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1.
Rev Med Liege ; 75(7-8): 494-496, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779896

RESUMO

Strawberry IgE-mediated hypersensitivity is often reported rarely confirmed. Only a few cases are described in medical literature, unlike other fruits of the rosacea family. Strawberry is rich in histamine. It can cause histamine release syndrome, especially when eaten in large quantities. However IgE-mediated hypersensitivity exists. We reported the case of a 9-year-old boy with a history of strawberry and raspberry anaphylaxis.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia , Fragaria , Rubus , Criança , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino
2.
Plant Dis ; 104(8): 2054-2059, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515689

RESUMO

In the 2017 strawberry season, several transplant losses reaching 50% were observed in Zamora, Michoacán Valley, Mexico, due to a new fungal disease associated with root rot, crown rot, and leaf spot. In this year the disease appeared consistently and increased in the following seasons, becoming a concern among strawberry growers. Thus, the aim of this research was to determine the etiology of the disease and to determine the in vitro effect of fungicides on mycelial growth of the pathogen. Fungal isolates were obtained from symptomatic strawberry plants of the cultivars 'Albion' and 'Festival' and were processed to obtain monoconidial isolates. Detailed morphological analysis was conducted. Concatenated phylogenetic reconstruction was conducted by amplifying and sequencing the translation elongation factor 1 α, ß-tubulin partial gene, and the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA. Pathogenicity tests involving inoculation of leaves and crowns reproduced the same symptoms as those observed in the field, fulfilling Koch's postulates. Morphology and phylogenetic reconstruction indicated that the causal agent of the described symptoms was Neopestalotiopsis rosae, marking the first report anywhere in the world of this species infecting strawberry. N. rosae was sensitive to cyprodinil + fludioxonil, captan, iprodione, difenoconazole, and prochloraz.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Micoses , DNA Fúngico , Humanos , México , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas
3.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 55(8): 712-718, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515641

RESUMO

The degradation under field conditions and the residue behavior of etoxazole during juicing and purée making was evaluated. Etoxazole residues were determined by HPLC-UV at six different Pre Harvest Intervals (PHIs) as to estimate the degradation of residue in fruits. Samples with significant residues were processed and residue were determined after juicing and purée making. The effect of washing was also estimated. Processing Factors (PFs) for etoxazole after each step were less than 1 and the PFs of the overall processes were lower than 0.85 for washing fruits, 0.13 for juice and 0.04 for purée. The studied processes could obviously reduce the pesticide residues that are present in the raw strawberries. Uncertainties in the use of the PFs were identified due to the potential formation of metabolites during the processes.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Fragaria/química , Oxazóis/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Egito , Frutas/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise
4.
Food Chem ; 328: 127106, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485584

RESUMO

In this work, based on the strawberry-like SiO2/Ag nanocomposites (SANC) immersed filter paper, a newly surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate was constructed for the detection of acrylamide (AAm) in food products. To construct filter paper-based SANC (F-SANC) SERS substrates, SiO2 nanoparticles (SNP) were firstly synthesized and acted as carriers. After that, the in-situ preparation of silver nanoparticles (Ag NP) on SNP surface was carried out to form the strawberry-like three-dimensional (3D) structure of SANC. Finally, SANC were entangled into the filter paper to produce nanoarchitecture, thus providing enhanced plasmon resonance between SANC with strong SERS signal. Under the optimized conditions, the method exhibited good performance toward AAm with a vast linear response from 0.1 nM to 50 µM (R = 0.9935), limit of detection (LOD) of 0.02 nM (S/N = 3), and the recoveries of 80.5%~105.6% for practical samples. This strategy showed good robustness in the rapid and sensitive detection of AAm, which could be a promising strategy in food analysis and verification.


Assuntos
Acrilamida/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanocompostos/química , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Filtração/instrumentação , Análise de Alimentos/instrumentação , Fragaria/química , Limite de Detecção , Dióxido de Silício/química , Prata/química
5.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234040, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484826

RESUMO

During the past decade, Drosophila suzukii has established itself as a global invasive fruit pest, enabled by its ability to lay eggs into fresh, ripening fruit. In a previous study, we investigated the impact of different strawberry accessions on the development of D. suzukii eggs, in the search of natural resistance. We identified several accessions that significantly reduced adult fly emergence from infested fruit. In the present study, we aimed at understanding the chemical basis of this effect. We first noted that one of the more resistant accessions showed an unusual enrichment of methyl anthranilate within its fruit, prompting us to investigate this fruit compound as a possible cause limiting fly development. We found that methyl anthranilate alone triggers embryo lethality in a concentration-dependent manner, unlike another comparable organic fruit compound. We also showed that a chemical fraction of the resistant strawberry accession that contains methyl anthranilate carries some activity toward the egg hatching rate. Surprisingly, in spite of the lethal effect of this compound to their eggs, adult females are not only attracted to methyl anthranilate at certain concentrations, but they also display a concentration-dependent preference to lay on substrates enriched in methyl anthranilate. This study demonstrates that methyl anthranilate is a potent agonist molecule against D. suzukii egg development. Its elevated concentration in a specific strawberry accession proven to reduce the fly development may explain, at least in part the fruit resistance. It further illustrates how a single, natural compound, non-toxic to humans could be exploited for biological control of a pest species.


Assuntos
Drosophila/fisiologia , Fragaria/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , ortoaminobenzoatos/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Fragaria/fisiologia , Frutas/fisiologia , Reprodução , Volatilização , ortoaminobenzoatos/química
6.
Planta Med ; 86(11): 790-799, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450572

RESUMO

Intestinal α-glucosidase and α-amylase break down nutritional poly- and oligosaccharides to monosaccharides and their activity significantly contributes to postprandial hyperglycemia. Competitive inhibitors of these enzymes, such as acarbose, are effective antidiabetic drugs, but have unpleasant side effects. In our ethnopharmacology inspired investigations, we found that wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca), blackberry (Rubus fruticosus), and European blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) leaf extracts inhibit α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzyme activity in vitro and are effective in preventing postprandial hyperglycemia in vivo. Toxicology tests on H9c2 rat embryonic cardiac muscle cells demonstrated that berry leaf extracts have no cytotoxic effects. Oral administration of these leaf extracts alone or as a mixture to normal (control), obese, prediabetic, and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice attenuated the starch-induced rise of blood glucose levels. The efficiency was similar to that of acarbose on blood glucose. These results highlight berry leaf extracts as candidates for testing in clinical trials in order to assess the clinical significance of their effects on glycemic control.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta) , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Fragaria , Hiperglicemia , Estado Pré-Diabético , Rubus , Animais , Glicemia , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Hipoglicemiantes , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais , Ratos , Amido
7.
Plant Dis ; 104(7): 1960-1968, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401619

RESUMO

Strawberry anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum spp. is one of the most serious diseases in the strawberry fields of China. In total, 196 isolates of Colletotrichum were obtained from leaves, stolons, and crowns of strawberry plants with anthracnose symptoms in eastern China and were characterized based on morphology, internal transcribed spacer (ITS), and ß-tubulin (TUB2) gene sequences. All 196 isolates were identified as the Colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complex. In total, 62 strains were further identified at the species level by phylogenetic analyses of multilocus sequences of ITS, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), actin (ACT), Apn2-Mat1-2 intergenic spacer and partial mating type (ApMat), calmodulin (CAL), and TUB2. Three species from the C. gloeosporioides species complex were identified: Colletotrichum siamense, C. fructicola, and C. aenigma. Isolates of C. siamense were tolerant to high temperatures, with a significantly larger colony diameter than the other two species when grown above 36°C. The inoculation of strawberry plants confirmed the pathogenicity of all three species. C. siamense isolates resulted in the highest disease severity. The in vitro sensitivities of C. siamense and C. fructicola isolates to azoxystrobin and three demethylation-inhibitor (DMI) fungicides (difenoconazole, tebuconazole, and prochloraz) were determined. Both species were sensitive to DMI fungicides but not to azoxystrobin. C. siamense isolates were more sensitive to prochloraz, while C. fructicola isolates were more sensitive to difenoconazole and tebuconazole. The present study provides valuable information for the effective management of strawberry anthracnose.


Assuntos
Colletotrichum , Fragaria , Fungicidas Industriais , China , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas
8.
Arch Virol ; 165(5): 1249-1252, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232672

RESUMO

In this study, the complete genomic sequence of a novel virus was determined by next-generation sequencing of a sample from a symptomatic strawberry plant with severe yellow spots and mosaic on its leaves. Its genomic organization and sequence showed that this virus is related to members of the proposed insect-specific genus "Negevirus". The sample also contained sequences from the geranium aphid Acyrthosiphon malvae. Although the virus was detected repeatedly in the same plant during the three following years, no other positive samples were obtained from the surroundings or more-distant locations. Reverse transcription qPCR analysis revealed the presence of both genomic positive and complementary negative strands of the viral genome in the sample, with a 3- to 30-fold excess of the positive strand, indicating active viral replication. As the virus was not detected in any insect species collected at this location, the virus was provisionally named "Fragaria vesca-associated virus 1" (FVaV-1).


Assuntos
Fragaria/virologia , Genoma Viral , Vírus de Plantas/classificação , Vírus de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Animais , Afídeos/genética , Biologia Computacional , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Folhas de Planta/virologia , Vírus de Plantas/genética , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
9.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 151: 486-499, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302942

RESUMO

Involvement of nitrate reductase (NR) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-like enzyme in 24-epibrassinolide (EB)-triggered nitric oxide (NO) synthesis to improve iron deficiency (ID) tolerance in strawberry plants was studied. EB was sprayed to strawberry plants every two days for two weeks. Then, the EB-treated plants were pre-treated with inhibitors of NR, tungstate, or NOS, L-NAME for 3 h. During the first three weeks, Fe was supplied as 100 µM EDTA-Fe or FeSO4 to Fe-sufficient or Fe-deficient plants, respectively. Thereafter, plants were subjected for further three weeks to control (100 µM EDTA-Fe) and Fe deficiency (ID; without Fe). ID reduced biomass, chlorophyll, and chlorophyll fluorescence, while increased oxidative stress parameters, ascorbate (AsA), glutathione (GSH), endogenous NO, and the activities of NR, NOS, and antioxidant enzymes. Pre-treatments with EB and EB + SNP improved ID tolerance of strawberry by improving leaf Fe2+, plant growth, and antioxidant enzyme activities, and causing a further elevation in AsA, GSH, NO, NR and NOS. L-NAME application reversed NOS activity, but it did not eliminate NO, however, tungstate application reversed both NR activity and NO synthesis in plants exposed to ID + EB, suggesting that NR is the main contributor of EB-induced NO synthesis to improve ID tolerance in strawberry plants.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Ferro , Nitrato Redutase , Óxido Nítrico , Regulação para Cima , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Brassinosteroides/farmacologia , Fragaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Fragaria/enzimologia , Fragaria/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glutationa/metabolismo , Ferro/deficiência , Nitrato Redutase/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Esteroides Heterocíclicos/farmacologia
10.
Arch Virol ; 165(6): 1481-1484, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246284

RESUMO

Xanthomonas phage RiverRider is a novel N4-like bacteriophage and the first phage isolated from the plant pathogen Xanthomonas fragariae. Electron microscopy revealed a Podoviridae morphology consisting of isometric heads and short noncontractile tails. The complete genome of RiverRider is 76,355 bp in length, with 90 open reading frames and seven tRNAs. The genome is characteristic of N4-like bacteriophages in both content and organization, having predicted proteins characterized into the functional groups of transcription, DNA metabolism, DNA replication, lysis, lysis inhibition, structure and DNA packaging. Amino acid sequence comparisons for proteins in these categories showed highest similarities to well-characterized N4-like bacteriophages isolated from Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Erwinia amylovora. However, the tail fiber proteins of RiverRider are clearly distinct from those of other N4-like phages. RiverRider was able to infect seven different strains of X. fragariae and none of the other species of Xanthomonas tested.


Assuntos
Fragaria/microbiologia , Genoma Viral , Podoviridae/classificação , Xanthomonas/virologia , Achromobacter denitrificans/virologia , DNA Viral/genética , Erwinia amylovora/virologia , Microscopia Eletrônica , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , Podoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Podoviridae/ultraestrutura , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
11.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 325: 108629, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325344

RESUMO

High pressure processing is a mild preservation process that inactivates pathogenic and spoilage micro-organisms in food products, but preserves the fresh characteristics of a product. Compared to untreated product, an enhanced shelf life is obtained during refrigerated storage. Knowledge on the use of high pressure pasteurisation aimed for ambient storage is limited. The aim of this research was to investigate if a combination of high pressure and moderate heat could be used to produce a shelf-stable high-acid fruit product. Ascospores of the heat resistant fungi Talaromyces macrosporus and Aspergillus fischeri were added to fresh strawberry puree that served as a model system. The effect of the processing steps and storage at ambient temperature for 2 weeks was studied on viability of the ascospores. A preheating step at 69 °C/2 min resulted in full or partial activation of A. fischeri and T. macrosporus spores, respectively. The pressure build-up by the process without any holding time resulted in additional activation of spores. A combination of moderate heat (maximum 85-90 °C) and high pressure (500-700 MPa) for holding times up to 13 min inactivated these highly resistant spores much faster than a heat treatment alone. At Tmax = 85 °C and 600 MPa the spores of T. macrosporus and A. fischeri were inactivated by 5.0 and 5.5 log10 after 13 and 7 min, respectively. At Tmax = 85 °C the heat treatment alone did not reduce the viability of these spores up to 60 min of treatment. At Tmax = 90 °C the holding time of the combined pressure-heat treatment could be reduced to obtain the same degree of inactivation of the heat resistant fungi. In addition, treated and untreated ascospores in strawberry puree were stored for 14 days at room temperature to evaluate delayed outgrowth of spores. Untreated ascospores of A. fischeri were activated by storage in the puree. However, at conditions combining high pressure ≥ 600 MPa with Tmax ≥ 85 °C for 13 min, heat resistant fungi were successfully inactivated. This research showed that a combination of moderate heat and pressure can drastically improve the effectiveness to inactivate heat-resistant ascospores in a high-acid fruit product compared to a heat treatment, potentially resulting in a better product quality.


Assuntos
Aspergillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pasteurização/métodos , Esporos Bacterianos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esporos Fúngicos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Talaromyces/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Fragaria/microbiologia , Frutas/microbiologia , Temperatura Alta
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 727: 138708, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334231

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) harbored by plant microbiomes have been implicated as a potential risk to public health via food chain, especially directly edible fruits and vegetables. Here, we investigated the microbiome and antibiotic resistome in soil-strawberry ecosystem using shotgun metagenomic sequencing. The results showed that the enterobacterial population dominated the endophytes of strawberry fruits. Moreover, 85 subtypes of ARGs, including several clinically important ARGs, were detected in the strawberry fruit metagenomes. Additionally, host tracking analysis in combination with antibiotic-resistant bacterial isolate screening suggested that fruit-borne ARGs were mainly carried by members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. Unexpectedly, most of fruit-borne isolates were found to be resistant to several clinically important antimicrobials, e.g., erythromycin and cephalexin. Our findings provide broad insights into endophytic antibiotic resistomes of direct edible strawberry fruits and their potential hosts, and highlight the potential exposure risks of plant microbiomes to the human food chain.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae , Genes Bacterianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Metagenoma/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0224588, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236110

RESUMO

Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and water are four crucial factors that have significant effects on strawberry yield and fruit quality. We used a 11 that involved 36 treatments with five levels of each of the four variables (N, P, and K fertilizers and water) to optimize fertilization and water combination for high yield and quality. Moreover, we used the SSC/TA ratio (the ratio of soluble solid content to titratable acid) as index of quality. Results showed that N fertilizer was the most important factor, followed by water and P fertilizer, and the N fertilizer had significant effect on yield and SSC/TA ratio. By contrast, the K fertilizer had significant effect only on yield. N×K fertilizer interacted significantly on yield, whereas the other interactions among the four factors had no significant effects on yield or SSC/TA ratio. The effects of the four factors on yield and SSC/TA ratio were ranked as N fertilizer > water > K fertilizer > P fertilizer and N fertilizer > P fertilizer > water > K fertilizer, respectively. The yield and SSC/TA ratio increased when NPK fertilizer and water increased, but then decreased when excessive NPK fertilizer and water were applied. The optimal fertilizer and water combination were 22.28-24.61 g plant-1 Ca (NO3)2·4H2O, 1.75-2.03 g plant-1 NaH2PO4, 12.41-13.91 g plant-1 K2SO4, and 12.00-13.05 L water plant-1 for yields of more than 110 g plant-1 and optimal SSC/TA ratio of 8.5-14.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Fertilizantes/normas , Fragaria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Irrigação Agrícola/normas , Biomassa , Produção Agrícola/normas , Fragaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/normas , Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Fósforo/farmacologia , Potássio/farmacologia
14.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(4): 377-390, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249265

RESUMO

Colletotrichum nymphaeae is the causal agent of strawberry anthracnose, which is one of the most important disease affecting strawberry plant in Iran. This research aimed to apply the selected plant essential oils (EOs) such as Achillea millefolium, Mentha longifolia, and Ferula kuma to the management of strawberry anthracnose disease under in vitro, in vivo, and greenhouse conditions. In vitro tests indicated that all the EOs and fungicide were able to inhibit mycelial growth and conidial germination of the pathogen. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that EOs significantly suppressed the mycelia growth and caused a change in morphology of fungal mycelia. The severity of strawberry anthracnose disease was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced by all EOs under in vivo and greenhouse conditions. Results of all experiments showed that M. longifolia EO was the best EO to control C. nymphaeae. Also, EOs almost reduced weight loss and preserved firmness, ascorbic acid, total phenol, antioxidant activity (DPPH), and enzyme peroxidase activity in treated fruit. Moreover, EOs preserved the sensory quality of strawberry fruit during the storage period so that there were no significant differences between treatments (EOs) in their appearance, flavor, odor attributes, and overall evaluation compared to the control. Our results indicate that EOs are excellent bio-fungicides for the management of strawberry anthracnose.


Assuntos
Qualidade dos Alimentos , Fragaria/microbiologia , Fungicidas Industriais , Mentha/química , Óleos Voláteis , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Óleos Vegetais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Colletotrichum/patogenicidade , Fragaria/metabolismo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo
15.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 151: 369-377, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276220

RESUMO

In strawberry, sucrose is the major form of carbohydrate translocated from the leaves to the fruits and plays an important role in fruit ripening. As a conserved energy sensor, sucrose nonfermenting-1 (SNF1)-related kinase 1 (SnRK1) plays an important role in plant carbon metabolism. However, evidence that SnRK1 regulates sucrose accumulation in fruits is lacking. In this study, we transiently expressed FaSnRK1α in strawberry fruits and found that overexpression (OE) of the FaSnRK1α gene significantly increased the sucrose content, whereas repression of FaSnRK1α by RNA interference (RNAi) decreased the sucrose content. Further analysis revealed that FaSnRK1α increased the expression of FaSUS1 and FaSUS3 as well as the activity of sucrose synthase (SUS; EC 2.4.1.13) and that FaSPS1 expression and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS; EC 2.4.1.14) activity were strongly downregulated, which decreased the accumulation of sucrose. However, the expression of FaSPS3, which is reported to contribute to sucrose accumulation, was induced by FaSnRK1α, and FaNI expression and invertase (INV; EC 3.2.1.26) activity were upregulated by FaSnRK1α. In addition, FaSnRK1α positively upregulated the expression of the sucrose transporter (SUT) genes FaSUT1 and FaSUT5 and interacted with FaSUS1, FaSPS1 and FaSPS3 proteins but not with FaSUS3, FaNI, FaSUT1 or FaSUT5 proteins. Overall, FaSnRK1α systematically regulates the expression of the genes and activities of key enzymes involved in the sucrose metabolic pathway and promotes the long-distance transport of sucrose, thereby increasing sucrose accumulation and ultimately promoting fruit ripening. However, the mechanisms by which sucrose transport and degradation are regulated by SnRK1 warrant additional research.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Frutas , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases , Sacarose , Fragaria/enzimologia , Frutas/enzimologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , beta-Frutofuranosidase/metabolismo
16.
Food Chem ; 321: 126747, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276147

RESUMO

The strawberry fruit is perishable due to its high water content and soft texture, yet exhibits pleasant organoleptic and nutritional profile. Here we conducted a metabolomics-driven analysis followed by linear modelling to dissect the molecular processes in strawberry postharvest. Fruits from five cultivars were harvested and refrigerated during a ten-day period under three different atmospheres: ambient, CO2-enriched and O3-enriched. These analyses revealed that metabolites involved in, (i) organoleptic and nutritional properties; (ii) stress tolerance displayed duration and postharvest treatment-dependent levels. Ozone-enriched atmosphere appears to counteract postharvest negative effects, with fruits exhibiting lower levels of fermentative metabolites when compared to fruits kept in an ambient atmosphere. Furthermore, metabolic reconfiguration towards the synthesis of protective metabolites of those fruits can possibly confer enhanced tolerance to postharvest abiotic stresses. Finally, results from the linear modelling identified metabolites which could be used as biomarkers to assess strawberry quality during its postharvest shelf life.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Fragaria/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/farmacologia , Fragaria/química , Fragaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/química , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Lineares , Ozônio/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico
17.
Plant Dis ; 104(5): 1351-1357, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213124

RESUMO

Anthracnose is a serious fungal disease that primarily infects strawberry roots and stolons during development. Here, 91 isolates from different areas of Zhejiang province, China, were collected. Morphological characteristics were analyzed, and a phylogenetic analysis based on multiple genes (actin, internal transcribed spacer, calmodulin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and chitin synthase) was performed. We found that all of the Colletotrichum species causing strawberry anthracnose belonged to the Colletotrichum gloeosporioides complex. Among them, we identified 48 isolates of C. fructicola, 21 isolates of C. siamense, 13 isolates of C. gloeosporioides, and 9 isolates of C. aenigma. C. siamense was distributed in the central and eastern regions of Zhejiang province (Hangzhou, Jinhua, Shaoxing, Ningbo, and Taizhou). This is the first report of C. siamense causing strawberry anthracnose in Zhejiang province. C. fructicola was the most dominant species causing strawberry anthracnose in Zhejiang province. We identified the four species causing strawberry anthracnose in Zhejiang province, which will improve our understanding of the strawberry anthracnose epidemic and will benefit the development of future control measures.


Assuntos
Colletotrichum , Fragaria , China , DNA Fúngico , Variação Genética , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas
18.
Gene ; 743: 144582, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173543

RESUMO

As the main energy source for generating ATP during plant growth and development, sugars are synthesized in leaves, while sugar allocation depends on both intracellular transport between different organelles and source-to-sink transport. However, sugar transport related research is limited in pear. Here, a sugar transporter PbSWEET4 was identified that control sugar content and senescence in leaf. Phylogenetic analysis and multiple sequence alignment results indicated that PbSWEET4 was homologous to AtSWEET15, which contained two conserved domains and could promote senescence. The qRT-PCR and transcriptome database result showed that the expression of PbSWEET4 was positively correlated with leaf development, especially highly expressed in older leaves. Furthermore, the evaluation of promoter-GUS activity also indicated that PbSWEET4 exhibited the highest expression level in older leaves. The subcellular localization revealed that the PbSWEET4 localized in the plasma membrane. Finally, overexpression of the PbSWEET4 in strawberry plants could reduce leaf sugar content and chlorophyll content, while accelerate leaf senescence, which might be due to enhanced export of sugars from leaves. These results enrich the knowledge about the function of sugar exporter in regulating the fruit species development, and provide a novel genetic resource for future improvement in carbohydrate partitioning for pear and other fruit trees.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Pyrus/fisiologia , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Senescência Celular/genética , Clorofila/análise , Fragaria/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Pyrus/química , Açúcares/análise , Açúcares/metabolismo
19.
Arch Virol ; 165(4): 923-935, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32128611

RESUMO

Strawberry mild yellow edge virus (SMYEV) is a member of the genus Potexvirus, family Alphaflexiviridae. It is one of the most common pathogenic viruses infecting cultivated strawberries worldwide. In this study, we investigated the genetic diversity of SMYEV in strawberry fields that were severely affected by strawberry decline disease in the eastern Canadian provinces of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Quebec. A total of 134 SMYEV coat protein (CP) gene sequences, representing 85 nucleic acid haplotypes, were identified in 56 field samples. A highly divergent SMYEV population was found in all four provinces, but there was little genetic differentiation among the populations, and moreover, the Canadian SMYEV isolates formed a unique dissimilar, genetically divergent population group when compared to those reported in other countries. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three new SMYEV subclades that consisted mainly of Canadian variants and were composed of 76 sequence haplotypes (76/85, 88%). Mixed infections by different SMYEV variants were observed in 38 samples (38/56, 68%). Evolutionary analysis suggested that the SMYEV strains in eastern Canada possibly originated outside of Canada but adapted to conditions in the region through genetic mutations.


Assuntos
Fragaria/virologia , Variação Genética , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Potexvirus/genética , Canadá , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Viral , Filogenia , Potexvirus/classificação , Potexvirus/isolamento & purificação
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1432, 2020 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188846

RESUMO

An important assessment prior to genome assembly and related analyses is genome profiling, where the k-mer frequencies within raw sequencing reads are analyzed to estimate major genome characteristics such as size, heterozygosity, and repetitiveness. Here we introduce GenomeScope 2.0 (https://github.com/tbenavi1/genomescope2.0), which applies combinatorial theory to establish a detailed mathematical model of how k-mer frequencies are distributed in heterozygous and polyploid genomes. We describe and evaluate a practical implementation of the polyploid-aware mixture model that quickly and accurately infers genome properties across thousands of simulated and several real datasets spanning a broad range of complexity. We also present a method called Smudgeplot (https://github.com/KamilSJaron/smudgeplot) to visualize and estimate the ploidy and genome structure of a genome by analyzing heterozygous k-mer pairs. We successfully apply the approach to systems of known variable ploidy levels in the Meloidogyne genus and the extreme case of octoploid Fragaria × ananassa.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Fragaria/genética , Poliploidia , Tylenchoidea/genética , Algoritmos , Animais , Biologia Computacional/instrumentação , Fragaria/classificação , Genoma de Planta , Heterozigoto , Filogenia , Software , Tylenchoidea/classificação
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