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1.
J Environ Manage ; 270: 110937, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721355

RESUMO

Anaerobic-digestion-based technology is key to achieving sustainable water management and resource recovery. It is essential to understand the material flux and kinetics involved in methanogenesis to optimize the organic matter removal and methane production. In this sense, specific methanogenic activity is a cost-effective tool to characterize the biological activity of anaerobic biosludge, to monitor the performance of reactors, and study the kinetics of acetate and H2 conversion to methane. Established protocols are applied for the acetoclastic activity test. However, hydrogenotrophic activity assay remains less widespread and is not standardized. In this work, the assay design for hydrogenotrophic activity is discussed and full calculation is presented, based on the kinetics for the H2/CO2 conversion to methane. An equation to calculate the inoculum size is proposed, suitable for a wide variety of types of biosludge: from a wastewater treatment plant to solid digesters, from a high-rate reactor to lagoons. The applied zero-order model fitted adequately to data for pilot-scale and full-scale anaerobic reactors: the p-values from the ANOVA F-test were below 1E-03; standard deviations for triplicate experiments were between 3 and 12%, coherent with the values found in the literature. Microbial growth during the test was negligible, below 1.2% of the biomass dosed in the vial. As a complement, acetoclastic activity was determined for each sample. The use of both acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic activity is relevant for the study of the methanogenesis and gives a better characterization of the performance of the biosludge in anaerobic reactors rather than only using the specific acetoclastic methanogenic activity.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Euryarchaeota , Anaerobiose , Cinética , Metano
2.
Bioresour Technol ; 313: 123702, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615503

RESUMO

Aiming at relieving acid accumulation in anaerobic digestion (AD), syntrophic associations of syntrophic fatty acid-oxidation bacteria and H2/formate-scavenging methanogens were enriched by feeding propionate, butyrate and formate in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Results showed that methane yield increased by 50% with increasing formate concentration (0-2000 mg COD/L). In addition, the abundance and quantity of SFOB (Syntrophobacter, Smithella and Syntrophomonas) and H2/formate-scavenging methanogens (Methanobacteriales and Methanomicrobiales) were increased after microbial acclimation. The enriched syntrophic associations showed higher propionate and butyrate removal efficiencies of 98.48 ± 1.14% and 99.71 ± 0.71%, respectively. Furthermore, encoding genes of formate dehydrogenase and hydrogenases presented higher abundances after microbial enrichment, which suggested that the enhancements of interspecies formate transfer and interspecies hydrogen transfer between syntrophic associations benefited volatile fatty acids (VFAs) conversion. This research provided an effective strategy to relieve acid accumulation.


Assuntos
Euryarchaeota , Anaerobiose , Bactérias , Bactérias Anaeróbias , Reatores Biológicos , Formiatos , Metano
3.
Extremophiles ; 24(4): 657-672, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32533307

RESUMO

Cultivation and molecular approaches were used to study methanogenesis in saline aquatic system of the Lake Elton (southern Russia), the largest hypersaline lake in Europe. The potential rates of hydrogenotrophic, acetoclastic, methylotrophic and methyl-reducing methanogenesis and diversity of the growth-enriched for by adding electron donors methanogenic communities were studied in the sediment slurry incubations at salinity range from 7 to 275 g/L. The most active pathway detected at all salinities was methylotrophic with a dominance of Methanohalobium and Methanohalophilus genera, at salt saturation and moderately halophilic Methanolobus and Methanococcoides at lower salinity. The absence of methane production from acetate, formate and H2/CO2 under hypersaline conditions was most probably associated with the energy constraints. The contribution of hydrogenotrophic, acetoclastic, and methyl-reducing methanogens to the community increases with a decrease in salinity. Temperature might play an important regulatory function in hypersaline habitats; i.e. methylotrophic methanogens and hydrogenotrophic sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) outcompeting methyl-reducing methanogens under mesophilic conditions, and vice versa under thermophilic conditions. An active methane production together with negligible methane oxidation makes hypersaline environments a potential source of methane emission.


Assuntos
Euryarchaeota , Lagos , Metano , Methanosarcinaceae , Filogenia , Federação Russa
4.
Water Res ; 179: 115883, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402863

RESUMO

Acidic failure is relatively common in anaerobic digesters that receive readily biodegradable food wastes at high loading. Under low pH conditions, the activity of methanogenic biomass decreases resulting in complete failure of the digestion process. In this experimental study, we demonstrated that one of the causes for the digester failure under low pH conditions is due to accelerated decay of methanogenic biomass. When enriched acetate degrading methanogens were exposed to a low pH environment (pH = 5.1 with phosphoric acid) in a batch experiment without external substrate, the specific decay rate was observed to increase as much as 10 times of that at pH 7.0. The specific decay rate for formate degrader was also found to increase under low pH conditions whilst the fermentative microorganisms in the cultures appeared to be tolerant to low pH conditions. A Propidium Mono-Azide-quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PMA-qPCR) analysis revealed that the archaeal biomass dominated by methanogens dropped by 71-79% from the initial concentration after 6 days of the acidic batch experiment whilst the bacterial biomass dominating acidogens decreased by only 25%. The decrease in the number of living cells in the batch experiments at different pH was monitored with time to determine a correlation between decay rate and incubation pH.


Assuntos
Euryarchaeota , Anaerobiose , Archaea , Biomassa , Reatores Biológicos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Metano
5.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231238, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267873

RESUMO

Members of the phylum Bathyarchaeota and the class Thermoplasmata are widespread in marine and freshwater sediments where they have been recognized as key players in the carbon cycle. Here, we tested the responsiveness of archaeal communities on settled plant debris and sediment from a karstic lake to different organic carbon amendments (amino acids, plant-derived carbohydrates, and aromatics) using a lab-scale microcosm. Changes in the composition and abundance of sediment and biofilm archaeal communities in both DNA and RNA fractions were assessed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and qPCR, respectively, after 7 and 30 days of incubation. Archaeal communities showed compositional changes in terms of alpha and beta diversity in relation to the type of carbon source (amino acids vs. plant-derived compounds), the nucleic acid fraction (DNA vs. RNA), and the incubation time (7 vs. 30 days). Distinct groups within the Bathyarchaeota (Bathy-15 and Bathy-6) and the Thermoplasmata (MBG-D) differently reacted to carbon supplements as deduced from the analysis of RNA libraries. Whereas Bathyarchaeota in biofilms showed a long-term positive response to humic acids, their counterparts in the sediment were mainly stimulated by the addition of tryptophan, suggesting the presence of different subpopulations in both habitats. Overall, our work presents an in vitro assessment of the versatility of archaea inhabiting freshwater sediments towards organic carbon and introduces settled leaf litter as a new habitat for the Bathyarchaeota and the Thermoplasmata.


Assuntos
Ciclo do Carbono/fisiologia , Crenarchaeota/genética , Crenarchaeota/metabolismo , Euryarchaeota/genética , Euryarchaeota/metabolismo , Sedimentos Geológicos , Lagos , Biodiversidade , Biofilmes , Carbono/metabolismo , DNA Arqueal/genética , Ecossistema , Substâncias Húmicas , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Triptofano
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 195: 110481, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203775

RESUMO

Archaea remain important players in global biogeochemical cycles worldwide, including in the highly productive mangrove estuarine ecosystems. In the present study, we have explored the diversity, distribution, and function of the metabolically active fraction of the resident archaeal community of the Sundarban mangrove ecosystem, using both culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches. To evaluate the diversity and distribution pattern of the active archaeal communities, RNA based analysis of the 16S rRNA gene was performed on an Illumina platform. The active Crenarchaeal community was observed to remain constant while active Euryarchaeal community underwent considerable change across the sampling sites depending on varying anthropogenic factors. Haloarchaea were the predominant group in hydrocarbon polluted sediments, leading us to successfully isolate eleven p-hydroxybenzoic acid degrading haloarchaeal species. The isolates could also survive in benzoic acid, naphthalene, and o-phthalate. Quantitative estimation of p-hydroxybenzoic acid degradation was studied on select isolates, and their ability to reduce COD of polluted saline waters of Sundarban was also evaluated. To our knowledge, this is the first ever study combining culture-independent (Next Generation sequencing and metatranscriptome) and culture-dependent analyses for an assessment of archaeal function in the sediment of Sundarban.


Assuntos
Archaea/metabolismo , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Hidrocarbonetos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Archaea/genética , Archaea/isolamento & purificação , Biodegradação Ambiental , Crenarchaeota/isolamento & purificação , Euryarchaeota/isolamento & purificação , Parabenos/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Áreas Alagadas
7.
J Environ Manage ; 264: 110421, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217313

RESUMO

Paddy fields are major sources of atmospheric methane (CH4). However, CH4 emissions from cold-waterlogged paddy fields, a major type of paddy soil in China, remain unclear. Here we investigated the CH4 emissions and associated influential factors in cold-waterlogged paddy fields at two sites (Yangxin County and Daye City) in Hubei Province, South China. Normal paddy fields matched with parental material and cropping system were used as the controls. The CH4 emissions from cold-waterlogged fields were significantly higher than those from normal fields with (3.0-4.4-fold) or without (3.5-8.6-fold) rice. Rice planting increased CH4 emissions by 59-78% in cold-waterlogged fields and by 85-247% in normal fields. CH4 instantaneous fluxes were positively correlated with soil temperature and methanogen mcrA (methyl coenzyme M reductase alpha subunit) and methanotroph pmoA (methane monooxygenase) copy numbers at the annual scale. Under rice planting, mcrA copy number was higher in cold-waterlogged fields than in normal fields at both sites, whereas pmoA copy number had the same trend at the Daye site only. Soil temperature and water content influenced mcrA and pmoA copy numbers in the normal paddy fields, whereas soil organic matter content was more influential in the cold-waterlogged paddy fields. These findings suggest that perennial waterlogging is a prerequisite for substantial CH4 emissions from cold-waterlogged paddy fields, and it promotes the proliferation of methanogens and methanotrophs under rice planting. Therefore, CH4 production-oxidation processes are more active in cold-waterlogged paddy fields than in normal paddy fields.


Assuntos
Euryarchaeota , Oryza , China , Metano , Solo , Temperatura
8.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(7): 3832-3847, 2020 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030412

RESUMO

A network of RNA helicases, endoribonucleases and exoribonucleases regulates the quantity and quality of cellular RNAs. To date, mechanistic studies focussed on bacterial and eukaryal systems due to the challenge of identifying the main drivers of RNA decay and processing in Archaea. Here, our data support that aRNase J, a 5'-3' exoribonuclease of the ß-CASP family conserved in Euryarchaeota, engages specifically with a Ski2-like helicase and the RNA exosome to potentially exert control over RNA surveillance, at the vicinity of the ribosome. Proteomic landscapes and direct protein-protein interaction analyses, strengthened by comprehensive phylogenomic studies demonstrated that aRNase J interplay with ASH-Ski2 and a cap exosome subunit. Finally, Thermococcus barophilus whole-cell extract fractionation experiments provide evidences that an aRNase J/ASH-Ski2 complex might exist in vivo and hint at an association of aRNase J with the ribosome that is emphasised in absence of ASH-Ski2. Whilst aRNase J homologues are found among bacteria, the RNA exosome and the Ski2-like RNA helicase have eukaryotic homologues, underlining the mosaic aspect of archaeal RNA machines. Altogether, these results suggest a fundamental role of ß-CASP RNase/helicase complex in archaeal RNA metabolism.


Assuntos
Euryarchaeota/enzimologia , Exorribonucleases/metabolismo , Complexo Multienzimático de Ribonucleases do Exossomo/metabolismo , RNA Helicases/metabolismo , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , RNA Arqueal/metabolismo , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Pyrococcus abyssi/enzimologia , Thermococcus/enzimologia
9.
Water Res ; 174: 115599, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086134

RESUMO

The optimal automatic start-up of anaerobic digesters has remained an elusive problem over the years to be solved at the lowest possible costs, including that of process monitoring. In this work, a non-linear model predictive control (NMPC) system was developed, under two proposed configurations, for the optimal start-up of anaerobic digesters treating soluble non-recalcitrant substrates. The minimum set of low cost practical control variables (CVs) selected for process start-up include (i) the effluent quality as acetate COD, (ii) the level of aceticlastic methanogenic biomass in the reactor, and (iii) the methane production rate (only for one of the NMPC configurations). The manipulated variables (MVs) consist of the volumetric inflow rates of the organic substrate, dilution water, and of a possible concentrated alkali addition. To be able to apply the above selected CVs (technically and economically feasible to measure/estimate), a simplified tailored AD model was specifically designed as the prediction model, integral part of the NMPC system. The NMPC system developed was evaluated for a case scenario consisting of the automatic start-up of a high rate AD reactor treating a readily biodegradable carbohydrate based substrate. The AD plant was virtually represented by the complex Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1. Compared to other manual start-up strategies, the two configurations of the NMPC developed appeared to reach the target methane production rate faster (39 and 18 days for the NMPC versus 70-75 days for the manual strategies) together with an overall superior CV set-point tracking error performance. Interestingly, the two configurations of the NMPC developed appear to propose two very different, almost opposite, start-up feeding strategies to both eventually start-up the reactor successfully with no process destabilizations throughout. A number of practical scenarios were also considered to evaluate the NMPC configurations for robustness and any possible improvements. These tests indicate that the NMPC objective function formulation is a key factor of the success and robustness exhibited during start-up.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Euryarchaeota , Anaerobiose , Bactérias Anaeróbias , Biomassa , Metano
10.
Bioresour Technol ; 302: 122829, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028147

RESUMO

The existence of CO2 in biogas will affect its practicality, so the methanation of CO2 is of great significance. Carrier materials play a key role in bioconversion of CO2 to methane during biogas upgrading. Herein, different materials were used to evaluate the bioconversion process of CO2 to methane, which consisted of black ceramsite (BC) and biochars prepared from corn straw and digestate. The results showed that after adding the carrier materials, the methane production rate increased by more than 20%, and the corn straw biochar (CSB) group even increased by more than 70%. This may be attributed to the large specific surface area and more functional groups in corn straw biochar which was suitable for the immobilization of hydrogenotrophic methanogens (HMs). Therefore, corn straw biochar is a good carrier material for the accelerated bioconversion of CO2 to methane.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Euryarchaeota , Biocombustíveis , Carvão Vegetal , Metano
11.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(3): 1648-1655, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913115

RESUMO

Three halophilic archaeal strains, YJ-53T, ZS-5 and DYF38, were isolated from marine solar salterns located in different provinces of China. The three strains formed a single cluster (99.7-99.8 and 97.9-99.2 % similarities, respectively) that was separate from the current two members of Salinigranum (96.7-98.0 and 89.8-92.9 % similarities, respectively) on the basis of 16S rRNA and rpoB' gene sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis. Diverse phenotypic characteristics differentiated strains YJ-53T, ZS-5 and DYF38 from Salinigranum rubrum GX10T and Salinigranum salinum YJ-50-S2T. The major polar lipids of isolated strains were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester and two major glycolipids chromatographically identical to mannosyl glucosyl diether and sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether, detected in the current members of Salinigranum. The OrthoANI and in silico DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) values between the three strains were in the range of 97.7-98.4 % and 80.3-86.1 %, respectively, much higher than the threshold values proposed as species boundaries (average nucleotide identity 95-96 % and in silico DDH 70 %), revealing that the three strains represent one species. Results of comparative OrthoANI and in silico DDH analyses of the strains described in this study with validly described members of the genus Salinigranum supported that strains YJ-53T (=CGMCC 1.12860T=JCM 30238T), ZS-5 (=CGMCC 1.12867=JCM 30240) and DYF38 (=CGMCC 1.13779=JCM 33557) represent a novel species of the genus Salinigranum, for which the name Salinigranum halophilum sp. nov. is proposed.


Assuntos
Euryarchaeota/classificação , Filogenia , Água do Mar/microbiologia , China , DNA Arqueal/genética , Euryarchaeota/isolamento & purificação , Glicolipídeos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Microbiologia da Água
12.
Bioresour Technol ; 300: 122643, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918298

RESUMO

This study showed that side stream voltage supplied by sludge recirculation from an auxiliary bio-electrochemical anaerobic digestion (ABEAD) reactor appears to have a similar effect as main stream voltage supply to an anaerobic digestion (AD) reactor. The increased sludge recirculation rate enhanced the operation stability at a high OLR. H2-producing bacterial community was improved in bio-electrochemical anaerobic digestion (BEAD) and ABEAD reactors and was increased with increase in sludge recirculation rate. Despite the dominance of hydrogenotrophic methanogens in all reactors, high operational performances of BEAD and ABEAD reactors supports the results of H2-producing bacteria increase in those reactors. The ABEAD reactors having 1/7 of the capacity of the main AD reactor showed possibility of integration of BEAD technology into new and existing facilities economically. The findings of this study would provide useful information for approaching the commercialization of BEAD and suggest direction of further research for practical applications.


Assuntos
Euryarchaeota , Esgotos , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Metano
13.
Bioresour Technol ; 301: 122747, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935643

RESUMO

Temperature regulations (mesophilic/thermophilic) and digesting modes (mono-/co-digestion) play key roles in the biomethane potential of anaerobic digestion, but limited research focus on the synergetic effects on microbial interconnections of the biomethane process. In this study, the pineapple and maize residues under different operations were monitored by batch biogas assays and 16S high-throughput sequencing to explore: 1) biomethane potential regarding different operations, 2) microbial communities in different treated reactors, and 3) significant factors determine microbial distribution. Results showed that the co-digestion had higher methanogenic abundance and biomethane production (~3300 mLn) versus mono-digestion under mesophilic condition. To the thermophilic condition, the co-digestion had less methanogenic abundance but more biomethane production (~5000 mLn). Statistical evidence uncovered that the Clostridiaceae and Thermoanaerobacteraceae dominated pathways linked closely with methanogenesis which may contribute the more biomethane production in the thermophilic condition. This study demonstrated the temperature regulations drove rare taxa as major contributors for biomethane production.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Euryarchaeota , Anaerobiose , Biocombustíveis , Metano , Temperatura
14.
Water Res ; 170: 115292, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778968

RESUMO

Bioelectrochemical systems (BES) can provide an energy efficient way to recover nutrients from wastewaters. However, the electron donors available in wastewater are often not sufficient to recover the total amount of nutrients. This work investigates hydrogen (H2) as an additional substrate for bioanodes. This hydrogen can be produced in the fermentation of complex organic waste or could be recycled from the cathode. Understanding how to influence the competition of electroactive microorganisms (EAM) with methanogens for H2 gas from different sources is key to successful application of H2 as additional electron donor in bioelectrochemical nutrient recovery. Ethanol (EtOH) was used as model compound for complex wastewaters since it is fermented into both acetate and H2. EtOH was efficiently converted into electricity (e-) by a syntrophic biofilm. Total recovered charge from 1 mM EtOH was 20% higher than for the same amount of acetate. This means that H2 from EtOH fermentation was converted by EAM into electricity. Low EtOH concentrations (1  mM) led to higher conversion efficiencies into electricity than higher concentrations (5 and 10  mM). Thermodynamic calculations show this correlates with a higher energy gain for electrogens compared to methanogens at low H2 concentrations. Cumulatively adding 1 mM EtOH without medium exchange (14 times in 14 days) resulted in stable conversion of H2 to e- (67%-77% e-) rather than methane. With H2 gas as electron donor, 68 ±â€¯2% H2 was converted into e- with no carbon source added, and still 53 ±â€¯5% to e- when 50  mM bicarbonate was provided. These results show that under the provided conditions, electrogens can outcompete methanogens for H2 as additional electron donor in MECs for nutrient recovery.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Euryarchaeota , Eletricidade , Eletrodos , Hidrogênio , Metano
15.
Water Res ; 169: 115208, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670088

RESUMO

For the control of sulfide and methane in sewers, it is favorable to reduce their production rather than to remove them after generation. In this study, we revealed rapid and strong biocidal effect of ferrate (Fe(VI)) on sulfidogenic and methanogenic sewer biofilms, leading to control of sulfide and methane production in sewer. The inactivation of the microorganisms in sewer biofilms by Fe(VI) could be accomplished within 15 min for a single dosing event and the biocidal effect could be enhanced by applying pulse dosing strategy. The microbiological analysis showed that the key functional genes involved in sulfide and methane production, i.e. dsrA and mcrA, in the viable cells after Fe(VI) dosing were decreased substantially by 84.2% and 86.6%, respectively. Significant drops were also observed in the relative abundances of viable sulfide reducing bacteria (SRB) and methanogenic archaea (MA). The direct dosing of Fe(VI) into a sewer reactor led to instant and complete suppression of sulfidogenic and methanogenic activities, and the recovery of the activities resembled the regrowth of residual SRB and MA. The results of this study suggested the feasibility for developing an efficient and cost-effective sulfide and methane control strategy using Fe(VI).


Assuntos
Euryarchaeota , Esgotos , Biofilmes , Ferro , Metano , Sulfetos
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584320

RESUMO

There is a need for a broad study addressing different preservation conditions of anaerobic sludge and its activity after a prolonged storage. This study compared four different preservation methods of mesophilic anaerobic sludge for a period of up to 12 months: storage at 23 ± 2 °C, +4 °C, ‒20 °C, and freeze-dried. Anaerobic sludge was sampled from upper and bottom ports of an up flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor fed with microalgae and sodium acetate at organic loading rate of 5.4 gCOD/L·d. Specific methanogenic activity (SMA) tests were performed on the sludge samples after 2.5, 6, and 12 months of storage. Results demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in the SMA of the bottom port preserved sludge, but not of the upper port sludge, regardless of the method used for preservation. A varying susceptibility to the storage of the two types of the anaerobic sludge can be explained by the content of the methanogenic microorganisms, with bottom port sludge having a higher amount of the methane producing species. Interestingly, lyophilized samples were able to produce similar amounts of biogas when compared to the other three storage conditions, with the only difference of having a longer re-activation period.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Euryarchaeota/metabolismo , Metano/biossíntese , Preservação Biológica/métodos , Esgotos/microbiologia , Anaerobiose , Arquitetura de Instituições de Saúde , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Environ Technol ; 41(2): 131-140, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30134773

RESUMO

Livestock slurry stored in ponds is an important source of methane emission, which is influenced by environmental factors. In this study, the effect of slurry properties and temperature on methane flux and methanogen community composition was investigated. The methanogen community composition in swine slurry was more sensitive to temperature and significantly different from that of cattle slurry (ANOSIM, P < 0.05), especially for the phylotypes affiliated with Methanobrevibacter, Methanocorpusculaceae and Methanocorpusculum. These different methanogen communities partially accounted for the differences in methane flux between swine and cattle slurries. Methanogen abundance seemed to not be affected by slurry properties or temperature, but the mcrA (encoding the alpha subunit of methyl coenzyme M reductase) transcript/gene ratio was significantly increased at 30°C and was higher in swine slurry than in cattle slurry (t-test, P < 0.05). This study reveals that higher temperatures increased methane production by promoting the transcription of mcrA rather than by increasing methanogen cell numbers.


Assuntos
Euryarchaeota , Esterco , Animais , Bovinos , Gado , Metano , Suínos , Temperatura
18.
Water Res ; 173: 115347, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859004

RESUMO

Recent efforts have focused on providing a systematic analysis of syntrophic microbial growth yields. These biokinetic parameters are key to developing an accurate mathematical description of the anaerobic digestion process. The agreement between experimentally determined growth yields and those obtained from bioenergetic estimations is therefore of great interest. Considering five important syntrophic groups, including acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens, as well as propionate, butyrate and lactate oxidizers, previous findings suggest that measured and estimated growth yields were consistent only for acetoclastic methanogens. A re-analysis revealed that data are also consistent for lactate oxidizers and hydrogenotrophic methanogens, whereas the limited data available for propionate and butyrate oxidizers are unsupportive of firm conclusions. These results highlight pertinent challenges in the analysis of microbial syntrophy and encourage more accurate measurements of syntrophic microbial growth yields in the future.


Assuntos
Euryarchaeota , Metano , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Metabolismo Energético , Água
19.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 86: 97-106, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787194

RESUMO

Knowledge on methanogenic microbial communities associated with the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is crucial to developing strategies for PAHs bioremediation. In this study, the linkage between the type of PAHs and microbial community structure was fully investigated through 16S rRNA gene sequencing on four PAH-degrading cultures. Putative degradation products were also detected. Our results indicated that naphthalene (Nap)/2-methylnaphthalene (2-Nap), phenanthrene (Phe) and anthracene (Ant) sculpted different microbial communities. Among them, Nap and 2-Nap selected for similar degrading bacteria (i.e., Alicycliphilus and Thauera) and methanogens (Methanomethylovorans and Methanobacterium). Nap and 2-Nap were probably activated via carboxylation, producing 2-naphthoic acid. In contrast, Phe and Ant shaped different bacterial and archaeal communities, with Arcobacter and Acinetobacter being Phe-degraders and Thiobacillus Ant-degrader. Methanogenic archaea Methanobacterium and Methanomethylovorans predominated Phe-degrading and Ant-degrading culture, respectively. These findings can improve our understanding of natural PAHs attenuation and provide some guidance for PAHs bioremediation in methanogenic environment.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Archaea , Bactérias , Biodegradação Ambiental , Crescimento Quimioautotrófico , Euryarchaeota
20.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(11)2019 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694288

RESUMO

Intermediate-salinity environments are distributed around the world. Here, we present a snapshot characterization of two Peruvian thalassohaline environments at high altitude, Maras and Acos, which provide an excellent opportunity to increase our understanding of these ecosystems. The main goal of this study was to assess the structure and functional diversity of the communities of microorganisms in an intermediate-salinity environment, and we used a metagenomic shotgun approach for this analysis. These Andean hypersaline systems exhibited high bacterial diversity and abundance of the phyla Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Balneolaeota, and Actinobacteria; in contrast, Archaea from the phyla Euryarchaeota, Thaumarchaeota, and Crenarchaeota were identified in low abundance. Acos harbored a more diverse prokaryotic community and a higher number of unique species compared with Maras. In addition, we obtained the draft genomes of two bacteria, Halomonas elongata and Idiomarina loihiensis, as well as the viral genomes of Enterobacteria lambda-like phage and Halomonas elongata-like phage and 27 partial novel viral halophilic genomes. The functional metagenome annotation showed a high abundance of sequences associated with detoxification, DNA repair, cell wall and capsule formation, and nucleotide metabolism; sequences for these functions were overexpressed mainly in bacteria and also in some archaea and viruses. Thus, their metabolic profiles afford a decrease in oxidative stress as well as the assimilation of nitrogen, a critical energy source for survival. Our work represents the first microbial characterization of a community structure in samples collected from Peruvian hypersaline systems.


Assuntos
Metagenômica/métodos , Microbiota/genética , Microbiota/fisiologia , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Actinobacteria/genética , Altitude , Archaea/genética , Bactérias/genética , Bacteroidetes/genética , Biodiversidade , Euryarchaeota/genética , Peru , Filogenia , Proteobactérias/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Salinidade , Vírus/genética
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