great potential for application in phytoremediation of soil contaminated with both Cd and Zn, warranting further investigation under field condition.


Assuntos
Crassulaceae , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio , Raízes de Plantas , Zinco
2.
J Plant Physiol ; 244: 153086, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812905

RESUMO

We present changes in Tacitus bellus antioxidative system that specifically correspond to subsequent phases of hemibiotroph Fusarium verticillioides infection revealed by histological analysis. T. bellus response to spore germination 6 h post inoculation (hpi), manifested as first oxidative burst, was characterized by transient decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) content, transient increase in catalase (CAT), low level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activity, as well as with transient decrease in total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total phenol content (TPC) and phenylalanine ammonium lyase activity (PAL), and no changes in polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, or phenolic profile. During the biotrophic phase of F. verticillioides infection, characterized by hyphae spread intercellularly in epidermal and mesophyll tissue, the host antioxidative system was suppressed. The transition to necrotrophic phase of F. verticillioides infection (inter- and intracellular colonization and sporulation), occurred 3-4 days post inoculation (dpi). During the necrotrophic phase, 5-7 dpi, slowed progression of colonization of T. bellus mesophyll cells occurred and it coincided with sharp increase in MDA content and CAT, SOD and POD activities, but the drop in TAC, TPC content, and PPO activity, as well as the production of phytotoxin fusaric acid. Presented results add to the knowledge of events and mechanisms related to the transition from biotrophy to necrotrophy in F. verticillioides.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Crassulaceae/química , Fusarium/fisiologia , Umidade , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Crassulaceae/microbiologia , Hifas/fisiologia
3.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 144: 106713, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863901

RESUMO

The amount of plastome sequence data available has soared in the last decade, but the nature of plastome evolution during rapid radiations is largely unknown. Moreover, although there is increasing evidence showing that plastomes may have undergone adaptive evolution in order to allow adaptation to various environments, few studies have systematically investigated the role of the plastome in alpine adaptation. To address these questions, we sequenced and analyzed 12 representative species of Rhodiola, a genus which includes ca. 70 perennial herbs mainly growing in alpine habitats in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the Hengduan Mountains. Rapid radiation in this genus was triggered by the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. We also included nine species of Crassulaceae as the outgroups. All plastomes were conserved with respect to size, structure, and gene content and order, with few variations: each contained 134 genes, including 85 protein-coding genes, 37 tRNAs, 8 rRNAs, and 4 potential pseudogenes. Four types of repeat sequence were detected. Slight contraction and expansion of the inverted repeats were also revealed. Both the genome-wide alignment and sequence polymorphism analyses showed that the inverted repeats and coding regions were more conserved than the single-copy regions and the non-coding regions. Positive selection analyses identified three genes containing sites of positive selection (rpl16, ndhA, ndhH), and one gene with a faster than average rate of evolution (psaA). The products of these genes may be involved in the adaptation of Rhodiola to alpine environments such as low CO2 concentration and high-intensity light.


Assuntos
Sequência Conservada/fisiologia , Evolução Molecular , Genomas de Plastídeos/genética , Rhodiola/classificação , Rhodiola/genética , Sequência de Bases , Crassulaceae/classificação , Crassulaceae/genética , Ecossistema , Variação Genética/fisiologia , Genoma de Planta/fisiologia , Filogenia , Polimorfismo Genético , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Tibet
4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 248: 112321, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655146

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY RELEVANCE: In traditional Mexican medicine, Echeveria gibbiflora DC has been used as a vaginal post-coital rinse to prevent pregnancy. The aqueous crude extract (OBACE) induces sperm immobilization/agglutination and a hypotonic-like effect, likely attributed to the high concentration of calcium bis-(hydrogen-1-malate) hexahydrate [Ca2+ (C4H5O5)2•6H2O]. Likewise, OBACE impedes the increase of [Ca2+]i during capacitation. AIM OF THE STUDY: Evaluate the effect of OBACE on sperm energy metabolism and the underlying mechanism of action on sperm-specific channel. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In vitro, we quantified the mouse sperm immobilization effect and the antifertility potential of OBACE. The energetic metabolism status was also evaluated by assessing the ATP levels, general mitochondrial activity, mitochondrial membrane potential, and enzymatic activity of three key enzymes of energy metabolism. Furthermore, the effect of the ion efflux of Cl- and K+, as well as the pHi, were investigated in order to elucidate which channel is suitable to perform an in silico study. RESULTS: Total and progressive motility notably decreased, as did fertility rates. ATP levels, mitochondrial activity and membrane potential were reduced. Furthermore, the activities of the three enzymes decreased. Neither Cl- or K+ channels activities were affected at low concentrations of OBACE; nevertheless, pHi did not alkalinize. Finally, an in silico analysis was performed between the Catsper channel and calcium bis-(hydrogen-1-malate) hexahydrate, which showed a possible blockade of this sperm cation channel. CONCLUSION: The results were useful to elucidate the effect of OBACE and to propose it as a future male contraceptive.


Assuntos
Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Canais de Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinalização do Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Anticoncepcionais Masculinos/farmacologia , Crassulaceae , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/química , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/isolamento & purificação , Canais de Cálcio/química , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Anticoncepcionais Masculinos/química , Anticoncepcionais Masculinos/isolamento & purificação , Crassulaceae/química , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Conformação Proteica , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
5.
J Food Sci ; 84(7): 1764-1775, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218702

RESUMO

Orostachys japonicus has traditionally been used as a food product and a fork medicine in Asia to treat various diseases. Angiogenesis is a critical process that contributes to various chronic diseases via excessive delivery of oxygen and nutrients. Common anti-angiogenic drugs have serious problems related to high costs and side effects; thus, natural products with low costs and no cytotoxicity have garnered increasing interest. In this study, we evaluated and compared the anti-angiogenic effects and phenolic compound contents between wild (WOEs) and cultivated O. japonicus extracts (COEs) prepared under various extract conditions. WOEs and COEs suppressed cell proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor-induced chemotactic migration, invasion, and capillary-like tube formation in HUVECs. Among COEs, that prepared by 70% EtOH (70% CE) showed the most effective anti-angiogenic activity in HUVECs. When compared to WOEs, total polyphenol and total flavonoid contents were 1.28 to 4.38 times higher in COEs, and 70% CE contained the greatest flavonoid contents (28.28 ± 0.93 mg%), as well as the highest levels of major phenolic compounds including gallic acid (21.84 µg/mL), epicatechin-gallate (6.58 µg/mL), kaempferol (6.32 µg/mL), and quercetin (8.55 µg/mL). Although further studies are required to identify the molecular mechanisms behind these anti-angiogenic effects, 70% CE could be used as an herbal medicine, functional food ingredient, and potent angiogenesis inhibitor. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Environmental factors such as altitude, nutrients, exposure to sunlight, and temperature can influence the type and quantity of bioactive components in plants. The advantage of cultivated plants is that the above-mentioned factors can be artificially adjusted compared to wild plants. Based on economic efficiency, productivity, and consistent quality, anti-angiogenesis activity of cultivated O. japonicus is of greater commercial value as a functional food than wild O. japonicus.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Crassulaceae/química , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Inibidores da Angiogênese/química , Animais , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Crassulaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Ácido Gálico/química , Ácido Gálico/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/citologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
6.
J Med Food ; 22(8): 797-809, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211640

RESUMO

Orostachys japonicus A. Berger and Momordica charantia Linn have been widely used as an alternative medicine. Recently, patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have paid increasing attention to medical nutrition therapy due to its safety and cost-effectiveness. Therefore, we have developed a new health functional food that consists of a mixed extract of O. japonicus and M. charantia. The aim of this study is designed to assess the antidiabetic efficacy of O. japonicus and M. charantia extracts (OME, in an 8:2 ratio), especially focusing on the effects of O. japonicus via in vivo and in vitro experiments. Seven-week-old C57BL/Ksj-db/db (db/db; a genetic animal model of T2D) mice were used for inducing diabetes. Mice were administered with various concentrations of OME (OME 0, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg/day) for 6 weeks. Metabolic parameters, fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels were measured. Histopathologic analysis and the levels of serum or hepatic biochemicals were assessed to evaluate diabetic liver injury and steatosis. The expression levels of lipogenic and gluconeogenic genes were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Activation of Akt was assessed by western blot analysis. Administration of OME significantly improved metabolic parameters in db/db mice, and also reduced diabetic liver injury and steatosis were observed by OME administration in db/db mice as confirmed by histopathologic and serum or hepatic biochemical analysis. Consistently, treatment of OME significantly increased Akt activation resulting in decreased expression levels of lipid-accumulation or gluconeogenesis-related genes. Similar results were observed in in vitro experiments using single extract of O. japonicus and using OME. OME has antidiabetic effects with increased insulin sensitivity, and may be a safe alternative therapy for the management of T2D.


Assuntos
Crassulaceae/química , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Gluconeogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/análise , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo
7.
Phytochem Anal ; 30(5): 524-534, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168900

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sempervivum tectorum L. (Crassulaceae), is a succulent perennial plant widespread in Mediterranean countries and commonly used in traditional medicine for ear inflammation, ulcers and skin rashes as a refrigerant and astringent. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the therapeutic effects of the plant, various fractions were purified and characterised. The potential wound healing activity, proliferation rate and intracellular signalling cascades were investigated by using human epithelial colorectal carcinoma (HCT 116) cells. METHODOLOGY: An extraction method without organic solvents was applied for the first time. The purification was carried out by droplet counter current chromatography (DCCC) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) data. By nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) [1 H, 13 C and two-dimensional (2D) experiments] pure components were identified. Wound healing and cell proliferation assays were utilised to determine the role of the isolated S. tectorum (SVT) fraction on cellular migration and proliferation. The signalling pathways elicited from the SVT fractions, were analysed by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: In this study two rare natural components were identified, namely monosaccharide sedoheptulose and polyalcohol 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol, along with known organic acids and flavonoids. The fractions with high level of sedoheptulose enhance the proliferation and the cellular migration of epithelial HCT 116 cells. The intracellular signalling cascades elicited from the purified fractions induce the c-Src-mediated transactivation of EGFR and the activation of the STAT3 pathway which, in turn, are crucially involved in the cellular proliferation and migration. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates the efficacy of purified fractions of S. tectorum L. in enhancing cellular proliferation and migration, suggesting their potential role as topical therapeutic treatments for wound healing.


Assuntos
Crassulaceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise Espectral/métodos
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(10)2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31137784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Liver fibrosis is the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins, including collagen, which occurs in most types of chronic liver diseases. Advanced liver fibrosis results in cirrhosis, liver failure, and portal hypertension. Activated hepatic perivascular stellate cells, portal fibroblasts, and myofibroblasts of bone marrow origin have been identified as major collagen-producing cells in the injured liver. These cells are activated by fibrogenic cytokines, such as TGF-ß1. The inhibition of TGF-ß1 function or synthesis is a major target for the development of antifibrotic therapies. Our previous study showed that the water and ethanol extracts of Graptopetalum paraguayense (GP), a Chinese herbal medicine, can prevent dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in rats. METHODS: We used rat hepatic stellate HSC-T6 cells and a diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced rat liver injury model to test the potential mechanism of GP extracts and its fraction, HH-F3. RESULTS: We demonstrated that GP extracts and HH-F3 downregulated the expression levels of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and inhibited the proliferation and migration via suppression of the TGF-ß1 pathway in rat hepatic stellate HSC-T6 cells. Moreover, the HH-F3 fraction decreased hepatic collagen content and reduced plasma AST, ALT, and γ-GT activities in a DEN-induced rat liver injury model, suggesting that GP/HH-F3 has hepatoprotective effects against DEN-induced liver fibrosis. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that GP/HH-F3 may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of liver fibrosis. The inhibition of TGF-ß-mediated fibrogenesis may be a central mechanism by which GP/HH-F3 protects the liver from injury.


Assuntos
Crassulaceae/química , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Colágeno/genética , Colágeno/metabolismo , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Células Estreladas do Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética
9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 9461960, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723745

RESUMO

In this study, we evaluated the immunity-enhancing effects of Orostachys japonicus A. Berger (OJ). To examine the immune protective effect in vitro, primary mouse splenocytes were treated with water or ethanol extracts of OJ in the absence or presence of cyclophosphamide (CY), which is a cytotoxic, immunosuppressive agent. The extracts increased the propagation of splenocytes and inhibited CY-induced cytotoxicity. Further, to examine the immunostimulatory effects in vivo, adult Wistar rats were orally administered OJ extracts with or without CY treatment. With the administration of OJ extracts, CY-treated immunosuppressed rats showed improved physical endurance, as assessed by the forced swim test. In addition, extract administration increased not only the number of immunity-related cells but also the levels of plasma cytokines. OJ extracts also recovered splenic histology in CY-treated rats. These findings suggest that an OJ regimen can enhance immunity by increasing immune cell propagation and specific plasma cytokine levels.


Assuntos
Crassulaceae/química , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/imunologia , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Citocinas/imunologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido/efeitos dos fármacos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido/imunologia , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Imunossupressores/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Baço/citologia , Baço/imunologia
10.
Protoplasma ; 256(2): 537-553, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30324403

RESUMO

Available documentation about the development of the female gametophyte of Crassulaceae is very limited. The aim of this study was to extend the embryological knowledge of Crassulaceae by analysing the development of the embryo sac in Sedum sediforme. Transmission electron microscopy and light microscopy including Nomarski optics (DIC) were used to observe individual stages of female gametophyte development. Cytochemical staining enabled detection of lipids, insoluble polysaccharides and proteins in gametophyte cells during their formation. Their increased accumulation was observed during nucellar cell and unfunctional cell degeneration in the embryo sac at the coenocytic and cellular stages (megagametogenesis). The female gametophyte develops in anatropous, bitegmic and crassinucellate ovules. The mature embryo sac is built of seven cells but after antipodes degeneration it is formed by the egg apparatus and a central cell. The monosporic Polygonum type was observed. One megaspore mother cell (MMC) formed three cells after meiosis. A triad was formed from a functional megaspore (placed chalazally), one uninucleate megaspore and a binucleate cell located at the micropylar end. Plasmodesmata with adhering electron-dense dome were noticed in walls of the coenocytic embryo sac and in the outer walls of ephemeral antipodes. Moreover, similar to synergids, antipodes form wall ingrowths. Here, we report new structural features of the antipodal cells (the presence of plasmodesmata with an electron-dense dome) which have not been described before. This new structural observation indicates that these cells participate in substance transport and that this process can probably be additionally regulated.


Assuntos
Crassulaceae , Células Germinativas Vegetais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Crassulaceae/anatomia & histologia , Crassulaceae/química , Crassulaceae/ultraestrutura , Feminino
11.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 131: 35-47, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30391519

RESUMO

The Crassulaceae is an important family in the Greater Cape Floristic Region of southern Africa and is the seventh largest family in the arid Succulent Karoo Biome. After the Aizoaceae it is the largest group of leaf-succulents in southern Africa. This is the first investigation of a broad selection (68%) of the ±170 species of Crassula. We used data from three chloroplast and two nuclear gene-regions, which yielded many informative characters and provided good resolution among the species. We show that only five of the 20 sections in Crassula are monophyletic. However, the clades recovered show close correlation with the two subgenera that were once recognized. Crassula contains more than 25 succulent annual species which are not closely related to each other but form early-diverging branches in each of the three major clades. One of these major clades contains far more perennial species than the others and is the greatest diversification within Crassula. This diversification mostly arose within the last 10 million years (my) and spread across much of southern Africa. Members of the smaller two major clades are often soft- and flat-leaved perennials (many with basic chromosome number x = 8, with high levels of polyploidy). Those in the largest diversification (where a basic chromosome number of x = 7 predominates) show other arid-adaptations (more highly succulent leaves with a dense covering of hairs or papillae or a smooth xeromorphic epidermis). Their flowers are also more variable in shape and bee-, moth- and butterfly-pollinated species are known among them. We establish that Crassula arose in the Greater Cape Floristic Region of southern Africa. While much of its diversity has evolved in the last 10 my, Crassula nevertheless contains species that are much older and itself arose ±46 my ago. Since all its species are succulent it is possible that they are part of an early arid-adapted flora that contributed to the Succulent Karoo Biome in the western part of southern Africa. Consequently this Biome may not be assembled only from 'young lineages' as is usually thought to be the case.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Crassulaceae/fisiologia , Clima Desértico , África Austral , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Cloroplastos/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Filogenia , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(49): e13481, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30544439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dazhu Hongjingtian (DZHJT), also named Herba Rhodiolae, has been frequently introduced for patients with angina pectoris in China. However, the add-on effect of DZHJT in unstable angina pectoris (UAP) has not been systematically evaluated. The purpose of this protocol is to provide the methods used to assess the efficacy and safety of DZHJT as adjuvant therapy for management of UAP. METHODS: We will extensively search for eligible studies in PubMed, Emase, Cochrane Library, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and VIP databases up to October 2018. Only randomized controlled trials comparing DZHJT in combination with Western medicine vs Western medicine alone were selected.The primary outcomes are above 50% reduction in frequency of angina attacks and weekly frequency of angina attacks reduction. The secondary outcomes are the blood rheology parameters (whole-blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, and fibrinogen) and adverse events. We will use RevMan V.5.0 software to perform meta-analysis. RESULTS: The pooled results will provide a high-quality of evidence of DZHJT as adjuvant therapy in patients with UAP. CONCLUSION: This systematic review and meta-analysis will provide up-to-date evidence to evaluate DZHJT as adjuvant therapy in patients with UAP. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CRD42018111885.


Assuntos
Angina Instável/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Crassulaceae , Fitoterapia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Humanos
13.
Zootaxa ; 4497(4): 573-585, 2018 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30313649

RESUMO

A new, gall-forming eriophyoid mite species is described from Australia. Aculus crassulae sp. nov. was found causing significant leaf deformation in Crassula helmsii (Kirk) Cockayne (Crassulaceae), a semi-aquatic, succulent plant. Native to Australia and New Zealand, this plant is now a highly invasive weed in the United Kingdom and Western Europe. The host specificity of the new mite species, and damage caused to the host plant, infer its potential to be a valuable biological control agent in countries where Australian swamp stonecrop is threatening native flora. The species description provided here, which also includes a revised diagnosis for the genus Aculus, incorporates line drawings and scanning electron micrographs (SEM). This is supplemented by a partial mitochondrial gene sequence of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI) and the sequence was compared with Aculus amygdali Xue Hong and Aculus ichnocarpi (Ghosh Chakrabarati) available in the NCBI database. Pairwise comparison of mtCOI sequences between A. crassulae sp. nov. and two congeneric species revealed 22.6% and 23.1% genetic divergence, respectively.


Assuntos
Crassulaceae , Ácaros , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Austrália , Tamanho Corporal , Europa (Continente) , Nova Zelândia , Tamanho do Órgão , Reino Unido , Áreas Alagadas
15.
Dev Biol ; 442(1): 28-39, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29705332

RESUMO

In plants, the best characterized plant regeneration process is de novo organogenesis. This type of regeneration is characterized by the formation of a multicellular structure called callus. Calli are induced via phytohormone treatment of plant sections. The callus formation in plants like Agave species with Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) is poorly studied. In this study, we induced callus formation from Agave salmiana leaves and describe cell arrangement in this tissue. Moreover, we determined and analyzed the transcriptional program of calli, as well as those of differentiated root and leaf tissues, by using RNA-seq. We were able to reconstruct 170,844 transcripts of which 40,644 have a full Open Reading Frame (ORF). The global profile obtained by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) reveals that several callus-enriched protein coding transcripts are orthologs of previously reported factors highly expressed in Arabidopsis calli. At least 62 genes were differentially expressed in Agave calli, 50 of which were up-regulated. Several of these are actively involved in the perception of, and response to, auxin and cytokinin. Not only are these the first results for the A. salmiana callus, but they provide novel data from roots and leaves of this Agave species, one of the largest non-tree plants in nature.


Assuntos
Agave/genética , Organogênese Vegetal/genética , Regeneração/genética , Crassulaceae/genética , Citocininas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Organogênese Vegetal/fisiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transcriptoma/genética
16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 107(Pt A): 1162-1167, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28958819

RESUMO

(-)-Epicatechin-3,5-O-digallate (ECDG) from Orostachys japonicus A. Berger was examined for inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase. The results showed that the IC50 value was achieved with nanomolar concentrations. Through the enzyme kinetic analysis, ECDG was shown to act as a competitive inhibitor of α-glucosidase by binding to the receptor active site. Fluorescence-quenching measurements showed that ECDG and the enzyme may have a one-to-one reaction with low quenching (Ksv) and binding constants. A molecular docking study was performed to evaluate the receptor-ligand complex. Asn236 was found to be particularly important for hydrogen bond formation during the molecular dynamics simulation.


Assuntos
Catequina/análogos & derivados , Crassulaceae/enzimologia , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , alfa-Glucosidases/química , Sítios de Ligação , Catequina/química , Catequina/farmacologia , Simulação por Computador , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Conformação Proteica
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 18(12)2017 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29206202

RESUMO

Orostachys japonicus A. Berger (), known as Wa-song in Korea, has been reported to exert various biological effects, such as anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, and anti-febrile effects. However, the anti-angiogenic effects of O.japonicus extracts remain to be investigated. In the present study, we demonstrated the anti-angiogenic effects of bioconverted O. japonicus extract (BOE) in Ms-1 mouse endothelial cells and compared them with the bioactivities of O. japonicus extract (OE). BOE, but not OE, were found to exert anti-angiogenic effects, including inhibition of cell migration, cell adhesion, tube formation of Ms-1 cells, and blood vessel formation of matrigel plug assay in vivo. Furthermore, protein levels of phosphorylated Src kinase were lower in BOE-treated cells than in OE-treated cells. Treatment with OE or BOE did not influence cell viability during the experimental period. Bioconverted extract of O.japonicus have anti-angiogenic effects in vitro and vivo, but non-bioconverted extract do not. We suggest that these observed anti-angiogenic effects are caused by the changes in the composition of bioactive compounds in the extracts as a result of biological conversion.


Assuntos
Crassulaceae/química , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Inibidores da Angiogênese/química , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Animais , Western Blotting , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ensaio de Radioimunoprecipitação
18.
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) ; 49(10): 945-953, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28981602

RESUMO

Orostachys japonicus is an herb that contains several functional components and has traditionally been used to treat various diseases in Asia. In this study, bioactive components from different parts of the O. japonicus plant were investigated, and the contents of the functional components in ethanol extracts of O. japonicus cultivated in Korea and China were compared. The antioxidant effects of O. japonicus ethanol extracts were investigated using Raw 264.7 cells. It was found that 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity was significantly decreased in the cells treated with the extracts. Moreover, the novel inhibitory functions of O. japonicus extracts on collagenase, elastase, and tyrosinase were established. We also found that O. japonicus extracts strongly inhibited melanin synthesis in B16F10 melanoma cells by decreasing MITF protein levels and activating the Erk and Akt signaling pathways. Thus, these findings would be useful for developing new cosmetic and pharmaceutical formulations based on O. japonicus extracts.


Assuntos
Colagenases/metabolismo , Crassulaceae/química , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , China , Etanol/química , Melaninas/antagonistas & inibidores , Melaninas/biossíntese , Melanoma Experimental/metabolismo , Melanoma Experimental/patologia , Camundongos , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Elastase Pancreática/antagonistas & inibidores , Elastase Pancreática/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Células RAW 264.7 , República da Coreia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Photosynth Res ; 134(1): 17-25, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28871459

RESUMO

Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) was demonstrated in four small endemic Australian terrestrial succulents from the genus Calandrinia (Montiaceae) viz. C. creethiae, C. pentavalvis, C. quadrivalvis and C. reticulata. CAM was substantiated by measurements of CO2 gas-exchange and nocturnal acidification. In all species, the expression of CAM was overwhelmingly facultative in that nocturnal H+ accumulation was greatest in droughted plants and zero, or close to zero, in plants that were well-watered, including plants that had been droughted and were subsequently rewatered, i.e. the inducible component was proven to be reversible. Gas-exchange measurements complemented the determinations of acidity. In all species, net CO2 uptake was restricted to the light in well-watered plants, and cessation of watering was followed by a progressive reduction of CO2 uptake in the light and a reduction in nocturnal CO2 efflux. In C. creethiae, C. pentavalvis and C. reticulata net CO2 assimilation was eventually observed in the dark, whereas in C. quadrivalvis nocturnal CO2 exchange approached the compensation point but did not transition to net CO2 gain. Following rewatering, all species returned to their original well-watered CO2 exchange pattern of net CO2 uptake restricted solely to the light. In addition to facultative CAM, C. quadrivalvis and C. reticulata exhibited an extremely small constitutive CAM component as demonstrated by the nocturnal accumulation in well-watered plants of small amounts of acidity and by the curved pattern of the nocturnal course of CO2 efflux. It is suggested that low-level CAM and facultative CAM are more common within the Australian succulent flora, and perhaps the world succulent flora, than has been previously assumed.


Assuntos
Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Austrália , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Ritmo Circadiano , Crassulaceae/metabolismo , Crassulaceae/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
20.
PLoS One ; 12(7): e0181280, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28704842

RESUMO

Microbial cell performance in food biotechnological processes has become an important concern for improving human health worldwide. Lactobacillus plantarum, which is widely distributed in nature, is a lactic acid bacterium with many industrial applications for fermented foods or functional foods (e.g., probiotics). In the present study, using capillary electrophoresis time of flight mass spectrometry, the metabolomic profile of dried Orostachys japonicus A. Berger, a perennial medicinal herb with L. plantarum was compared with that of O. japonicus fermented with L. plantarum to elucidate the metabolomic changes induced by the fermentation process. The levels of several metabolites were changed by the fermentation process, indicating their involvement in microbial performance. For example, glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, the TCA cycle, the urea cycle-related metabolism, nucleotide metabolism, and lipid and amino acid metabolism were altered significantly by the fermentation process. Although the fermented metabolites were not tested using in vivo studies to increase human health benefits, our findings provide an insight into the alteration of metabolites induced by fermentation, and indicated that the metabolomic analysis for the process should be accompanied by fermenting strains and conditions.


Assuntos
Crassulaceae/química , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metaboloma , Plantas Medicinais/química , Crassulaceae/metabolismo , Crassulaceae/microbiologia , Eletroforese Capilar , Fermentação , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Lactobacillus plantarum/fisiologia , Metabolômica/métodos , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/microbiologia , Probióticos/química , Probióticos/metabolismo
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