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1.
Phytochemistry ; 177: 112435, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562919

RESUMO

Two alkaloids were isolated and identified for the first time in the black tubers of Tropaeolum tuberosum, collected from the Titicani-Taca, Ingavi province in La Paz, Bolivia. Their structures were elucidated by extensive NMR and MS spectroscopic analyses. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity and apoptotic capacity against four human cancer cell lines. 2-Benzyl-3-thioxohexahydropyrrolo[1,2-c]imidazole-1-one (1) showed slight cytotoxic activity against all the cancer cell lines which were tested, with IC50 values ranging from 27.45 ± 0.80 to 31.07 ± 0.87 µM. Moreover, N-(4-acetyl-5-methyl-5-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl) acetamide (2) showed significant anti-cancer potential, with IC50 values between 1.26 ± 0.57 µM and 1.37 ± 0.09 µM against all human cancer cell lines which were tested. Treatment of tumour cell lines with the compounds caused an increase in the apoptotic rate of these cells, observing that compound 2 presented an apoptotic effect which was double with respect to the control (Dimethylenastron).


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos , Tropaeolum , Bolívia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos
2.
Food Chem ; 305: 125485, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522126

RESUMO

Mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum) is an important food in certain areas of the Andean region, where it is popularly believed to possess medicinal properties. Several studies have previously shown the potential of this tuber as a source of bioactive compounds. Traditionally, the tuber is exposed to the sun before consumption, in order to reduce its bitterness. The present work aims to study, at the proteome level, the differential abundance of proteins in tubers subjected to different postharvest treatments: sun-exposure (SUN), shade (SHA), refrigeration (COLD) and shade combined with sun-exposure (SHA-SUN) compared to recently harvested tubers (INIT). Results showed that sun exposure for prolonged times (9 days) resulted in increased abundance of proteins classified as heat shock proteins, intracellular traffic, disease/defense and protein degradation. Our results reflect that the sun treatment activates defense systems and osmoprotection adjustment against water loss and reactive oxygen species.


Assuntos
Proteoma/análise , Proteômica/métodos , Tropaeolum/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Temperatura Baixa , Análise Discriminante , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Espectrometria de Massas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Luz Solar
3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112152, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421183

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruíz & Pavón (Tropaeolaceae). Sim (commonly called Mashua) is an indigenous plant that has medicinal values for various ethnic groups of the regions of the Andes mountain range of South America, which use it for the treatment of diseases venereal, lung and skin; for the healing of internal and external wounds; and as an analgesic for kidney and bladder pain. AIM OF THE REVIEW: We critically summarised the current evidence on the botanic characterisation and distribution, ethnopharmacology, secondary metabolites, pharmacological activities, qualitative and quantitative analysis, and toxicology of T. tuberosum. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The relevant information on T. tuberosum was gathered from worldwide accepted scientific databases via electronic search (Google scholar, Elsevier, SciFinder, ScienceDirect, PubMed, SpringerLink, Web of Science, Scopus, Wiley Online, Mendeley, Scielo and Dialnet electronic databases). Information was also obtained from the literature and books as well as PhD and MSc dissertations. Plant names were validated by 'The Plant List' (www.theplantlist.org). RESULTS: T. tuberosum has diverse uses in local and popular medicine, specifically for relieving pain and infections in humans. Regarding its biological activities, polar extracts (aqueous, hydroalcoholic) and isolated compounds from the tubers have exhibited a wide range of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological effects, including antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activities. Quantitative analysis (e.g., NMR, HPLC, GC-MS) indicated the presence of a set of secondary metabolites, including hydroxybenzoic acids, tannins, flavanols, anthocyanins, glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, phytosterols, fatty acids and alkamides in the tubers of T. tuberosum. Likewise, glucosinolates have been identified in the seeds and isothiocyanates have been detected in leaves, flowers and seeds. CONCLUSIONS: T. tuberosum has been tested for various biological activities and the extracts (tubers in particular) demonstrated a promising potential as an antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and inhibitors of benign prostatic hyperplasia. A lack of alignment between the ethno-medicinal uses and existing biological screenings was observed, indicating the need to explore its potential for the treatment against respiratory affections, urinary affections and blood diseases. Likewise, it is necessary to analyse deeply the relationship that exists between the different tuber colours of T. tuberosum and its use for the treatment of certain diseases. Validation of clinical studies of the antibacterial, antioxidant/anti-inflammatory, anti-spermatogenic activities and as inhibitors of benign prostatic hyperplasia is required. Moreover, studies on the toxicity, bioavailability, and pharmacokinetics, in addition to clinical trials, are indispensable for assessing the safety and efficacy of the active metabolites or extracts obtained from T. tuberosum. Other areas that need investigation are the development of future applications based on their active metabolites, such as neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease). Finally, the work purposes to motivate other research groups to carry out a series of scientific studies that can fill the gaps that exist with respect to Mashua properties, and thus be able to change the focus of T. tuberosum (Mashua) that currently has in the consumer society.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Tropaeolum/química , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Tubérculos/química , América do Sul
4.
Food Chem ; 301: 125268, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394333

RESUMO

Morphological, technological and nutritional analyses were done in two scarcely studied starches from Andean tubers (mashua and melloco). The low sedimentation values, and the high zeta potential of mashua and melloco starches in cold dispersions, as consequence of their electronegativity, indicated a better behaviour as stabilizer than potato starch. During heating, mashua and melloco starches presented much higher viscosity than potato starch, associated with their higher average particle size and greater amylose content. DSC and TGA analyses indicated that melloco starch had the highest gelatinization enthalpy ΔHgel (12.32 J g-1) and degradation temperature (270 °C), in comparison with potato starch, which are indicators of a better thermal resistance. Consequently, extracted mashua and melloco starches could be excellent and cost-effective thickening or gelling agents in both foods and a wide range of biomaterials. Mashua and melloco starches exhibited a digestion rate close to 80%, which agreed with the low resistant starch content.


Assuntos
Caryophyllales/química , Farinha/análise , Amido/análise , Tropaeolum/química , Amilose/análise , Equador , Amido/química , Amido/metabolismo , Temperatura , Viscosidade
5.
New Phytol ; 224(2): 700-711, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400160

RESUMO

Lysophosphatidate acyltransferase (LPAAT) catalyses the second step of the Kennedy pathway for triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis. In this study we expressed Trapaeolum majus LPAAT in Brassica napus (B. napus) cv 12075 to evaluate the effects on lipid synthesis and estimate the flux control coefficient for LPAAT. We estimated the flux control coefficient of LPAAT in a whole plant context by deriving a relationship between it and overall lipid accumulation, given that this process is a exponential. Increasing LPAAT activity resulted in greater TAG accumulation in seeds of between 25% and 29%; altered fatty acid distributions in seed lipids (particularly those of the Kennedy pathway); and a redistribution of label from 14 C-glycerol between phosphoglycerides. Greater LPAAT activity in seeds led to an increase in TAG content despite its low intrinsic flux control coefficient on account of the exponential nature of lipid accumulation that amplifies the effect of the small flux increment achieved by increasing its activity. We have also developed a novel application of metabolic control analysis likely to have broad application as it determines the in planta flux control that a single component has upon accumulation of storage products.


Assuntos
Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Brassica napus/enzimologia , Sementes/química , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Aciltransferases/genética , Brassica napus/metabolismo , DNA de Plantas , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Triglicerídeos/química , Tropaeolum/enzimologia , Tropaeolum/genética
6.
Bioinspir Biomim ; 14(4): 046011, 2019 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121570

RESUMO

In this study we aim to show how the peltate leaves of Colocasia fallax Schott and Tropaeolum majus L., despite their compact design, achieve a rigid connection between petiole and lamina. We have combined various microscopy techniques and computed tomography (CT) scanning for the analysis of the basic structure of the plant's stabilization system. Mechanical tests yielded key mechanical parameters and allowed us to assess the mode of failure. The results of the tests were further processed in a finite element method (FEM) analysis. We were able to show that both plants are able to endure high loads irrespective of the different composition of the supporting structure. C. fallax forms many separate branched strands, whereas T. majus forms fewer strands of greater diameter interconnected in the centre of the transition area, forming a bundle of irregular orientation. This results in different ways to dissipate loads on the lamina. In C. fallax we observed the outer strands of the strengthening tissue under high stress while the inner bundle carries little load. In T. majus the load is distributed more evenly through the juncture in the middle of the transition area. Potential applications include the construction of biomimetical flying roofs.


Assuntos
Colocasia/ultraestrutura , Folhas de Planta/ultraestrutura , Tropaeolum/ultraestrutura , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
7.
Plant Mol Biol ; 100(1-2): 181-197, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868545

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: The knowledge of substrate specificity of XET enzymes is important for the general understanding of metabolic pathways to challenge the established notion that these enzymes operate uniquely on cellulose-xyloglucan networks. Xyloglucan xyloglucosyl transferases (XETs) (EC 2.4.1.207) play a central role in loosening and re-arranging the cellulose-xyloglucan network, which is assumed to be the primary load-bearing structural component of plant cell walls. The sequence of mature TmXET6.3 from Tropaeolum majus (280 residues) was deduced by the nucleotide sequence analysis of complete cDNA by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends, based on tryptic and chymotryptic peptide sequences. Partly purified TmXET6.3, expressed in Pichia occurred in N-glycosylated and unglycosylated forms. The quantification of hetero-transglycosylation activities of TmXET6.3 revealed that (1,3;1,4)-, (1,6)- and (1,4)-ß-D-glucooligosaccharides were the preferred acceptor substrates, while (1,4)-ß-D-xylooligosaccharides, and arabinoxylo- and glucomanno-oligosaccharides were less preferred. The 3D model of TmXET6.3, and bioinformatics analyses of identified and putative plant xyloglucan endotransglycosylases (XETs)/hydrolases (XEHs) of the GH16 family revealed that H94, A104, Q108, K234 and K237 were the key residues that underpinned the acceptor substrate specificity of TmXET6.3. Compared to the wild-type enzyme, the single Q108R and K237T, and double-K234T/K237T and triple-H94Q/A104D/Q108R variants exhibited enhanced hetero-transglycosylation activities with xyloglucan and (1,4)-ß-D-glucooligosaccharides, while those with (1,3;1,4)- and (1,6)-ß-D-glucooligosaccharides were suppressed; the incorporation of xyloglucan to (1,4)-ß-D-glucooligosaccharides by the H94Q variant was influenced most extensively. Structural and biochemical data of non-specific TmXET6.3 presented here extend the classic XET reaction mechanism by which these enzymes operate in plant cell walls. The evaluations of TmXET6.3 transglycosylation activities and the incidence of investigated residues in other members of the GH16 family suggest that a broad acceptor substrate specificity in plant XET enzymes could be more widespread than previously anticipated.


Assuntos
Glicosiltransferases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Engenharia de Proteínas , Sementes/enzimologia , Tropaeolum/enzimologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , DNA Complementar/genética , Germinação , Glicosilação , Glicosiltransferases/química , Modelos Moleculares , Petroselinum/enzimologia , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Homologia Estrutural de Proteína , Especificidade por Substrato
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 235: 199-205, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753883

RESUMO

ETHNO-PHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tropaeolum tuberosum, commonly known as "Mashua", is one of the plants most frequently used by Andean (Peruvian-Bolivian) people as food and medicine. It is used as a remedy against a wide range of diseases, especially those related with inflammation. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to identify compounds active against inflammatory related conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A bioassay-guided isolation of anti-inflammatory compounds from black and purple tubers of T. tuberosum was performed measuring TNF-α and NF-κB production in THP-1 monocytic cells. RESULTS: The bioassay-guided isolation led to one active compound from purple T. tuberosum, N-oleoyldopamine (1), and another active compound from black T. tuberosum, N-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z-docosatetraenamide (2). Both compounds displayed anti-TNF-α activity with IC50 values of 3.12 ±â€¯0.19 µM and 1.56 ±â€¯0.15 µM, respectively. Also, both compounds suppressed NF-κB with IC50 of 3.54 ±â€¯0.02 µM and 1.77 ±â€¯0.07 µM, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We identified bioactive compounds from purple and black Tropaeolum tuberosum responsible for their anti-inflammatory activity: N-oleoyldopamine (1) and N-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z-docosatetraenamide (2). This is the first report which isolates these compounds from T. tuberosum and describes their anti-inflammatory activities.


Assuntos
Amidas/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Tropaeolum/química , Amidas/administração & dosagem , Amidas/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , NF-kappa B/administração & dosagem , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
9.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 191: 65-74, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30594044

RESUMO

Eco-friendly biosynthesis of nanoparticles from medicinal plants as reducing agent has gained importance due to its potential therapeutic uses. In the present study Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were eco-friendly synthesized using the leaf extracts of the medicinal plant Tropaeolum majus. The obtained AgNPs were characterized by UV - visible spectrum, FTIR, SEM and XRD which clearly showed the reduction of Ag+ ions to Ag0. In addition, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts were analyzed for phytochemicals and its antioxidant activities. GC-MS spectrum showed the presence of 25 compounds with benzeneacetic acid as the dominant contents. The synthesized AgNPs revealed maximum absorption spectrum at 463 nm and FTIR vibrational peaks at 3357.46, 21,966.52, 2118.42, 1637.27, 658.571 and 411.728 cm-1 respectively. SEM and XRD studies evidenced the nature of nanocrystalline with face centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure. Both AgNPs and plant extracts showed more inhibition activity against Pseudomonas aeroginosa compared to other bacteria with MIC value of 6.25 µg/ml. Antifungal activities was higher for Penicilium notatum with MIC value 31.2 µg/ml. The IC50 values for MCF7 for aqueous extract were found to be 4.68 µg/ml, ethanol extract 7.5 µg/ml, AgNPs 2.49 µg/ml, and doxorubicin 1.4 µg/ml. The IC50 values for VERO cell line for aqueous extract was 8.1 µg/ml, ethanol extract with 6.8 µg/ml, silver nanoparticles 5.3 µg/ml and doxorubicin 2.6 µg/ml respectively. Conclusively, the antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant and anticancer properties of the synthesized AgNPs from Tropaeolum majus act as major therapeutic drug for microbial infectious disease and other health associated disorders.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Tropaeolum/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Química Verde , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Prata/química , Células Vero
10.
J Physiol Pharmacol ; 69(3)2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30279303

RESUMO

Tropaeolum majus L. (T. majus) or nasturtium is a medicinal plant widespread in the areas with temperate climate, commonly used in culinary and in traditional medicine due to therapeutic properties. In the last few years, various effects of the flowers and leaves of this plant have been studied, but their benefits are not fully known. The aim of the study was to identify the phenolic compounds from T. majus edible flowers in relation with its antioxidant capacity and the antimicrobial activity against different bacteria and Candida albicans. In addition, the impact of natural extract on oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis was analysed on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to normotonic and hypertonic conditions. The major phenolic acids, identified by HPLC-RP with UV detection, were gallic acid, caffeic acid and p-coumaric and predominant flavonoids were quercetin, epicatechin and luteolin. The both fractions of T. majus were rich sources of polyphenols with marked antioxidant activity, evidenced by TEAC or DPPH methods. The extract exhibited a week antibacterial effect on some strains of streptococcus, without antifungal or antibacterial effect on gram negative bacteria. T. majus extract increased the p53 and Bcl-2 expressions and diminished the DNA lesions indicating the protective and antiapoptotic effects in vitro, on endothelial cells exposed to hyperosmotic stress. These experimental findings suggest that T. majus can exert some protection against bacterial infections and reduce apoptosis and DNA lesions in hypertonic conditions.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Tropaeolum , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Dano ao DNA , Flores , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Pressão Osmótica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
11.
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig ; 69(2): 119-126, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29766690

RESUMO

The garden nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus L.) belongs to the family Tropaeolaceae. Native to South America it was brought to Europe in XVI century. It is a plant with numerous healing properties. Medicinal plants such as the garden nasturtium contain trace elements and bioactive compounds which can be easily absorbed by the human body. The flowers and other parts of the garden nasturtium are a good source of micro elements such as potassium, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium, and macro elements, especially of zinc, copper and iron. The essential oil, the extract from the flowers and leaves, and the compounds isolated from these elements have antimicrobial, antifungal, hypotensive, expectorant and anticancer effects. Antioxidant activity of extracts from garden nasturtium is an effect of its high content of compounds such as anthocyanins, polyphenols and vitamin C. Due to its rich phytochemical content and unique elemental composition, the garden nasturtium may be used in the treatment of many diseases for example the illnesses of the respiratory and digestive systems. High content of erucic acid in nasturtium seeds makes it possible to use its oil as treatment in adrenoleukodystrophy. It is also applied in dermatology because it improves the condition of skin and hair. More recently, the flowers of this species have been used as a decorative and edible element of some types of dishes. Aim of the review was to summarize available data concerning garden nasturtium Tropaeolum majus L.


Assuntos
Flores/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Oligoelementos/química , Tropaeolum/química , Antioxidantes/química , Humanos
12.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 90(2): 1775-1787, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29694497

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to characterize the nutritional compounds of interest present in vegetables known as non-conventional, in Brazil. The following evaluations were carried out: antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds, vitamin C, calories, carbohydrates, humidity, lipids, proteins, fiber, acidity and quantification of minerals (P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn and B). The species studied were Amaranthus hybridus L., Amaranthus viridis L., Basella alba L., Eryngium campestre L., Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Lactuca canadensis L., Rumex acetosa L., Stachys byzantina K. Koch, Tropaeolum majus L. and Xanthosoma sagittifolium L. Representative samples of plant structures of interest were harvested from each species suitable for human consumption such as leaves, flowers and flower buds. The results were submitted to multivariate analysis - principal components analysis (PCA). All the species present nutritional compounds of interest in different levels among the evaluated structures.


Assuntos
Flores/química , Magnoliopsida/química , Valor Nutritivo , Brotos de Planta/química , Verduras/química , Amaranthus/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Brasil , Caryophyllales/química , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Eryngium/química , Hibiscus/química , Minerais/análise , Fenóis/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Rumex/química , Stachys/química , Tropaeolum/química , Xanthosoma/química
13.
J Med Food ; 20(5): 519-525, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28375765

RESUMO

Tropaeolum majus L. (Tropaeolaceae), commonly known as nasturtium, is an important edible plant native to the Andean States and widely disseminated throughout South America. Despite the use of this species is quite widespread, there are no minimum quality control standards or data on its genotoxicity. So, the aim of this study was to present a detailed anatomical and histochemical study for Tropaeolum majus and provide genotoxicity parameters of a preparation routinely used in South American countries. First, three different Tropaeolum majus aqueous extracts (TMAEs) at concentrations of 1.5%, 7%, and 15% were prepared according to the popular use. Then, genetic toxicity of TMAE was evaluated on bacterial reverse mutation, genomic lesions, and micronucleus formation in male rats. Furthermore, a detailed anatomical and histochemical study of the leaves and stems of Tropaeolum majus were performed. No revertant colonies were found in any bacterial cultures examined. In the comet assay, TMAE showed no significant DNA damage in all tested doses. Micronucleus assay showed no significant increases in the frequency of inducing micronuclei in any dose examined. Light and electron microscope images of cross-section of leaves and stems from Tropaeolum majus revealed useful diagnostic features. The presented data showed significant safety parameters for the use of TMAE and provided important data for the quality control of this plant species.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/química , Tropaeolum/química , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Masculino , Testes para Micronúcleos , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/toxicidade , Ratos , América do Sul , Tropaeolum/toxicidade
14.
Drug Chem Toxicol ; 40(3): 281-285, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27482986

RESUMO

The prevalence of the use of herbal medicines is on the rise across the world, especially amongst pregnant women. A fact that draws attention is that many species commonly used by pregnant women, including the Tropaeolum majus L. (Tropaeolaceae), also present inhibitory activity on the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Herein, we have investigated the effects of T. majus extract (HETM) on fetal development, evaluating its relationship with possible ACE inhibitory activity. Pregnant Wistar rats were treated with different HETM doses (3, 30 and 300 mg/kg/day) from gestational days 8-20. Rats were sacrificed on the day 20 of pregnancy and the following parameters were evaluated: clinical symptoms of maternal toxicity; maternal body weight; feed and water intake; maternal liver, kidney, and ovary weights, maternal ACE activity and aldosterone levels, live fetuses mean; dead fetuses percentage, fetus weight, and fetal malformation. All pregnant rats treated with high HETM doses showed significant reduction in plasma ACE activity accompanied by a decrease in serum aldosterone levels. Moreover, significant changes in fetal development were observed, including growth retardation and renal damage after 20 days of gestation. Thus, data presented demonstrate the significant effects of the use of HETM on fetal development during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos/etiologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/toxicidade , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/induzido quimicamente , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Tropaeolum/química , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Gravidez , Ratos Wistar
15.
PLoS One ; 11(9): e0162397, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27622707

RESUMO

Nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus L.) contains high concentrations of benzylglcosinolate. We found that a hydrolysis product of benzyl glucosinolate-the benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC)-modulates the intracellular localization of the transcription factor Forkhead box O 1 (FOXO1). FoxO transcription factors can antagonize insulin effects and trigger a variety of cellular processes involved in tumor suppression, longevity, development and metabolism. The current study evaluated the ability of BITC-extracted as intact glucosinolate from nasturtium and hydrolyzed with myrosinase-to modulate i) the insulin-signaling pathway, ii) the intracellular localization of FOXO1 and, iii) the expression of proteins involved in gluconeogenesis, antioxidant response and detoxification. Stably transfected human osteosarcoma cells (U-2 OS) with constitutive expression of FOXO1 protein labeled with GFP (green fluorescent protein) were used to evaluate the effect of BITC on FOXO1. Human hepatoma HepG2 cell cultures were selected to evaluate the effect on gluconeogenic, antioxidant and detoxification genes and protein expression. BITC reduced the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT/PKB) and FOXO1; promoted FOXO1 translocation from cytoplasm into the nucleus antagonizing the insulin effect; was able to down-regulate the gene and protein expression of gluconeogenic enzymes; and induced the gene expression of antioxidant and detoxification enzymes. Knockdown analyses with specific siRNAs showed that the expression of gluconeogenic genes was dependent on nuclear factor (erythroid derived)-like2 (NRF2) and independent of FOXO1, AKT and NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-1 (SIRT1). The current study provides evidence that BITC might have a role in type 2 diabetes T2D by reducing hepatic glucose production and increasing antioxidant resistance.


Assuntos
Gluconeogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Gluconeogênese/genética , Tiocianatos/farmacologia , Tioglucosídeos/farmacologia , Tropaeolum/química , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/genética , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Gluconeogênese/fisiologia , Glucose-6-Fosfatase/genética , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Isotiocianatos/química , Isotiocianatos/farmacologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxiquinase (ATP)/genética , Plantas Medicinais/química , Transporte Proteico/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Sirtuína 1/genética , Tiocianatos/química , Tioglucosídeos/química
16.
Phytomedicine ; 23(6): 611-20, 2016 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27161402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nasturtium (Indian cress, Tropaeolum majus) is known for its pharmacological value in the treatment of bacterial infections of the upper air tract and urinary bladder. However, scientific data on the anti-inflammatory potency in human-derived cells is missing. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of nasturtium to inhibit the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammatory response in primary human cells of the immune system. STUDY DESIGN: The anti-inflammatory activities of nasturtium and its fractions were evaluated via regulation of arachidonic acid (AA) pathway and MAPK kinase cascade. Fraction H4 which was responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects was further characterized. METHODS: Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were either treated with plant extracts or fractions thereof, stimulated with LPS and/or N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) and analysed for COX and LOX, release of prostaglandin PGE2, leukotriene LTB4, TNF-alpha and ERK signaling pathway activation. The plant extracts were separated into four fractions by HPLC; fraction H4 was subjected to UHPLC-ToF/MS analysis to identify potential bioactive compounds. RESULTS: We found that aqueous extracts of nasturtium did exert strong concentration dependent suppression of LPS-triggered TNF-alpha release and COX pathway signaling, including PGE2 synthesis. Whereas COX-1 protein expression was not impacted, LPS-triggered COX-2 protein expression was concentration dependently blocked by the plant extract but not COX-2 enzyme activity. These findings suggest a mechanism of action for the plant extract which is different from non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Moreover, the plant extract blocked leukotriene LTB4 release, the major end product of the 5-LOX pathway from PBMC. Down-regulation of ERK1/2 and c-Jun activation preceded COX-2 suppression upon plant extract treatment in the presence of LPS. Using HPLC separation of the aqueous extract followed by metabolomic analysis we could limit the number of relevant bioactive compounds in the extract to about 50. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a rationale for the anti-inflammatory efficacy of nasturtium observed in man and gives first insight into the underlying molecular mechanisms.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Nasturtium/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Tropaeolum/química
17.
Molecules ; 21(5)2016 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27136515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tropaeolum pentaphyllum Lam. tubers (Tropaeolaceae) are known and used as a condiment and for the treatment of skin infections in Southern Brazil. However, its activity and composition has not yet been investigated. Thus, different extracts and the essential oil from the tubers were tested against a range of microorganisms. The most active extracts were submitted to chromatographic analysis. METHODS: Hydroalcoholic extract (70%), fractions of it, and the essential oil from the tubers were tested against several bacteria, yeasts and molds, furnishing the corresponding inhibitory, bactericidal and fungicidal minimal concentration values. The most active extracts were submitted to GC-MS investigation. RESULTS: The strongest effects against different strains of microorganisms, such as Gram-positive and negative bacteria, Candida spp. and dermatophytes were observed for the essential oil and the chloroform fraction, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) well below 200 µg/mL. GC-MS analysis revealed that the major essential oil constituent is benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), while the chloroform fraction is constituted of BITC, amides, sulfur, fatty acids and its esters, all compounds that may be related to the demonstrated activity. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the results support the popular use of the plant for the treatment of skin infections, and revealed the main active compounds.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Tubérculos/química , Tropaeolum/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Leveduras/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
J Sci Food Agric ; 96(14): 4702-4712, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26919585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The content of individual and total glucosinolates in 65 mashua tuber accessions (Tropaeolum tuberosum) from the germplasm bank at Universidad Nacional de Colombia was determined by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography on enzymatically desulfated extracts. The predominant glucosinolate was identified and the possible structure of the glucosinolate present in lower proportion was postulated from evidence obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, 1 H and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance and bi-dimensional experiments. The biological action of the hydrolysis products generated from the glucosinolates in the accessions that showed a higher content of these compounds was assessed in the presence of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi, Rhizoctonia solani and Phytophthora infestans. RESULTS: The total content of glucosinolates ranged between >3.00 × 10-1 and 25.8 µmol g-1 dry matter. p-Methoxybenzyl glucosinolate was identified as the predominant glucosinolate in Colombian mashua accessions; besides, the possible presence of p-hydroxybenzyl glucosinolate was postulated. In vitro assays established an important fungal growth inhibition of the potato pathogen P. infestans. CONCLUSION: The biological action from p-methoxybenzyl glucosinolate and p-hydroxybenzyl glucosinolate found in Colombian mashua accessions depends on their concentration, with the Tt30 accession, characterized for showing the highest content of glucosinolates, being the most promising to control the assessed pathogens. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosinolatos/química , Glucosinolatos/farmacologia , Tropaeolum/química , Antifúngicos/química , Configuração de Carboidratos , Colômbia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Solanum tuberosum/microbiologia , Tropaeolum/genética , Tropaeolum/metabolismo
19.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 60(3): 652-60, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26610401

RESUMO

SCOPE: Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), which occurs in Brassicales, has demonstrated chemopreventive potency and cancer treatment properties in cell and animal studies. However, fate of BITC in human body is not comprehensively studied. Therefore, the present human intervention study investigates the metabolism of the glucosinolate (GSL) glucotropaeolin and its corresponding BITC metabolites. Analyzing BITC metabolites in plasma and urine should reveal insights about resorption, metabolism, and excretion. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifteen healthy men were randomly recruited for a cross-over study and consumed 10 g freeze-dried Indian cress as a liquid preparation containing 1000 µmol glucotropaeolin. Blood and urine samples were taken at several time points and investigated by LC-ESI-MS/MS after sample preparation using SPE. Plasma contained high levels of BITC-glutathione (BITC-GSH), BITC-cysteinylglycine (BITC-CysGly), and BITC-N-acetyl-L-cysteine (BITC-NAC) 1-5 h after ingestion, with BITC-CysGly appearing as the main metabolite. Compared to human plasma, the main urinary metabolites were BITC-NAC and BITC-Cys, determined 4-6 h after ingestion. CONCLUSION: This study confirms that consumption of Indian cress increases the concentration of BITC metabolites in human plasma and urine. The outcome of this human intervention study supports clinical research dealing with GSL-containing innovative food products or pharmaceutical preparations.


Assuntos
Tiocianatos/farmacocinética , Tioglucosídeos/farmacocinética , Tropaeolum , Disponibilidade Biológica , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Isotiocianatos/farmacocinética , Masculino , Experimentação Humana não Terapêutica , Distribuição Aleatória , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Tiocianatos/metabolismo , Tioglucosídeos/metabolismo , Tropaeolum/química
20.
Biomacromolecules ; 16(7): 2157-67, 2015 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26068019

RESUMO

Xyloglucan XG (molecular weight 462 kDa, 1,4-/1,4,6-(pGlc) linked backbone, side chains of 1-pXyl, 1,2-pXyl, 1-p-Gal) was isolated from the seeds of Tropaeolum majus. XG (100 µg/mL) induced terminal cellular differentiation of human keratinocytes, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence staining and Western blot using cytokeratin 10 and involucrin as marker proteins. Differentiation was also induced by XG-derived oligosaccharides (degree of polymerization 7-9). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) revealed the induction of gene expression of typical differentiation markers (cytokeratin, filaggrin, involucrin, loricrin, transglutaminase) in a time-dependent manner. Whole human genome microarray indicated that most of upregulated genes were related to differentiation processes. Microarray findings on selected genes were subsequently confirmed by qPCR. For identification of the molecular target of xyloglucan PAGE of keratinocyte membrane preparations was performed, followed by blotting with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled XG. XG interacting proteins were characterized by MS. Peptide fragments of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and integrin ß4 were identified. Subsequent phospho-kinase array indicated that phosphorylation of EGFR and transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) was decreased in the XG-treated cells. Thus, the XG-induced differentiation of keratinocytes is proposed to be mediated by the inhibition of the phosphorylation of EGFR, leading to a dimished CREB activation, which is essential for the activation of cellular differentiation.


Assuntos
Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Glucanos/farmacologia , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Tropaeolum/química , Xilanos/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Queratinócitos/citologia , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/química
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