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1.
Chemosphere ; 253: 126574, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278903

RESUMO

Making municipal sludge into garden soil is a challenging issue in land using due to the high content of heavy metals, however phytoremediation can reduce the heavy metal pollution in the soil. Three artificial regulators were used in combination to improve phytoremediation of heavy metals by Bryophyllum laetivirens from municipal sludge made garden (MSMG) soil. Results showed that B. laetivirens grew well in MSMG soil and bioaccumulated Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Ni by 2.16-11.0 times higher than those grew in local common garden soil. The application of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and microbial liquid (BL) promoted the bioaccumulation of heavy metals of plants in MSMG soil, with 2.1-6.8 times than the control group. The optimum dose for the phytoremediation of B. laetivirens was the combining treatment of 3 mmol kg-1 EDTA, 10-10 M IAA, and 5 ml kg-1 BL, which has been successfully applied in MSMG soil. EDTA treatment is more direct and effective in facilitating HM uptake of root, while the other two treatments play important roles in promoting the transport of HMs in plants.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Kalanchoe/fisiologia , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Ácido Edético/química , Jardinagem , Jardins , Ácidos Indolacéticos , Metais Pesados/análise , Plantas , Esgotos/química , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
2.
J Food Sci ; 85(4): 1151-1159, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157694

RESUMO

Edible flowers are a new gourmet product; however, they are not always available all years. Thus, it is essential to find out technologies to guarantee this product for a longer time. Flowers of four species (borage [Borago officinalis], heartsease [Viola tricolor], kalanchoe [Kalanchoe blossfeldiana], and dandelion [Taraxacum officinale]) were subjected to freezing (in their natural form and in ice cubes) and analyzed in terms of visual appearance, the content of flavonoids, hydrolysable tannins, phenolics, antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and reducing power), and microbial quality after storage for 1 and 3 months. Flowers in ice cubes showed similar appearance to fresh ones during the 3 months of storage, whereas frozen flowers were only equivalent up to 1 month with the exception of kalanchoe. Even though flowers in ice cubes showed good appearance after 3 months of storage, they had the lowest values of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. On the contrary, when frozen, the content of bioactive compounds maintained or even increased up to 1 month of storage compared to fresh flowers, except for borage. Furthermore, in both freezing treatments, the microorganisms' counts decreased or maintained when compared to fresh samples, except in dandelion. In general, both treatments may allow keeping the flowers after their flowering times. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The market of edible flowers is increasing, although they are a very perishable product with short shelf-life. Edible flowers are stored in the cold (frozen or in ice cubes); however, the effect on the bioactive compounds and microbial quality that this treatment may have on borage (Borago officinalis), heartsease (Viola tricolor), kalanchoe (Kalanchoe blossfeldiana), and dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) flowers is unknown. So, the present study was conducted to increase the knowledge about the changes that freezing treatments may have in different edible flowers. The results of the present study underline that each flower has different behavior at frozen and ice cubes storage. However, freezing flowers maintain/increase the contents of bioactive compounds, while ice cubes not. Both treatments are effective in protecting flowers from microorganism growth. So, suggesting that both freezing treatments can be used as a preservative method and may allow keeping the flowers after their flowering times.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Flores/química , Flores/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Borago/química , Borago/microbiologia , Flavonoides/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Congelamento , Kalanchoe/química , Kalanchoe/microbiologia , Fenóis/análise , Taraxacum/química , Taraxacum/microbiologia , Viola/química , Viola/microbiologia
3.
Planta Med ; 86(4): 239-246, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994149

RESUMO

Kalanchoe species are well-known medicinal plants used in traditional medicine as anti-inflammatory and analgesic remedies. Recently, it has been reported that Kalanchoe plants have cytotoxic properties; however, data on traditional use of these plants in tumor treatment are extremely limited. Kalanchoe daigremontiana is one of the most popular species cultivated in Europe, and it is used, among other things, as a remedy in treating skin injuries and wounds. Studies on the biological activity of this species are scarce, and there is a lack of data on the cytotoxic activity of K. daigremontiana extracts on epithelial cancer cells in the literature. In our present study, we analyzed the phytochemical composition of K. daigremontiana ethanol extract and fractions-water and dichloromethane-by the HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS method and estimated cytotoxic activity of the extracts on human adenocarcinoma (HeLa), ovarian (SKOV-3), breast (MCF-7), and melanoma (A375) cell lines by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay, real-time cell analyzer (RTCA), and flow cytometry. We identified 6 bufadienolide compounds and 19 flavonoids, mostly kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, and myricetin glycosides, of which only 3 flavonoids have been identified in K. daigremontiana to date. Other flavonoids that were characterized in our study have not yet been found in this plant. The ethanol extract and water fraction of K. daigremontiana did not show significant cytotoxic activity on the tested cell lines. In contrast, the dichloromethane fraction showed the strongest activity against all cell lines with IC50 values of ≤ 10 µg/mL. The results indicated that this activity is mainly due to the presence of bersaldegenin-1,3,5-orthoacetate.


Assuntos
Bufanolídeos , Kalanchoe , Neoplasias , Linhagem Celular , Europa (Continente) , Flavonoides , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais
4.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 9245951, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827708

RESUMO

Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess. is a native Brazilian plant popularly known as "saião", and the juice of its fresh leaves is traditionally used to treat several disorders, including inflammatory and infectious processes such as dysentery. The goals of this study were to characterize the phytochemical composition and investigate the antioxidant activity, the antibiotic effect, and the mode of action against Salmonella of the hydroethanolic extracts from K. brasiliensis leaves collected in the summer and spring Brazilian seasons. These extracts had their chemical composition established by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were spectrophotometrically determined. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl radical scavenging, phosphomolybdenum reducing power and ß-carotene bleaching assays were carried out to evaluate the antioxidant capacity. Antibiotic potential was assessed by minimal inhibitory concentration against 8 bacterial ATCC® and 5 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and 5 Salmonella clinical strains. The mode of action was investigated by time-kill, bacterial cell viability, and leakage of compounds absorbing at 280 nm assays against Salmonella. Chromatographic profile and UV spectrum analyses suggested the significant presence of flavonoid type patuletin and eupafolin derivatives, and no difference between both periods of collection was noted. Significant amounts of total phenolic and flavonoid contents and a promising antioxidant capacity were observed. Hydroethanolic extracts (70%, summer and spring) were the most active against the tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains, showing the bacteriostatic action of 5000 µg/mL. Time-kill data demonstrated that these extracts were able to reduce the Salmonella growth rate. Cell number was reduced with release of the bacterial content. Together, these results suggest that K. brasiliensis is a natural source of antioxidant and antibacterial agents that can be applied in the research and development of new antibiotics for the treatment of Salmonella gastroenteritis because they are able to interfere in the Salmonella growth, probably due to cell membrane damage.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Kalanchoe/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Infecções por Salmonella/tratamento farmacológico , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/patologia
5.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 292, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The herbal medicine Bryophyllum pinnatum has been used as a tocolytic agent in anthroposophic medicine and, recently, in conventional settings alone or as an add-on medication with tocolytic agents such as atosiban or nifedipine. We wanted to compare the inhibitory effect of atosiban and nifedipine on human myometrial contractility in vitro in the absence and in the presence of B. pinnatum press juice (BPJ). METHODS: Myometrium biopsies were collected during elective Caesarean sections. Myometrial strips were placed under tension into an organ bath and allowed to contract spontaneously. Test substances alone and at concentrations known to moderately affect contractility in this setup, or in combination, were added to the organ bath, and contractility was recorded throughout the experiments. Changes in the strength (measured as area under the curve (AUC) and amplitude) and frequency of contractions after the addition of all test substances were determined. Cell viability assays were performed with the human myometrium hTERT-C3 and PHM1-41 cell lines. RESULTS: BPJ (2.5 µg/mL), atosiban (0.27 µg/mL), and nifedipine (3 ng/mL), moderately reduced the strength of spontaneous myometrium contractions. When BPJ was added together with atosiban or nifedipine, inhibition of contraction strength was significantly higher than with the tocolytics alone (p = 0.03 and p < 0.001, respectively). In the case of AUC, BPJ plus atosiban promoted a decrease to 48.8 ± 6.3% of initial, whereas BPJ and atosiban alone lowered it to 70.9 ± 4.7% and to 80.9 ± 4.1% of initial, respectively. Also in the case of AUC, BPJ plus nifedipine promoted a decrease to 39.9 ± 4.6% of initial, at the same time that BPJ and nifedipine alone lowered it to 78.9 ± 3.8% and 71.0 ± 3.4% of initial. Amplitude data supported those AUC data. The inhibitory effects of BPJ plus atosiban and of BPJ plus nifedipine on contractions strength were concentration-dependent. None of the test substances, alone or in combination, decreased myometrial cell viability. CONCLUSIONS: BPJ enhances the inhibitory effect of atosiban and nifedipine on the strength of myometrial contractions, without affecting myometrium tissue or cell viability. The combination treatment of BPJ with atosiban or nifedipine has therapeutic potential.


Assuntos
Kalanchoe/química , Miométrio/efeitos dos fármacos , Nifedipino/antagonistas & inibidores , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Tocolíticos/antagonistas & inibidores , Contração Uterina/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasotocina/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Antagonismo de Drogas , Feminino , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Miométrio/fisiopatologia , Nifedipino/farmacologia , Gravidez , Tocolíticos/farmacologia , Vasotocina/antagonistas & inibidores , Vasotocina/farmacologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(20)2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635435

RESUMO

The rates of production of secondary metabolites obtained by employing conventional plant breeding may be low for practical purposes. Thus, innovative approaches for increasing their rates of production are being developed. Here, we propose the use of elicited plant suspension cultured cells (PSCC) with cyclodextrins (CDs) as an alternative method for the production of bioactive compounds from Bryophyllum species. For this purpose, we analyzed the effects of methyl-ß-cyclodextrin and 2-hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin on cell culture growth and on the intra- and extracellular production of phenols and flavonoids. Results clearly show that CDs enhance the biosynthesis of polyphenols by PSCC favoring their accumulation outside the cells. CDs shift the homeostatic equilibrium by complexing extracellular phenolics, causing stress in cells that respond by increasing the production of intracellular phenolics. We also analyzed the radical scavenging activity of the culture medium extracts against 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycrilhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, which increased with respect to the control samples (no added CDs). Our results suggest that both the increase in the production of polyphenols and their radical scavenging activity are a consequence of their inclusion in the CD cavities. Overall, based on our findings, CDs can be employed as hosts for increasing the production of polyphenols from Bryophyllum species.


Assuntos
Ciclodextrinas/metabolismo , Kalanchoe/metabolismo , Células Vegetais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Vegetais/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , Ciclodextrinas/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Espaço Extracelular/metabolismo , Espaço Intracelular/metabolismo , Kalanchoe/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinética , Fenóis/metabolismo
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494630

RESUMO

Background Short-term memory impairment is a neurodegenerative disease associated with oxidative stress. Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken of the family Crassulaceae is traditionally used in the treatment of diseases, such as cough, wounds, and kidney diseases. This study evaluates the effect of the aqueous extract of B. pinnatum (AEBP) leaves on acetylcholinesterase activity in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced short-term memory impairment in rats. Methods Thirty male Wistar albino rats were used in this study and were divided into six groups (n=5). Group I served as control, group II rats were induced with CCl4, while groups III-V animals were pretreated with silymarin (25 mg/kg body weight), 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight AEBP leaves, respectively, once daily by oral gavage for 14 days prior to a single intraperitoneal injection of CCl4. Animals in group VI received 50 mg/kg body weight AEBP only by oral gavage. Results Administration of carbon tetrachloride significantly increased (p<0.05) spontaneous alternation and locomotor function in rats when compared with the control group. Also, the levels of acetylcholinesterase, adenosine deaminase, and malondialdehyde were increased in CCl4-administered rats, with reduction in both enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant levels. However, pretreatment of rats with AEBP leaves, at tested doses, prevented these changes. Conclusions The increased antioxidant status and the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity show that AEBP leaves improve learning memory and stabilizes memory impairment caused by CCl4.


Assuntos
Tetracloreto de Carbono/toxicidade , Kalanchoe , Transtornos da Memória/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Adenosina Desaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Transtornos da Memória/induzido quimicamente , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Ratos , Silimarina/farmacologia , Água/química
8.
Plant Dis ; 103(10): 2634-2644, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339440

RESUMO

Greenhouse cultivation of ornamentals is subjected to a high incidence of soil-borne fungal pathogens. In Kalanchoe, these pathogens are responsible for root and stem rot, and for infection of the vascular tissue. Well-known soil-borne pathogens are believed to cause these diseases. Yet, a systematized survey of these pathogens is lacking for Kalanchoe produced commercially. Here, we studied the occurrence of soil-borne fungal pathogens associated with cultivation of Kalanchoe in Denmark and production of cuttings and stock plants in greenhouse facilities located in Turkey and Vietnam. Molecular identification of pathogens complemented mycological identification and pathogenicity testing of the soil-borne fungal pathogens. This study revealed that the fungi Corynespora cassiicola, Thielaviopsis basicola, Fusarium solani, and F. oxysporum are the most prevalent pathogens associated with root and stem rotting and wilt of Kalanchoe under the conditions studied. Furthermore, the study showed that some of the pathogens are part of an infection complex comprising both primary and opportunistic fungal species. The fact that some of the pathogens were present in some regions, while absent in others, suggests how they move between greenhouse facilities on infected plant material. This study generated important information about the soil-borne fungal complex affecting Kalanchoe, which is useful for a better understanding of the biology of the disease and for designing control strategies.


Assuntos
Kalanchoe , Microbiologia do Solo , Dinamarca , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Kalanchoe/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Prevalência , Turquia , Vietnã
9.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(7): 1986-1992, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046894

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, nitrogen-fixing bacterium, designated strain L461T, was isolated from leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum growing at the South China Agricultural University. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated it as a member of the genus Azotobacter closely related to Azotobacter beijerinckii JCM 20725T (97.82 % similarity) and Azotobacter chroococcum ATCC 9043T (97.34 %). Its major fatty acid components were C16 : 1 ω9c and C16 : 0. Its predominant isoprenoid quinone was Q-9. Its major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, aminophospholipid, phospholipid and one unknown lipid. Its DNA G+C content was 64.9 mol% (Tm). DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain L461T and the reference strains of A. beijerinckii and A. chroococcum were 46.43 and 28.23 %, respectively. Biological and biochemical tests, protein patterns, genomic DNA fingerprinting, and comparison of cellular fatty acids distinguished strain L461T from the closely related Azotobacter species. Based on these data, the novel species Azotobacter bryophylli sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain L461T (=KCTC 62195T=GDMCC 1.1250T).


Assuntos
Azotobacter/classificação , Kalanchoe/microbiologia , Filogenia , Azotobacter/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , Impressões Digitais de DNA , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/química , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ubiquinona/química
10.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 180: 141-149, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039515

RESUMO

The synthesis and applications of anisotropic nanostructures have attracted much attention in the last decade. The nanoflower-type structures are one of the nanomaterials with anisotropic structures most investigated because of owing to high densities of edges, corners, and stepped atoms present on their nano-petals. Here, silver nanoparticles obtained by a one-step green synthesis method using extract from Kalanchoe Daigremontiana´s leaves are reported. To identify the compounds responsible for reduction of silver ions, the functional groups present in plant extract were investigated by UV-vis and FTIR. Ag nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis, XPS, ζ-potential, XRD, and SEM-EDS. Different solvents were used to eliminate agglomeration of the silver nanoparticles. These solvents produced nanoflower-like morphology with abundant nano-petals. This is the first report of the synthesis of Ag nanoflowers formed by green synthesis method using Kalanchoe Daigremontiana extract. The synthesized Ag nanoflowers are faced center cubic structure in nature with a petal thickness approximately of 25 nm. Photocatalytic activity of the different Ag nanostructures was evaluated through the degradation of methylene blue, where the degradation time as low as 1 min is reported. Furthermore these green synthesized Ag nanoflowers were found to show high antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Química Verde , Kalanchoe/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Prata/química , Anisotropia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Catálise , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Azul de Metileno/química , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Oxirredução , Tamanho da Partícula , Processos Fotoquímicos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Prata/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg ; 1860(6): 469-477, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029592

RESUMO

Photosystem I (PSI) is the potential target of photodamage under fluctuating light in angiosperms. However, the response of PSI to fluctuating light in young leaves has not yet been clarified. Furthermore, the photosynthetic regulation under fluctuating light in crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants is little known. In this study, we measured PSI redox state and the electrochromic shift signal in the mature and young leaves of a CAM species Bryophyllum pinnatum. The mature leaves showed stronger capacity for photo-reduction of O2 mediated by the alternative electron flow (probably the water-water cycle) when compared with the young leaves. After an increase in light intensity, both the mature and young leaves showed insufficient proton gradient (ΔpH) across the thylakoid membranes within the first seconds. Meanwhile, PSI was highly oxidized in the mature leaves but was in a more reduced state in the young leaves. Furthermore, young leaves were more susceptible to PSI photoinhibition under fluctuating light. Therefore, in the mature leaves, the alternative electron flow significantly optimized the PSI redox state under fluctuating light at relatively low ΔpH. By comparison, in the young leaves, PSI redox state was largely determined by the buildup of ΔpH. Therefore, the major photoprotective mechanism responsible for safeguarding PSI under fluctuating light can be influenced by leaf developmental stages.


Assuntos
Kalanchoe/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Kalanchoe/fisiologia , Luz , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , ATPases de Cloroplastos Translocadoras de Prótons/metabolismo , Elétrons , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Oxirredução , Periodicidade , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I/fisiologia , Prótons , Tilacoides/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo
12.
Mol Biol Rep ; 46(3): 2703-2711, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911971

RESUMO

Aluminum (Al) is one of the most important stress factors that reduce plant productivity in acidic soils. Present work thereby analyzed Al-induced genomic alterations in Bryophyllum daigremontianum clones using RAPD and ISSR markers, and investigated responding changes in photosynthetic pigment (chlorophyll a, b, a/b, total chlorophyll and carotenoid) contents and total soluble protein amounts in plant leaves. The main reason for the use of bulbiferous spurs originated clone plants was to increase reliability and acceptability of RAPD and ISSR techniques in DNA fingerprinting. Raised 40 clone plants were divided into five separate groups each with eight individuals and each experimental group was watered with 0 (control), 0 (acid control), 50, 100 and 200 µM AlCl3-containing Hoagland solutions on alternate days for two and a half months. All plant soils except control group were sprayed with 0.2% sulfuric acid following watering days and this contributed acidic characteristic (pH 4.8) to soil structure. Increase in Al concentrations were accompanied by an increase in total soluble protein amounts, a decrease in photosynthetic pigment contents, and with appearance, disappearance and intensity changes at RAPD and ISSR band profiles. Out of tested RAPD1-25 and ISSR1-15 primers, RAPD8, RAPD9, ISSR2 and ISSR7 primers produced reproducible band profiles that were distinguishable between treatment and control groups. Findings showed that RAPD and ISSR fingerprints have been useful biomarkers for investigation of plant genotoxicity, especially in clone plants. Moreover, if these fingerprints are integrated with other physiological parameters they could become more powerful tools in ecotoxicology.


Assuntos
Alumínio/farmacologia , Impressões Digitais de DNA/métodos , Kalanchoe/efeitos dos fármacos , Kalanchoe/genética , Alumínio/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/genética , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clorofila A/genética , Clorofila A/metabolismo , DNA de Plantas/genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Variação Genética , Kalanchoe/metabolismo , Repetições de Microssatélites , Folhas de Planta/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 113: 108721, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30856538

RESUMO

Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata are used interchangeably in traditional medicine in the treatment of wound healing. In this context, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the local anti-inflammatory activity of a topical formulation containing aqueous extract of both species. The in vivo model used was ear edema induced by croton oil and paw edema induced by carrageenan. The Swiss mice treatments use formulations containing aqueous extract at different concentrations (1.25%, 2.5%, and 5%) or dexamethasone (1 mg/g), all administered topically and immediately after edema induction. The treatment with formulations containing aqueous extract of both species reduced ear and paw edema, besides that, the decrease in edema was evidenced by reduction of myeloperoxidase activity, IL-1ß, and TNF-α levels and increase IL-10 levels. In conclusion, the two species showed local anti-inflammatory activity; however K. brasiliensis showed a better result in both edematogenic models since it had activity in the lowest concentration.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Kalanchoe/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Carragenina/toxicidade , Óleo de Cróton/toxicidade , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Edema/patologia , Feminino , Inflamação/patologia , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Folhas de Planta , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Água/química
14.
Planta Med ; 85(5): 385-393, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30562827

RESUMO

Bryophyllum pinnatum has been used since the 1970s to prevent premature labour, first in anthroposophic hospitals and, more recently, also in the main Swiss perinatal centres. However, it is not known which compounds in B. pinnatum leaves contribute to the tocolytic effect. Here we studied the effects of a flavonoid-enriched fraction, the corresponding flavonoid aglycon mixture, a bufadienolide-enriched fraction, and B. pinnatum leaf press juice on human myometrial contractility in vitro. The strength (area under the curve and amplitude) and frequency of contractions were recorded using strips of human myometrium mounted in an organ bath system. Cell viability assays were performed with the human myometrium hTERT-C3 and PHM1 - 41 cell lines. Repeated addition of the flavonoid-enriched fraction, flavonoid aglycon mixture, bufadienolide-enriched fraction, or B. pinnatum leaf press juice led to a progressive decrease of contraction strength, without jeopardising the vitality of myometrium strips. The bufadienolide-enriched fraction was the most active, since 1 µg/mL of the bufadienolide-enriched fraction lowered the area under the curve to 40.1 ± 11.8% of the initial value, whereas 150 µg/mL of the flavonoid-enriched fraction, 6.2 µg/mL of the flavonoid aglycon mixture, and 10 µg/mL of the B. pinnatum leaf press juice were required to achieve comparable inhibition. A progressive increase of contraction frequency was observed, except in the case of the flavonoid aglycon mixture, which did not affect frequency. None of the test substances decreased myometrial cell viability, even at concentrations of 500 µg/mL of the flavonoid-enriched fraction, 40 µg/mL of the flavonoid aglycon mixture, 3.8 µg/mL of the bufadienolide-enriched fraction, and 75 µg/mL of the B. pinnatum leaf press juice, i.e., higher than those used in the myometrium experiments. Given the concentrations of flavonoids in the flavonoid-enriched fraction and B. pinnatum leaf press juice, and of bufadienolides in the bufadienolide-enriched fraction and B. pinnatum leaf press juice, it appears that bufadienolides may be mainly responsible for the relaxant effect.


Assuntos
Bufanolídeos/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Kalanchoe/química , Bufanolídeos/isolamento & purificação , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Miométrio/efeitos dos fármacos , Miométrio/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química
15.
J Exp Bot ; 70(4): 1367-1374, 2019 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30576518

RESUMO

Blue light (BL) is a fundamental cue for stomatal opening in both C3 and C4 plants. However, it is unknown whether crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants open their stomata in response to BL. We investigated stomatal BL responses in the obligate CAM plants Kalanchoe pinnata and Kalanchoe daigremontiana that characteristically open their stomata at night and close them for part of the day, as contrasted with C3 and C4 plants. Stomata opened in response to weak BL superimposed on background red light in both intact leaves and detached epidermal peels of K. pinnata and K. daigremontiana. BL-dependent stomatal opening was completely inhibited by tautomycin and vanadate, which repress type 1 protein phosphatase and plasma membrane H+-ATPase, respectively. The plasma membrane H+-ATPase activator fusicoccin induced stomatal opening in the dark. Both BL and fusicoccin induced phosphorylation of the guard cell plasma membrane H+-ATPase in K. pinnata. These results indicate that BL-dependent stomatal opening occurs in the obligate CAM plants K. pinnata and K. daigremontiana independently of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation mode.


Assuntos
Ciclo do Carbono/efeitos da radiação , Kalanchoe/metabolismo , Luz , Estômatos de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Kalanchoe/enzimologia , Kalanchoe/efeitos da radiação , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Estômatos de Plantas/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 120(Pt B): 1591-1600, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30261260

RESUMO

Plasmin (EC 3.4.21.7) is a key enzyme of the fibrinolytic system, responsible for the degradation of fibrin clot and maintaining blood fluidity. Hence, alterations of the fibrinolytic capacity of blood plasma may contribute to thrombotic or bleeding complications. The aim of this study was to determine effects of a bufadienolide-rich fraction, isolated from roots of Kalanchoe daigremontiana (0.05-50 µg/ml) on enzymatic properties of plasmin. Hydrolysis of a synthetic substrate S-2251 (H-D-Valyl-l-leucyl-l-lysine-p-nitroaniline dihydrochloride) by plasmin revealed that the bufadienolide-rich fraction had a diverse effect on this enzyme, dependently on the concentration range. While the lower concentrations of the examined fraction (0.05-2.5 µg/ml) significantly enhanced the amidolytic activity of plasmin, at 25-50 µg/ml concentrations, the enzyme was evidently inhibited (by about 60%). The Lineweaver-Burk plot indicated on an uncompetitive inhibition of plasmin. Inhibitory effects (up to 80%) were also found in the streptokinase-induced plasminogen activation to plasmin. Docking results suggest that only some of compounds (mostly bersaldegenin 1-acetate (10), bryotoxin (13) and hovetrichoside C (17)) were bound to plasminogen/plasmin, depending on the presence or absence of the substrate in the active site. The obtained findings suggest allosteric regulation of plasminogen activation and plasmin activity by components of the examined fraction.


Assuntos
Bufanolídeos/farmacologia , Simulação por Computador , Fibrinolisina/metabolismo , Kalanchoe/química , Bufanolídeos/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fibrinolisina/química , Humanos , Hidrólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Conformação Proteica
17.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 111(12): 2267-2273, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29971704

RESUMO

A nitrogen-fixing, endospore-forming bacterium, designated strain L201T was isolated from the leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum growing in South China Agricultural University. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain L201T is affiliated with the genus Paenibacillus, and closely related to Paenibacillus albidus Q4-3T (97.4%), Paenibacillus odorifer DSM 15391T (97.3%) and Paenibacillus borealis DSM 13188T (97.2%). The main fatty acids components was anteiso-C15:0 (48.1%). The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. The major polar lipids were found to be diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. The G+C content of strain L201T was 43.9%. DNA-DNA relatedness between L201T and the reference strain was 29.8%. Biological and biochemical tests, protein patterns, genomic DNA fingerprinting and comparison of cellular fatty acids distinguished strain L201T from the closely related Paenibacillus species. Based on these data, the novel species Paenibacillus bryophyllum sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain L201T(= KCTC 33951 T = GDMCC 1.1251 T).


Assuntos
Kalanchoe/microbiologia , Fixação de Nitrogênio/genética , Nitrogenase/genética , Paenibacillus/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Composição de Bases , Impressões Digitais de DNA , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Ácidos Graxos/biossíntese , Expressão Gênica , Cinética , Nitrogenase/metabolismo , Paenibacillus/classificação , Paenibacillus/isolamento & purificação , Paenibacillus/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/biossíntese , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , RNA Bacteriano/genética , Terpenos/metabolismo
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(28): E6650-E6658, 2018 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29941591

RESUMO

Plants produce a plethora of natural products, including many drugs. It has recently emerged that the genes encoding different natural product pathways may be organized as biosynthetic gene clusters in plant genomes, with >30 examples reported so far. Despite superficial similarities with microbes, these clusters have not arisen by horizontal gene transfer, but rather by gene duplication, neofunctionalization, and relocation via unknown mechanisms. Previously we reported that two Arabidopsis thaliana biosynthetic gene clusters are located in regions of the genome that are significantly enriched in transposable elements (TEs). Other plant biosynthetic gene clusters also harbor abundant TEs. TEs can mediate genomic rearrangement by providing homologous sequences that enable illegitimate recombination and gene relocation. Thus, TE-mediated recombination may contribute to plant biosynthetic gene cluster formation. TEs may also facilitate establishment of regulons. However, a systematic analysis of the TEs associated with plant biosynthetic gene clusters has not been carried out. Here we investigate the TEs associated with clustered terpene biosynthetic genes in multiple plant genomes and find evidence to suggest a role for miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements in cluster formation in eudicots. Through investigation of the newly sequenced Amborella trichopoda, Aquilegia coerulea, and Kalanchoe fedtschenkoi genomes, we further show that the "block" mechanism of founding of biosynthetic gene clusters through duplication and diversification of pairs of terpene synthase and cytochrome P450 genes that is prevalent in the eudicots arose around 90-130 million years ago, after the appearance of the basal eudicots and before the emergence of the superrosid clade.


Assuntos
Aquilegia/genética , Genoma de Planta , Sequências Repetidas Invertidas , Kalanchoe/genética , Família Multigênica
19.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 222: 133-147, 2018 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29730133

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE: Kalanchoe flammea Stapf (Crassulaceae) is a medicinal plant grown in the South of Mexico (State of Tabasco), which is commonly used in traditional medicine for the treatment of fever, wounds, inflammation, and cancer. AIM OF THE STUDY: To establish the potential of K. flammea for the treatment of prostate cancer, evaluating its cytotoxic activity, its probable mechanism of action, and carrying out some toxicological safety studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cytotoxic activity of the ethyl acetate extract of K. flammea (Kf-EtOAc) was evaluated in several cell lines of prostate cancer by MTT viability assay. The cellular death mechanism was studied by evaluating the translocation of phosphatidylserine (Annexin V); overproduction of reactive oxygen species [2'-7'-Dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay]; release of Cytochrome C; activation of caspase-3 and -9, and regulation of Bcl-2, XIAP, and PKCε proteins by Western Blot analysis. For the evaluation of the safety of Kf-EtOAc, the Ames test, Micronucleus assay, and acute toxicity study were determined. RESULTS: Kf-EtOAc exhibited selective cytotoxic activity against prostate cell lines as follows: PC-3, LNCaP, and PrEC (IC50 = 1.36 ±â€¯0.05; 2.06 ±â€¯0.02, and 127.05 ±â€¯0.07 µg/mL, respectively). The F82-P2 fraction (rich in coumaric acid and palmitic acid) obtained by bioassay-guided fractionation of Kf-EtOAc also demonstrated selective cytotoxic activity against PC-3 cells (IC50 = 1.05 ±â€¯0.06 µg/mL). Kf-EtOAc induces apoptosis by the intrinsic pathway; this mechanism of cell death was confirmed after observing that the extract produces phosphatidylserine translocation, overproduction of reactive oxygen species, release of Cytochrome C at mitochondrial level, and activation of caspase-3 and -9. It was also observed that Kf-EtOAc produces significant downregulation of apoptosis-related proteins Bcl-2, XIAP, and PKCε and induces DNA fragmentation and cell cycle arrest. In addition, Kf-EtOAc is non-genotoxic in vitro by Ames test and non-genotoxic in vivo by Micronucleus assay, and no signs of toxicity or death were reported after the administration of a single acute exposure of 2000 mg/kg. CONCLUSION: K. flammea is a potential candidate for the development of new drugs for the treatment of prostate cancer. However, to propose their use in clinical trials, additional studies are required to understand their pharmacokinetic behavior, as well as the development of a suitable pharmaceutical form.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Kalanchoe , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(5)2018 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29695040

RESUMO

Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata are used interchangeably in traditional medicine for treating peptic ulcers and inflammatory problems. In this context, this study aims to characterize the chemical constituents and evaluate the gastroprotective activity of the leaf juices of the two species in acute gastric lesions models. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometer (UHPLC-MS) were performed for chemical characterization. Wistar rats were pre-treated orally with leaf juices (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg) or ranitidine (50 mg/kg). The peaks observed in the chromatogram of K. brasiliensis showed similar mass spectra to flavonoid glycosides derived from patuletin and eupafolin, while K. pinnata showed mass spectra similar to compounds derived from quercetin, patuletin, eupafolin and kaempferol. K. brasiliensis at all doses and K. pinnata at doses of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg significantly reduced the lesions in the ethanol induction model. In the indomethacin induction model, both species showed significant results at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg. Also, the pre-treatment with leaf juices increased the antioxidant defense system, glutathione (GSH), whereas malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were significantly decreased. Treatment with leaf juices led to the upregulation of zone occludes-1 (ZO-1) and the downregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and factor nuclear-κβ transcription (NF-κB-p65), while also showing a cytoprotective effect and maintaining mucus production. These findings show that the leaf juices of the two species showed gastroprotective effects on ethanol and gastric indomethacin injury which were a consequence of gastric inflammation suppression, antioxidant activity and the maintenance of cytoprotective defenses and mucosal structure architecture.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Gastrite/etiologia , Gastrite/patologia , Indometacina/efeitos adversos , Kalanchoe/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Gastrite/tratamento farmacológico , Gastrite/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Ratos , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera Gástrica/etiologia , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia
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