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1.
Zootaxa ; 4571(1): zootaxa.4571.1.13, 2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715839

RESUMO

New junior synonyms are proposed for the Sorbus-feeding Cacopsylla moiwasana (Kuwayama, 1908): Psylla jezoensis Miyatake, 1963, syn. nov. and Psylla midoriae Miyatake, 1963, syn. nov. The species is newly recorded from Korea.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Pyrus , Rosaceae , Sorbus , Animais , República da Coreia
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(12): 714, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677044

RESUMO

The functional root traits of Pyrus pyraster (L.) Burgsd. and Sorbus domestica L. during early growth stages were evaluated. The aim of the study was to identify the functional traits of root systems that determine the adaptability of these woody species to drought conditions. The experiment was carried out under the controlled environment of a growth chamber. The root systems were analyzed using WinRhizo software. Several functional root traits were identified, including specific root length, root surface area, root length, root volume, root-to-shoot mass ratio (R:S), fine root (ϕ ˂ 2 mm) volume, coarse root (ϕ > 2 mm) volume, and fine-to-coarse root volume ratio (F/C). In drought, P. pyraster maintained the absorptive root surface unchanged, when increased the volume of the fine root fraction. The different strategy of adaptation to drought has been confirmed for S. domestica, which accumulated more dry mass in the root system in comparison to aboveground organs (significant increase of R:S ratio). The functional root traits analyzed here were species-dependent. The key functional traits that indicate the responses of studied tree taxa to drought conditions include root thickening, F/C, and R:S. Increased values of these parameters indicate the investment of the plant towards root extension. A higher proportion of fine roots increases the absorbing surface of the root system, thereby promoting water uptake from the soil.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Secas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Pyrus/fisiologia , Sorbus/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas , Solo , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Água , Madeira
3.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 133: 110764, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437471

RESUMO

The present study investigated the effects of Cornus mas, Sorbus aucuparia and Viburnum opulus fruit extracts on arginase activity and arterial vasodilation. V. opulus fruit extract exerted the highest vasorelaxant activity in phenylephrine precontracted rat aortic rings (EC50 = 6.31 ±â€¯1.61 µg/mL) and a significant inhibition of arginase (IC50 = 71.02 ±â€¯3.06 µg/mL). By contrast, S. aucuparia and C. mas fruit extracts showed no important anti-arginase activity and a significantly weaker activity in the rat aortic rings relaxation assay (EC50 = 100.9 ±â€¯11.63 and 78.52 ±â€¯8.59 µg/mL, respectively). For all extracts, the main mechanism of vasodilation was proven to be endothelium-dependent. HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS studies revealed a very complex metabolite profiling in all three extracts with chlorogenic acid accounting for 30.89, 0.72 and 2.03 mg/g in V. opulus, C. mas and S. aucuparia fruit extracts, respectively. All extracts were declared non-toxic in the brine shrimp acute toxicity test. Our study highlights potential benefits of V. opulus fruit extract in diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction and impaired vasodilation.


Assuntos
Arginase/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Animais , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cornus/química , Endotélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/toxicidade , Masculino , Metaboloma , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sorbus/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Vasodilatadores/toxicidade , Viburnum/química
4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 242: 112061, 2019 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283956

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Berries of Sorbus species have been used to treat type 2 diabetes in many regions in Europe. AIMS OF THE STUDY: To investigate the inhibitory activity of berry extract of Sorbus on the digestive enzymes α-amylase and α-glucosidase, two important targets for management of blood glucose for type 2 diabetics. Furthermore, to test the anti-hyperglycaemic potential of S. norvegica berry extract in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 70% acetone berry extracts of 16 Sorbus species were tested in vitro for inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Single berry extracts were analysed by 1H-NMR spectroscopy and principal component analysis to evaluate the chemical profiles of the extracts. The anti-hyperglycaemic effect was evaluated in an oral starch tolerance test in STZ-treated C57BL/6 mice. RESULTS: The lowest IC50 values against α-amylase and α-glucosidase were obtained with the Sorbus species belonging to the subspecies Aria, which have simple leaves compared to pinnately compound leaves of the other Sorbus species. Species belonging to subspecies Aria grouped together and away from the other Sorbus species in the score plot, indicating a difference in chemistry. Both the carbohydrate- and polyphenol-fraction contributed to the enzyme inhibition. Extract of the most active species, S. norvegica, had anti-hyperglycaemic activity, at a level 36 times lower than clinically used acarbose, corresponding to a needed daily dose of 900 mg extract. CONCLUSIONS: Sorbus species of subspecies Aria have the potential to be used for management of type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Sorbus , Animais , Frutas , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Masculino , Metabolômica , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores , alfa-Amilases/química , alfa-Glucosidases/química
5.
Am Nat ; 194(2): 246-259, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318289

RESUMO

Synchronized and variable reproduction by perennial plants, called mast seeding, is a major reproductive strategy of trees. The need to accumulate sufficient resources after depletion following fruiting (resource budget), the efficiency of mass flowering for outcross pollination (pollen coupling), or the external factors preventing reproduction (environmental veto) could all synchronize masting. We used seed production data for four species (Quercus ilex, Quercus humilis, Sorbus aucuparia, and Pinus albicaulis) to parametrize resource budget models of masting. Based on species life-history characteristics, we hypothesized that pollen coupling should synchronize reproduction in S. aucuparia and P. albicaulis, while in Q. ilex and Q. humilis, environmental veto should be a major factor. Pollen coupling was stronger in S. aucuparia and P. albicaulis than in oaks, while veto was more frequent in the latter. Yet in all species, costs of reproduction were too small to impose a replenishment period. A synchronous environmental veto, in the presence of environmental stochasticity, was sufficient to produce observed variability and synchrony in reproduction. In the past, vetoes like frost events that prevent reproduction have been perceived as negative for plants. In fact, they could be selectively favored as a way to create mast seeding.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Pinus/fisiologia , Quercus/fisiologia , Sorbus/fisiologia , Polinização/fisiologia , Reprodução , Sementes/fisiologia , Árvores
6.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 74(3): 364-369, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214936

RESUMO

This study aimed to optimize the extraction conditions for Sorbus umbellata (Desf.) Fritsch var. umbellata leaves to maximize the phenolic content and their antioxidant activity and to investigate ß-glucuronidase (GUS) enzyme inhibitory, antimicrobial and cytotoxic potentials of the extracts obtained under optimum conditions. The optimum extraction conditions were found to be 78.2 and 79.7% solvent, 73.1 and 71.5 °C, and 89.9 and 88.8 min to maximize phenolic content and antioxidant activity, respectively. Low values of coefficient of variations indicate the high reliability and reproducibility of the conducted extraction experiments. Bioactivity results showed that extracts had cytotoxic effect on the MCF-7 and A549 cells where the highest cell proliferation inhibition was observed for the A549 cell line (71.8% at 150 µg/mL). Staphylococcus aureus showed highest zone of inhibition (19.3 mm) in all bacteria followed by Escherichia coli. Additionally, extracts displayed potential GUS inhibitory activity. In conclusion, Sorbus umbellata leaf extract can be obtained by optimized cost-saving extraction and has a potential bioactivity to be utilized as a food ingredient for high value-added products and/or nutraceuticals development where it can combat oxidative stress and GUS mediated reactive metabolite formation.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sorbus/química , Células A549 , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucuronidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Molecules ; 24(12)2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226759

RESUMO

Sorbus domestica leaves are a traditionally used herbal medicine recommended for the treatment of oxidative stress-related diseases. Dry leaf extracts (standardized by LC-MS/MS and LC-PDA) and nine model activity markers (polyphenols), were tested in scavenging assays towards six in vivo-relevant oxidants (O2•-, OH•, NO•, H2O2, ONOO-, HClO). Ascorbic acid (AA) and Trolox (TX) were used as positive standards. The most active extracts were the diethyl ether and ethyl acetate fractions with activities in the range of 3.61-20.03 µmol AA equivalents/mg, depending on the assay. Among the model compounds, flavonoids were especially effective in OH• scavenging, while flavan-3-ols were superior in O2•- quenching. The most active constituents were quercetin, (-)-epicatechin, procyanidins B2 and C1 (3.94-24.16 µmol AA/mg), but considering their content in the extracts, isoquercitrin, (-)-epicatechin and chlorogenic acid were indicated as having the greatest influence on extract activity. The analysis of the synergistic effects between those three compounds in an O2•- scavenging assay demonstrated that the combination of chlorogenic acid and isoquercitrin exerts the greatest influence. The results indicate that the extracts possess a strong and broad spectrum of antioxidant capacity and that their complex composition plays a key role, with various constituents acting complementarily and synergistically.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Oxidantes/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Sorbus/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Oxidantes/farmacologia , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/química , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
8.
Arch Virol ; 164(7): 1937-1941, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069513

RESUMO

We report the complete genome sequence, comprising six single-stranded RNAs of negative orientation, of a European mountain ash ringspot-associated virus (EMARaV) isolate identified in a diseased Sorbus intermedia (Swedish whitebeam) tree exhibiting prominent chlorotic ringspots, mottle and line pattern on leaves. Since the first observation of EMARaV-like symptoms and detection of the virus in whitebeam in 2012, the tree displayed leaf symptoms every year in at least one third of its canopy, developed dieback symptoms, and showed signs of decline. Two previously unrecorded genome segments of the virus were identified, each encoding a single protein in a negative orientation. RNA5 is 1629 nucleotides long and encodes the putative movement protein (MP) of EMARaV with a molecular mass of 42.4 kDa. RNA6 (1362 nucleotides) encodes a small protein (26.8 kDa) exhibiting some sequence similarity to the P4 protein encoded by EMARaV RNA4. However, its biological function remains to be elucidated. Both novel genome segments are systematically present in EMARaV-infected Sorbus spp., and no additional genome segments could be identified by two independent methods. It is concluded that the six RNAs represent the complete genome of EMARaV.


Assuntos
Bunyaviridae/classificação , Bunyaviridae/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Sorbus/virologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Bunyaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/virologia , RNA Viral/genética
9.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 9746358, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30863484

RESUMO

Polyphenol-rich plant extracts might alleviate the negative impact of oxidative stress and inflammation, but careful phytochemical standardisation and evaluation of various mechanisms are required to fully understand their effects. In this context, flower extracts of Sorbus aucuparia L.-a traditional medicinal plant-were investigated in the present work. The LC-MS/MS profiling of the extracts, obtained by fractionated extraction, led to the identification of 66 constituents, mostly flavonols (quercetin and sexangularetin glycosides with dominating isoquercitrin), pseudodepsides of quinic and shikimic acids (prevailing isomers of chlorogenic acid and cynarin), and flavanols (catechins and proanthocyanidins). Minor extract components of possible chemotaxonomic value were flavalignans (cinchonain I isomers) and phenylamides (spermidine derivatives). As assessed by HPLC-PDA and UV-spectrophotometric studies, the extracts were polyphenol-abundant, with the contents up to 597.6 mg/g dry weight (dw), 333.9 mg/g dw, 382.0 mg/g dw, and 169.0 mg/g dw of total phenolics, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, and caffeoylquinic acids, respectively. Their biological in vitro effects were phenolic-dependent and the strongest for diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol fractions of the methanol-water (7 : 3, v/v) extract. The extracts showed significant, concentration-dependent ability to scavenge in vivo-relevant radical/oxidant agents (O2 ∙-, OH∙, H2O2, ONOO-, NO∙, and HClO) with the strongest effects towards OH∙, ONOO-, HClO, and O2 ∙- (compared to ascorbic acid). Moreover, the extracts efficiently inhibited lipoxygenase and hyaluronidase (compared to indomethacin) but were inactive towards xanthine oxidase. At in vivo-relevant levels (1-5 µg/mL), they also effectively protected human plasma components (proteins and lipids) against ONOO--induced oxidative damage (reduced the levels of 3-nitrotyrosine, lipid hydroperoxides, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) and normalised/enhanced the total nonenzymatic antioxidant capacity of plasma. In cytotoxicity tests, the extracts did not affect the viability of human PBMCs and might be regarded as safe. The results support the application of the extracts in the treatment of oxidative stress-related pathologies cross-linked with inflammatory changes.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/química , Sorbus/química , Antioxidantes , Humanos , Oxidantes , Oxirredução
10.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 109: 493-502, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30399585

RESUMO

Drug-related hepatotoxicity has become a serious social issue nowadays. Acetaminophen (APAP) was widely used in clinical treatment, although commonly acknowledged that it is a general material that caused drug-related hepatotoxicity. In this study, triterpenoids (Trds) which are mainly composed of ursolic acid and oleanolic acid, were isolated and prepared from fruits of Sorbus pohuashanensis. Further, the effect of Trds against APAP-induced liver injury and the pharmacological mechanism were investigated. The results showed that Trds treatment significantly restrained the increase of serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, as well as evidently reversed the decrease of hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) levels induced by APAP. There are further evidences provided by liver histopathology which demonstrated Trds treatment observably inhibited hepatic tissues necrosis, hemorrhage and infiltration of inflammatory cell induced by APAP. According to the results of western-blot and RT-PCR, the over-expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were inhibited by Trds. Moreover, Trds also effectively restrained APAP-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family signals such as p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). These results demonstrated the liver-protection effects that Trds exhibited were related to its property of anti-oxidantion and anti-inflammation.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/toxicidade , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Sorbus , Triterpenos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Frutas , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
11.
Molecules ; 23(10)2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30309011

RESUMO

Rowanberries have been traditionally used in various processed foods. Scientific research demonstrates the pharmacological effects of Sorbus L. fruits are determined by their unique composition of biologically active compounds. The aim of this study was to determine the composition of flavonoids, phenolic acids, anthocyanins, carotenoids, organic acids and sugars as well as the total antioxidant activity in fruit powders of 20 Sorbus cultivars. Chemical profiles of rowanberry fruit powders vary significantly. Cultivars 'Burka', 'Likernaja', 'Dodong', and 'Fructo Lutea' distinguish themselves with exclusive phytochemical composition and high antioxidant activity. Fruit powders from 'Burka', 'Likernaja' contain the highest contents of anthocyanins while fruit powder samples from 'Fructo Lutea' and 'Dodong' contain the highest levels of phenolic acids, ascorbic acid and the lowest levels of fructose. Fruit powder samples from 'Dodong' also contain the highest levels of ß-carotene and sorbitol and the lowest levels of malic acid. Cultivars 'Burka', 'Likernaja', 'Dodong', and 'Fructo Lutea' could be selected as eligible raw materials for the preparation of rowanberry fruit powders.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Sorbus/química , Antocianinas/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Carotenoides/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Fenóis/análise , Pós , Análise de Componente Principal , Açúcares/análise
12.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 66(8): 839-842, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30068805

RESUMO

From the stem bark of Sorbus commixta, two new phenolic glycosides, sorcomisides A and B (1 and 2), were isolated along with 10 known compounds. The structures of the isolates were determined by analysis of one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR (1D- and 2D-NMR) data and high resolution (HR)-MS, chemical reaction, and computational methods. All the isolated compounds (1-12) were tested for their neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic activities.


Assuntos
Glicosídeos/química , Fenóis/química , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sorbus/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Citotoxinas/química , Citotoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/isolamento & purificação , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Termodinâmica
13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 43(14): 2928-2934, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30111051

RESUMO

The Harpin protein Hpa1 can induce defense responses in plant. This study aimed at investigating the role of jasmonate (JA) signal pathway in the process of biosynthesis of secondary metabolite in Sorbus aucuparia cell eliciting by Hpa1 crude extract (Hpa1 CE). The results showed that Hpa1 crude extract (Hpa1 CE) could induce phytoalexin synthesis in S. aucuparia cell, most of which was noraucuparin and its glycosides. Meanwhile Hpa1 CE treatment resulted in methyl jasmonate (MeJA) production increased and noraucuparin was de novo synthesized in large quantities. Combination of Hpa1 CE and salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM, JA signaling inhibitor) caused the decreased MeJA and noraucuparin in the S. aucuparia cell compared with that in Hpa1 CE group. Real-time PCR results indicated that Hpa1 CE treatment caused down-regulation of JAZ and up-regulation of mcy2 in transcription level. Therefore Hpa1 CE elicited defense mechanism and JA signaling pathway involved in phytoalexin biosynthesis in S. aucuparia cell. It presented information to elucidate the role of JA signal pathway in stress response in the perspective of secondary metabolism of plant.


Assuntos
Sorbus , Acetatos , Ciclopentanos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oxilipinas , Sesquiterpenos , Transdução de Sinais
14.
Ceska Slov Farm ; 67(3): 113-115, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30630328

RESUMO

The quantitative contents of 40 carboxylic acids, with the prevalence of hexadecanedioic, lignocerinic, behenic, azelaic, palmitic and benzoic acids, and 39 components of essential oil were determined in the extracts of the bark of Sorbus aucuparia by the GC-MS method. The quantitative contents of 6 phenolic compounds, i.e., chlorogenic, caffeic, and gallic acids, catechin, quercetin, and apigenin-7-glucoside were determined by the HPLC method in the ethanolic extract of the bark of Sorbus aucuparia. Key words: Sorbus aucuparia bark carboxylic acids phenolic compounds essential oil, GC-MS, HPLC.


Assuntos
Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sorbus/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Fenóis/análise
15.
Photochem Photobiol ; 94(2): 370-377, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29164624

RESUMO

Sorbus commixta is a traditional oriental medicinal plant that grows in East Asian countries such as Korea, Japan and China. The twig of S. commixta has been considered valuable for centuries to treat diseases including asthma, cough and other bronchial disorders. However, the effect of S. commixta twig extract on human skin has not been investigated well. The present study aimed at assessing the antiphotoaging effect of S. commixta twig ethanol extract (STE) on ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) levels and its underlying mechanism in human dermal fibroblasts. In this study, we found that STE (12.5-50 µg mL-1 ) treatment significantly inhibited UVB-induced MMP-1, MMP-2 and MMP-3 expression, concomitant with a downregulation of intracellular ROS generation. These effects might be associated with a STE-induced inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Furthermore, STE also downregulated UVB-induced c-Fos expression in a concentration-dependent manner, but had no inhibitory effect on c-Jun phosphorylation. Taken together, these results indicate that STE may be an antiphotoaging agent and that its effect may occur via its inhibition of MMPs expression and MAPK pathway activation.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Metaloproteinases de Matriz/farmacologia , Protetores contra Radiação/farmacologia , Pele/enzimologia , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Sorbus/química , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Células Cultivadas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fibroblastos/enzimologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Metaloproteinase 1 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 3 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 3 da Matriz/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
16.
Chem Biodivers ; 14(12)2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28845915

RESUMO

Due to its nutritive and medicinal properties, berries of some Sorbus species are used for the preparation of jams and jelly as well as in traditional medicine. On the other hand, their chemical composition is not much studied especially of those grown in Balkan Peninsula. We have analyzed individual phenolics, tocopherols, carotenoids and chlorophylls using HPLC in berries from Sorbus aucuparia and Sorbus aria collected in different localities in Serbia and Montenegro together with the amounts of total phenolics and proanthocyanidins as well as their radical scavenging activity against DPPH radical. Berries of S. aucuparia were richer source of polyphenolics in comparision with S. aria and, regardless the species and locality, caffeoylquinic acids such as neochlorogenic and chlorogenic acid were the most abundant compounds. Among analyzed tocopherols the most abundant in all samples was α-tocopherol (0.48 - 19.85 µg/g dw) as it was ß-carotene among carotenoids (mean concentration of 0.98 µg/g dw in S. aucuparia and 0.40 µg/g dw in S. aria, respectively). Correlation between total phenolics and DPPH radical scavenging activity was noticed. Our study represents comprehensive report on chemical composition of S. aucuparia and S. aria which could contribute to a better understanding of their quality.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Fenóis/química , Sorbus/química , Tocoferóis/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Clorofila/análise , Clorofila/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Sorbus/metabolismo , Tocoferóis/análise
17.
PLoS One ; 12(6): e0179219, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28614366

RESUMO

Sorbus pohuashanensis is a native tree species of northern China that is used for a variety of ecological purposes. The species is often grown as an ornamental landscape tree because of its beautiful form, silver flowers in early summer, attractive pinnate leaves in summer, and red leaves and fruits in autumn. However, development and further utilization of the species are hindered by the lack of comprehensive genetic information, which impedes research into its genetics and molecular biology. Recent advances in de novo transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) technology have provided an effective means to obtain genomic information from non-model species. Here, we applied RNA-seq for sequencing S. pohuashanensis leaves and obtained a total of 137,506 clean reads. After assembly, 96,213 unigenes with an average length of 770 bp were obtained. We found that 64.5% of the unigenes could be annotated using bioinformatics tools to analyze gene function and alignment with the NCBI database. Overall, 59,089 unigenes were annotated using the Nr database(non-redundant protein database), 35,225 unigenes were annotated using the GO (Gene Ontology categories) database, and 33,168 unigenes were annotated using COG (Cluster of Orthologous Groups). Analysis of the unigenes using the KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) database indicated that 13,953 unigenes were involved in 322 metabolic pathways. Finally, simple sequence repeat (SSR) site detection identified 6,604 unigenes that included EST-SSRs and a total of 7,473 EST-SSRs in the unigene sequences. Fifteen polymorphic SSRs were screened and found to be of use for future genetic research. These unigene sequences will provide important genetic resources for genetic improvement and investigation of biochemical processes in S. pohuashanensis.


Assuntos
Etiquetas de Sequências Expressas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Repetições de Microssatélites , Sorbus/genética , DNA de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Folhas de Planta/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos
18.
Int J Mol Med ; 40(2): 483-490, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28586002

RESUMO

Tumor metastasis is a main cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality. Thus, a number of medicinal herbs and phytochemicals have been investigated as possible candidates for the inhibition of cancer metastasis. Sorbus commixta Hedl. (SC) is a traditional medicinal plant used in the treatment of inflammatory diseases, as it has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic and anti-hepatotoxic activities. In this study, we demonstrate that the water extract of SC exerts inhibitory effect on the invasion and migration of hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B cells. The activity and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, which is responsible for the invasion of cancer cells, was decreased by SC treatment. The invasive and migratory potentials of the Hep3B cells were also decreased, as evidence by in vitro assay using the Boyden chamber system. In addition, the expression of the chemokine receptors, C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR)4 and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 6 (CXCR6), were inhibited by SC in Hep3B cells. Furthermore, actin fiber organization was markedly suppressed by SC treatment. Taken together, the findings of this study suggest for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that SC suppresses the invasion and migration of highly metastatic Hep3B cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Invasividade Neoplásica/prevenção & controle , Sorbus , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Receptores de Quimiocinas/genética , Receptores de Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Sorbus/química
19.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 111: 76-86, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28344107

RESUMO

Explaining how plants from eastern Asia migrated to other Northern Hemisphere regions is still challenging. The genus Sorbus sensu stricto (including c. 88 species) is considered as a good example to illuminate this scenario, due to the wide distribution in the temperate zone and high diversity in the Himalayas and Hengduan Mountains. Based on four nuclear markers (LEAFY-2, GBSSI-1, SBEI and WD) and one chloroplast marker (rps16-trnK), we reconstructed the phylogenetic relationship of Sorbus using 54 taxa (60% of the genus representing all subgenera, sections, or series and geographical areas in the previous classifications), and estimated divergence time and historical biogeography of the genus. Phylogenetic analyses supported that the subgenera Sorbus and Albo-carmesinae, as defined by traditional morphological characters (such as fruit color), are suitable. However, five clades defined by phylogenetic analysis of the genus are not consistent with traditionally defined sections or series. Molecular dating and biogeographic reconstruction showed that the age of the most recent common ancestor was estimated at 41mya (95% HPD: 49-35mya) in eastern Asia. Four dispersal events are assumed to explain the wide distribution of Sorbus in the temperate zone and diversification in the edges of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). Species dispersed from eastern Asia to the Tianshan Mountains, North America and Europe during the Oligocene and Miocene period. We found that polyploidization occurred multiple times in the subgenus Albo-carmesinae, in the Tianshan Mountains, Himalayas, and H-D Mountains. Finally, we suggest that apomixis, polyploidization, and hybridization may have combined with the multistage uplifting of Himalayas and H-D Mountains (and the subsequent increases in geologic, ecological and climatic heterogeneity) to drive the striking species diversity of Sorbus in this region.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Filogeografia , Sorbus/classificação , Teorema de Bayes , Núcleo Celular/genética , DNA de Cloroplastos/genética , Fósseis , Funções Verossimilhança , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sorbus/genética , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Sci Rep ; 7: 45122, 2017 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28338049

RESUMO

In plants, apomixis results in the production of clonal offspring via seed and can provide reproductive assurance for isolated individuals. However, many apomicts require pollination to develop functional endosperm for successful seed set (pseudogamy) and therefore risk pollination-limitation, particularly in self-incompatible species that require heterospecific pollen. We used microsatellite paternity analysis and hand pollinations to investigate pollen-limitation in Sorbus subcuneata, a threatened endemic tree that co-occurs with its congener, S. admonitor. We confirmed that S. subcuneata is an obligate pseudogamous apomict, but open-pollinated flowers rarely produced seed (flower-to-seed conversion < 1%) even though they rapidly accumulated pollen on their stigmas. Manual heterospecific pollination by S. admonitor resulted in a high flower-to-seed conversion rate (65%), however, we estimate that the ratio of self: heterospecific pollination in open-pollinated flowers was at least 22:1. Despite the efficacy of heterospecific pollination, the contribution of S. admonitor trees to paternity in seed from open-pollinated flowers of S. subcuneata decreased rapidly with the spatial separation between paternal and maternal trees. Conservation efforts aimed at maintaining species with this breeding system must therefore manage the congeners in tandem which will also maintain the potential for rare heterospecific fertilisation that typically cause rapid diversification in these lineages.


Assuntos
Apomixia , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Sementes/genética , Sorbus/genética , Animais , Insetos/fisiologia , Repetições de Microssatélites , Melhoramento Vegetal , Polinização , Sorbus/fisiologia
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