Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 7 de 7
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Filtros aplicados
Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Trends Microbiol ; 25(2): 92-99, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27876182

RESUMO

Newly erupted black smokers (hydrothermal vent chimneys) are sterile during their formation, but they house hyperthermophiles in substantial amounts in later stages. No hard data exist on the mechanisms by which hyperthermophiles colonize newly erupted black smokers. Here I propose a scenario - based on various experimental data - for how hyperthermophiles colonize black smokers. Hyperthermophiles which are present in cold sea water in minute amounts are transferred by chance to the outside of black smokers and react within seconds to the high temperature by very fast movements. After reaching an optimal temperature region they scan the surface via a zigzag seek-movement and adhere via their flagella at a suitable place, building up biofilms.


Assuntos
Aderência Bacteriana/fisiologia , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flagelos/fisiologia , Fontes Hidrotermais/microbiologia , Desulfurococcales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desulfurococcales/isolamento & purificação , Epsilonproteobacteria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Epsilonproteobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Temperatura Alta , Mathanococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mathanococcus/isolamento & purificação , Movimento/fisiologia , Thermococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Thermococcus/isolamento & purificação
2.
Environ Microbiol ; 17(5): 1600-14, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25142282

RESUMO

Archaea can respond to changes in the environment by altering the composition of their membrane lipids, for example, by modification of the abundance and composition of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs). Here, we investigated the abundance and proportions of polar GDGTs (P-GDGTs) and core GDGTs (C-GDGTs) sampled in different seasons from Tengchong hot springs (Yunnan, China), which encompassed a pH range of 2.5-10.1 and a temperature range of 43.7-93.6°C. The phylogenetic composition of the archaeal community (reanalysed from published work) divided the Archaea in spring sediment samples into three major groups that corresponded with spring pH: acidic, circumneutral and alkaline. Cluster analysis showed correlation between spring pH and the composition of P- and C-GDGTs and archaeal 16S rRNA genes, indicating an intimate link between resident Archaea and the distribution of P- and C-GDGTs in Tengchong hot springs. The distribution of GDGTs in Tengchong springs was also significantly affected by temperature; however, the relationship was weaker than with pH. Analysis of published datasets including samples from Tibet, Yellowstone and the US Great Basin hot springs revealed a similar relationship between pH and GDGT content. Specifically, low pH springs had higher concentrations of GDGTs with high numbers of cyclopentyl rings than neutral and alkaline springs, which is consistent with the predominance of high cyclopentyl ring-characterized Sulfolobales and Thermoplasmatales present in some of the low pH springs. Our study suggests that the resident Archaea in these hot springs are acclimated if not adapted to low pH by their genetic capacity to effect the packing density of their membranes by increasing cyclopentyl rings in GDGTs at the rank of community.


Assuntos
Archaea/metabolismo , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Éteres de Glicerila/metabolismo , Fontes Termais/microbiologia , Lipídeos de Membrana/metabolismo , Archaea/genética , Desulfurococcales/genética , Desulfurococcales/isolamento & purificação , Meio Ambiente , Éteres de Glicerila/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lipídeos de Membrana/análise , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Estações do Ano , Microbiologia do Solo , Sulfolobales/genética , Sulfolobales/isolamento & purificação , Temperatura , Thermoplasmales/genética , Thermoplasmales/isolamento & purificação , Tibet
3.
PLoS One ; 8(3): e59927, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23555835

RESUMO

To characterize high-temperature cellulolytic microbial communities, two lignocellulosic substrates, ammonia fiber-explosion-treated corn stover and aspen shavings, were incubated at average temperatures of 77 and 85°C in the sediment and water column of Great Boiling Spring, Nevada. Comparison of 109,941 quality-filtered 16S rRNA gene pyrosequences (pyrotags) from eight enrichments to 37,057 quality-filtered pyrotags from corresponding natural samples revealed distinct enriched communities dominated by phylotypes related to cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic Thermotoga and Dictyoglomus, cellulolytic and sugar-fermenting Desulfurococcales, and sugar-fermenting and hydrogenotrophic Archaeoglobales. Minor enriched populations included close relatives of hydrogenotrophic Thermodesulfobacteria, the candidate bacterial phylum OP9, and candidate archaeal groups C2 and DHVE3. Enrichment temperature was the major factor influencing community composition, with a negative correlation between temperature and richness, followed by lignocellulosic substrate composition. This study establishes the importance of these groups in the natural degradation of lignocellulose at high temperatures and suggests that a substantial portion of the diversity of thermophiles contributing to consortial cellulolysis may be contained within lineages that have representatives in pure culture.


Assuntos
Genes Arqueais , Fontes Termais/microbiologia , Lignina/química , Consórcios Microbianos/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Archaeoglobales/genética , Biodiversidade , Desulfurococcales/genética , Temperatura Alta , Nevada , Filogenia , Polissacarídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Árvores/microbiologia , Água/química , Microbiologia da Água , Zea mays/microbiologia
4.
Extremophiles ; 16(2): 317-31, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22311159

RESUMO

The majority of microorganisms in natural environments resist laboratory cultivation. Sometimes referred to as 'unculturable', many phylogenetic groups are known only by fragments of recovered DNA. As a result, the ecological significance of whole branches of the 'tree of life' remains a mystery; this is particularly true when regarding genetic material retrieved from extreme environments. Geochemically relevant media have been used to improve the success of culturing Archaea and Bacteria, but these efforts have focused primarily on optimizing pH, alkalinity, major ions, carbon sources, and electron acceptor-donor pairs. Here, we cultured thermophilic microorganisms from 'Sylvan Spring' (Yellowstone National Park, USA) on media employing different trace element solutions, including one that mimicked the source fluid of the inocula. The growth medium that best simulated trace elements found in 'Sylvan Spring' produced a more diverse and faster growing mixed culture than media containing highly elevated trace element concentrations. The elevated trace element medium produced fewer phylotypes and inhibited growth. Trace element concentrations appear to influence growth conditions in extreme environments. Incorporating geochemical data into cultivation attempts may improve culturing success.


Assuntos
Archaea/genética , Desulfurococcales/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/análise , Archaea/metabolismo , Carbono/química , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Química/métodos , DNA/química , DNA/genética , Ecologia , Elétrons , Geologia/métodos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Íons , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão/métodos , Oxirredução , Filogenia , Sais/química , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo , Wyoming
5.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 73(20): 6669-77, 2007 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17720836

RESUMO

Elemental sulfur (S(0)) is associated with many geochemically diverse hot springs, yet little is known about the phylogeny, physiology, and ecology of the organisms involved in its cycling. Here we report the isolation, characterization, and ecology of two novel, S(0)-reducing Crenarchaea from an acid geothermal spring referred to as Dragon Spring. Isolate 18U65 grows optimally at 70 to 72 degrees C and at pH 2.5 to 3.0, while isolate 18D70 grows optimally at 81 degrees C and pH 3.0. Both isolates are chemoorganotrophs, dependent on complex peptide-containing carbon sources, S(0), and anaerobic conditions for respiration-dependent growth. Glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) containing four to six cyclopentyl rings were present in the lipid fraction of isolates 18U65 and 18D70. Physiological characterization suggests that the isolates are adapted to the physicochemical conditions of Dragon Spring and can utilize the natural organic matter in the spring as a carbon and energy source. Quantitative PCR analysis of 16S rRNA genes associated with the S(0) flocs recovered from several acid geothermal springs using isolate-specific primers indicates that these two populations together represent 17 to 37% of the floc-associated DNA. The physiological characteristics of isolates 18U65 and 18D70 are consistent with their potential widespread distribution and putative role in the cycling of sulfur in acid geothermal springs throughout the Yellowstone National Park geothermal complex. Based on phenotypic and genetic characterization, the designations Caldisphaera draconis sp. nov. and Acidilobus sulfurireducens sp. nov. are proposed for isolates 18U65 and 18D70, respectively.


Assuntos
Desulfurococcales , Ecossistema , Fontes Termais/química , Fontes Termais/microbiologia , Enxofre/metabolismo , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Cloretos/análise , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Desulfurococcales/classificação , Desulfurococcales/genética , Desulfurococcales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desulfurococcales/isolamento & purificação , Genótipo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sulfatos/análise , Wyoming
6.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 56(Pt 5): 965-71, 2006 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16627639

RESUMO

Consortia containing a novel coccus-shaped, anaerobic heterotroph together with Pyrobaculum rods were cultivated from geothermal environments in New Zealand. Pure cultures of the cocci were only obtained from one such consortium, despite extensive attempts. Cells of this strain (AQ1.S1T) were regular to irregular cocci in morphology and occasionally formed large aggregates, especially when utilizing polysaccharides such as konjac glucomannan as a carbon source. Strain AQ1.S1T is a hyperthermophile, with an optimal temperature for growth between 92 and 95 degrees C (range 85-98 degrees C), and a moderate acidophile, with optimal growth occurring at pH 6.4 (range 5.4-7.0). Growth was inhibited by the addition of sulphur and NaCl (optimal growth occurred without addition of NaCl) and an electron acceptor was not required. Strain AQ1.S1T utilized starch, trypticase peptone, lactose, glucose, konjac glucomannan, mannose, galactose, maltose, glycogen and beta-cyclodextrin as carbon sources. The G+C content was 52.9 mol%. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and physiological features it is proposed that isolate AQ1.S1T (=DSM 17230T=JCM 13409T) represents the type strain of a novel species of a new genus within the Crenarchaeota, Ignisphaera aggregans gen. nov., sp. nov.


Assuntos
Desulfurococcales/classificação , Desulfurococcales/isolamento & purificação , Fontes Termais/microbiologia , Composição de Bases , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Adesão Celular , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Desulfurococcales/citologia , Desulfurococcales/fisiologia , Genes de RNAr/genética , Inibidores do Crescimento/farmacologia , Temperatura Alta , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Mananas/metabolismo , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia de Contraste de Fase , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Nova Zelândia , Peptonas/metabolismo , Filogenia , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Enxofre/farmacologia , Microbiologia da Água
7.
FEMS Microbiol Lett ; 243(2): 393-8, 2005 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15686840

RESUMO

We constructed mutant genes of Caldococcus noboribetus isocitrate dehydrogenase containing ancestral amino acid residues that were inferred using the maximal likelihood method and a composite phylogenetic tree of isocitrate dehydrogenase and 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase. The mutant genes were expressed in Escherichia coli and the protein products purified. Thermostabilities, reported as the half-inactivation temperatures, for the purified enzymes were determined and compared with that of the wild-type enzyme. Four of the five mutant enzymes have greater thermal stabilities than wild-type isocitrate dehydrogenase. The results are compatible with the hyperthermophilic universal ancestor (commonote) hypothesis. Incorporation of ancestral residues into a modern-day protein sequence can be used to improve protein thermostability.


Assuntos
Desulfurococcales/enzimologia , Temperatura Alta , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/química , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Mutação , Filogenia , 3-Isopropilmalato Desidrogenase , Oxirredutases do Álcool/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Desulfurococcales/classificação , Desulfurococcales/genética , Estabilidade Enzimática , Evolução Molecular , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Dados de Sequência Molecular
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA