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1.
Ann Epidemiol ; 44: 60-63, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253059

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Psittacosis is a bacterial zoonosis caused by Chlamydia (Chlamydophila) psittaci that infects birds. Although potentially fatal, infections can be reduced by controlling the source of infection. We therefore described the epidemiology of psittacosis, focusing on the infection source. METHODS: We descriptively analyzed psittacosis cases reported through national surveillance in Japan from 2007 to 2016. We also analyzed Chlamydia psittaci prevalence among captive psittaciformes during the same period. RESULTS: One hundred eleven cases were reported, and the annual number and notification rate of psittacosis declined. While 58% were male and the median age was 61 years, the median age differed by gender (males: 63 years, females: 53 years), with more female cases in those aged <50 years. In addition, the most common infection source differed by gender (men: columbiformes; women: psittaciformes). The decline in notifications was associated with a decline in psittaciformes-associated cases, with a concomitant decline in female cases. The prevalence of C. psittaci among captive psittaciformes also decreased over the period. CONCLUSIONS: We found important differences in the epidemiology of psittacosis by gender, and the recent decrease in notifications correlated with decreasing C. psittaci prevalence in birds. Risk communications for psittacosis should consider the current epidemiology regarding gender, age, and infection source.


Assuntos
Aves/microbiologia , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Notificação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Psitacose/diagnóstico , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Animais , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Psitacose/epidemiologia , Psitacose/microbiologia , Psitacose/veterinária , Distribuição por Sexo , Zoonoses
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 192, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human psittacosis, caused by Chlamydia (C.) psittaci, is likely underdiagnosed and underreported, since tests for C. psittaci are often not included in routine microbiological diagnostics. Source tracing traditionally focuses on psittacine pet birds, but recently other animal species have been gaining more attention as possible sources for human psittacosis. This review aims to provide an overview of all suspected animal sources of human psittacosis cases reported in the international literature. In addition, for each animal species the strength of evidence for zoonotic transmission was estimated. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted using four databases (Pubmed, Embase, Scopus and Proquest). Articles were included when there was mention of at least one human case of psittacosis and a possible animal source. Investigators independently extracted data from the included articles and estimated strength of evidence for zoonotic transmission, based on a self-developed scoring system taking into account number of human cases, epidemiological evidence and laboratory test results in human, animals, and the environment. RESULTS: Eighty articles were included, which provided information on 136 different situations of possible zoonotic transmission. The maximum score for zoonotic transmission was highest for turkeys, followed by ducks, owls, and the category 'other poultry'. Articles reporting about zoonotic transmission from unspecified birds, psittaciformes and columbiformes provided a relatively low strength of evidence. A genotypical match between human and animal samples was reported twenty-eight times, including transmission from chickens, turkeys, guinea fowl, peafowl, pigeons, ducks, geese, songbirds, parrot-like birds and owls. CONCLUSIONS: Strong evidence exists for zoonotic transmission from turkeys, chickens and ducks, in addition to the more traditionally reported parrot-like animal sources. Based on our scoring system, the evidence was generally stronger for poultry than for parrot-like birds. Psittaciformes should not be disregarded as an important source of human psittacosis, still clinicians and public health officials should include poultry and birds species other than parrots in medical history and source tracing.


Assuntos
Chlamydophila psittaci/genética , Chlamydophila psittaci/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Psitacose/diagnóstico , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Columbidae/microbiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Psitacose/microbiologia , Saúde Pública , Administração em Saúde Pública , Aves Canoras/microbiologia , Estrigiformes/microbiologia
3.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 54(1): 144-153, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050885

RESUMO

Avian chlamydiosis, is a highly contagious, systemic disease occuring in domestic and wild birds. Chlamydia psittaci, the causative agent of the disease, is a gram-negative bacterium in the Chlamydiaceae family that can only live within the cell. The agent can be transmitted directly to humans by contact with infected animals or feces of infected animals. It can also be transmitted by inhalation of fecal dust. Since the disease has a zoonotic character, it is also important in terms of public health. By using the monoclonal antibodies against cell wall proteins (OMP) of C.psittaci, six (A-F) and two (WC and M56) serotypes were determined in mammals. The aim of this study was to investigate and genotype the presence of C.psittaci ompA gene in domestic pigeon feces grown in family management style in ten different districts in Ankara in winter and summer seasons. Within the scope of the study, 100 pigeon stool samples were collected from birdhouses in 10 different districts of Ankara (Beypazari, Haymana, Kizilcahamam, Cubuk, Pursaklar, Bala, Cankaya, Polatli, Golbasi and city center) in two different seasons. DNA extraction from fecal samples was performed by classical methods. The presence of the agent in the extracted DNA samples was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the ompA gene. Two-way sequence analysis of the ompA gene was performed with the primers used in the study from the target DNA products amplified by PCR. The results of sequence analysis were compared with the international database and serotyping/genotyping was performed. In the study, C.psittaci ompA gene was detected in 6 (6%) samples of 100 pigeon stool samples. Among these positive samples, two were from Bala (one sample from winter, one sample from summer), two were from Haymana (one sample from winter, one sample from summer) and two were from Golbasi (one sample from winter, one sample from summer); where the same agent was isolated in the same aviaries in different seasons. In this study, no difference was found between the presence of C.psittaci in pigeon droppings and season. In addition when the sequence analysis of the isolated samples were compared with the World database; all isolates were found to be 100% genotype B and 99% genotype E. In this study, the sequence analysis of the ompA gene of C.psittaci from domestic pigeon feces was determined for the first time in Turkey. Although the presence of C.psittaci in domestic pigeons is low, it is a zoonotic bacterium and is important for the public health.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa , Doenças das Aves , Chlamydophila psittaci , Columbidae , Fezes , Psitacose , Animais , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Chlamydophila psittaci/genética , Columbidae/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Genótipo , Psitacose/microbiologia , Turquia
4.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e1, 2020 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910921

RESUMO

Chlamydia spp. are a group of obligate intracellular pathogens causing a number of diseases in animals and humans. Avian chlamydiosis (AC), caused by Chlamydia psittaci (C. psittaci) as well as new emerging C. avium, C. gallinacea and C. ibidis, have been described in nearly 500 avian species worldwidely. The Crested Ibis (Nipponia nippon) is a world endangered avian species with limited population and vulnerable for various infections. To get a better understanding of the prevalence of Chlamydia spp. in the endangered Crested Ibis, faecal samples were collected and analysed. The results confirmed that 20.20% (20/99) of the faecal samples were positive for Chlamydiaceae and were identified as C. ibidis with co-existence of C. psittaci in one of the 20 positive samples. In addition, ompA sequence of C. psittaci obtained in this study was classified into the provisional genotype Matt116, while that of C. ibidis showed high genetic diversity, sharing only 77% identity with C. ibidis reference strain 10-1398/6. We report for the first time the presence of C. ibidis and C. psittaci in the Crested Ibis, which may indicate a potential threat to the endangered birds and should be aware of the future protection practice.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Aves/microbiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Animais , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Chlamydia/classificação , Chlamydia/genética , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Chlamydophila psittaci/classificação , Chlamydophila psittaci/genética , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Prevalência , Análise de Sequência de DNA
5.
Res Vet Sci ; 128: 293-298, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869595

RESUMO

Feral pigeons have increased in urban settings worldwide becoming a potential health risk for humans and other animals. Control and surveillance programs are essential to prevent the possible transmission of zoonotic pathogens carried by pigeons. A surveillance program was carried out in Madrid City (Spain) during 2005-2014 to determine the role of urban pigeons as carriers of zoonotic agents comparing these results with studies performed elsewhere in the last fifteen years. A total of 1372 pigeons were randomly captured and tested for detection of Antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic heterogeneity of Campylobacter and Salmonella isolates were determined. During the first phase (August 2005-July 2010), 428 animals were analyzed individually, while in the second period (August 2010-December 2014), 944 pigeons were analyzed in pools (n = 2-3 in 2010 and n = 5-6 in 2013 and 2014). The most prevalent pathogen during the first phase was Campylobacter spp., (6.57%, 95% confidence interval 3.05-12.10%) followed by Salmonella spp. (4.41%, 95% CI: 2.30-7.58%) and C. psittaci (2.56%, 95% CI: 0.70-6.53%)]. The PCR techniques, used during the 2010-2014 phase of the study, confirmed the presence of Campylobacter spp. (prevalence of 0-14.83%) and C. psittaci (0-12,94%) among pigeons of Madrid. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing suggested low levels of resistance. Presence of zoonotic agents in feral pigeons highlights the importance of surveillance programs on this species, although the relative low prevalence found suggests a limited risk to Public and Animal Health in Madrid.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/transmissão , Columbidae/microbiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Infecções Bacterianas/transmissão , Aves , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Controle de Pragas , Prevalência , Saúde Pública , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Espanha/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/transmissão
6.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226091, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821353

RESUMO

In Switzerland, domestic turkey meat is a niche product. Turkeys are fattened on mixed family-based farms scattered across the country, with most providing access to an uncovered outdoor pasture for the birds. Swiss fattening turkeys may therefore get infected with Chlamydiaceae via wild birds or their faeces, potentially shedding these bacteria at a later stage. The aim of the present study was to acquire baseline data about the shedding of Chlamydiaceae in clinically unremarkable Swiss fattening turkeys at slaughter, potentially exposing slaughterhouse workers to infection. In this large-scale study, 1008 cloacal swabs of Swiss turkeys out of 53 flocks from 28 different grow-out farms with uncovered outdoor pasture were collected over the course of 14 months and examined for the occurrence of Chlamydiaceae by a family-specific 23S-rRNA real-time PCR. Positive samples were further analyzed by Chlamydia psittaci (C. psittaci)-specific real-time PCR and the Arraymate DNA Microarray for species identification. All samples were negative for C. psittaci, but seven swabs out of one flock were tested positive for Chlamydia gallinacea (0.7%). Although turkeys with access to pasture may have contact with Chlamydiaceae-harbouring wild birds or their faeces, the infection rate in Swiss turkeys was shown to be low.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydiaceae/microbiologia , Chlamydiaceae/genética , Cloaca/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais , Chlamydiaceae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Chlamydiaceae/diagnóstico , Chlamydophila psittaci/genética , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , RNA Ribossômico 23S/química , RNA Ribossômico 23S/metabolismo , Suíça , Perus
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838983

RESUMO

Introduction: This report describes the challenges encountered in using serological methods to study the historical transmission risk of C. psittaci from horses to humans. Methods: In 2017, serology and risk factor questionnaire data from a group of individuals, whose occupations involved close contact with horses, were collected to assess the seroprevalence of antibodies to C. psittaci and identify risk factors associated with previous exposure. Results: 147 participants were enrolled in the study, provided blood samples, and completed a questionnaire. On ELISA testing, antibodies to the Chlamydia genus were detected in samples from 17 participants but further specific species-specific MIF testing did not detect C. psittaci-specific antibodies in any of these samples. Conclusion: No serological evidence of past C. psittaci transmission from horses to humans was found in this study cohort. There are major challenges in using serological methods to determine the prevalence of C. psittaci exposure.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Cavalos/microbiologia , Exposição Ocupacional , Psitacose/imunologia , Zoonoses , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226088, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887111

RESUMO

Feral pigeons, common wood pigeons and Eurasian collared doves are the most common representatives of the Columbidae family in Switzerland and are mostly present in highly populated, urban areas. Pigeons may carry various members of the obligate intracellular Chlamydiaceae family, particularly Chlamydia (C.) psittaci, a known zoonotic agent, and C. avium. The objective of the study was to identify the infection rates of common free-roaming pigeons for different Chlamydia species with the overall aim to assess the risk pigeons pose to public health. In this study, 431 pigeons (323 feral pigeons, 34 domestic pigeons, 39 Eurasian collared doves, 35 common wood pigeons) from several geographic locations in Switzerland were investigated for the presence of Chlamydiaceae. Samples consisted of pooled choanal-cloacal swabs (n = 174), liver samples (n = 52), and paired swab and liver samples from 205 pigeons (n = 410). All 636 samples were screened using a Chlamydiaceae family-specific 23S rRNA real-time PCR (qPCR). Subsequent species identification was performed by DNA-microarray assay, sequencing of a 16S rRNA gene fragment and a C. psittaci specific qPCR. In total, 73 of the 431 pigeons tested positive for Chlamydiaceae, of which 68 were positive for C. psittaci, four were C. avium-positive and one pigeon was co-infected with C. avium and C. psittaci. The highest infection rates were detected in feral (64/323) and domestic pigeons (5/34). Common wood pigeons (2/35) and Eurasian collared doves (2/39) revealed lower infection rates. Additionally, multilocus sequence typing of twelve selected C. psittaci-positive samples revealed closely related sequence types (ST) between and within different Swiss cities. Furthermore, liver and corresponding swab samples from the same bird were colonized by the same ST. Considering the high infection rates of C. psittaci in domestic and feral pigeons, close or frequent contact to these birds poses a human health risk.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Chlamydiaceae/genética , Chlamydophila psittaci/genética , Psitacose/microbiologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Animais Selvagens , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/química , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/classificação , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Chlamydiaceae/classificação , Chlamydiaceae/isolamento & purificação , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Columbidae , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Filogenia , Dinâmica Populacional , Psitacose/diagnóstico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Suíça
9.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 8179-8193, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31632026

RESUMO

Background: Chlamydia psittaci is a zoonotic bacteria closely associated with psittacosis/ornithosis. Vaccination has been recognized as the best way to inhibit the spread of C. psittaci due to the majority ignored of infections. The optimal Chlamydia vaccine was obstructed by the defect of single immunization route and the lack of availability of nontoxic and valid adjuvants. Methods: In this study, we developed a novel immunization strategy, simultaneous (SIM) intramuscular (IM) and intranasal (IN) administration of a C. psittaci antigens (Ags) adjuvanted with chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs). And SIM-CNPs-Ags were used to determine the different types of immune response and the protective role in vivo. Results: CNPs-Ags with zeta-potential values of 13.12 mV and of 276.1 nm showed excellent stability and optimal size for crossing the mucosal barrier with high 71.7% encapsulation efficiency. SIM-CPN-Ags mediated stronger humoral and mucosal responses by producing meaningfully high levels of IgG and secretory IgA (sIgA) antibodies. The SIM route also led to Ags-specific T-cell responses and increased IFN-γ, IL-2, TNF-α and IL-17A in the splenocyte supernatants. Following respiratory infection with C. psittaci, we found that SIM immunization remarkably reduced bacterial load and the degree of inflammation in the infected lungs and made for a lower level of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-6. Furthermore, SIM vaccination with CNPs-Ags had obviously inhibited C. psittaci disseminating to various organs in vivo. Conclusion: SIM immunization with CNPs-adjuvanted C. psittaci Ags may present a novel strategy for the development of a vaccine against the C. psittaci infection.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Quitosana/administração & dosagem , Chlamydophila psittaci/imunologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Imunidade Humoral , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Injeções Intramusculares , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Psitacose , Baço/imunologia , Baço/microbiologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Vacinação
10.
Infect Immun ; 88(1)2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658957

RESUMO

Dendritic cells (DCs) and natural killer (NK) cells are critically involved in the early response against various bacterial microbes. Functional activation of infected DCs and NK cell-mediated gamma interferon (IFN-γ) secretion essentially contribute to the protective immunity against Chlamydia How DCs and NK cells cooperate during the antichlamydial response is not fully understood. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the functional interplay between Chlamydia-infected DCs and NK cells. Our biochemical and cell biological experiments show that Chlamydia psittaci-infected DCs display enhanced exosome release. We find that such extracellular vesicles (referred to as dexosomes) do not contain infectious bacterial material but strongly induce IFN-γ production by NK cells. This directly affects C. psittaci growth in infected target cells. Furthermore, NK cell-released IFN-γ in cooperation with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and/or dexosomes augments apoptosis of both noninfected and infected epithelial cells. Thus, the combined effect of dexosomes and proinflammatory cytokines restricts C. psittaci growth and attenuates bacterial subversion of apoptotic host cell death. In conclusion, this provides new insights into the functional cooperation between DCs, dexosomes, and NK cells in the early steps of antichlamydial defense.


Assuntos
Comunicação Celular , Infecções por Chlamydia/imunologia , Chlamydophila psittaci/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Exossomos/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Fatores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Camundongos , Modelos Teóricos
11.
Immunobiology ; 224(6): 739-746, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561842

RESUMO

Chlamydia psittaciis a well known zoonotic pathogen that can lead to severe respiratory disease in poultry, pet birds and humans. Development of an effective and safe vaccine would be the most effective way to control C. psittaci infection. In this study, we used bacterial ghosts (BGs) as a delivery vehicle to evaluate the protective effects of major outer membrane protein (MOMP) and macrophage infectivity potentiator (MIP) DNA vaccines in mice. We found that MOMP/MIP DNA-loaded BGs elicited a better immune response than a naked DNA vaccine, giving increased IgG titers, lymphocyte proliferation responses and higher levels of IFN-γ. After challenge infection, MOMP/MIP DNA-loaded BGs-immunized mice showed lower chlamydial load and inflammation pathology in lung tissues. In addition, we found that MOMP and MIP co-immunization or a heterologous prime-boost strategy could induce stronger immune responses and better protective efficacy against C. psittaci infection. Together, the above results suggest that BGs can act as an effective delivery vehicle for C. psittaci DNA vaccines, and co-immunization or heterologous prime-boost strategy can enhance protective efficacy against infection, thereby providing an alternative strategy for the design of vaccines against C. psittaci.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Chlamydophila psittaci/genética , Psitacose/terapia , Infecções Respiratórias/terapia , Vacinas de DNA/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Chlamydophila psittaci/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , DNA Bacteriano/administração & dosagem , Escherichia coli/genética , Feminino , Células HeLa , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Plasmídeos , Psitacose/genética , Psitacose/imunologia , Psitacose/patologia , Células RAW 264.7 , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Infecções Respiratórias/genética , Infecções Respiratórias/imunologia , Infecções Respiratórias/patologia , Baço/citologia , Baço/imunologia
12.
Vet Microbiol ; 235: 257-264, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383310

RESUMO

Wild birds are known reservoirs of bacterial and viral pathogens, some of which have zoonotic potential. This poses a risk to both avian and human health, since spillover into domestic bird populations may occur. In Victoria, wild-caught cockatoos trapped under licence routinely enter commercial trade. The circovirus Beak and Feather Disease Virus (BFDV), herpesviruses, adenoviruses and Chlamydia psittaci have been identified as significant pathogens of parrots globally, with impacts on both aviculture and the conservation efforts of endangered species. In this study, we describe the results of surveillance for psittacid herpesviruses (PsHVs), psittacine adenovirus (PsAdV), BFDV and C. psittaci in wild cacatuids in Victoria, Australia. Samples were collected from 55 birds of four species, and tested using genus or family-wide polymerase chain reaction methods coupled with sequencing and phylogenetic analyses for detection and identification of known and novel pathogens. There were no clinically observed signs of illness in most of the live birds in this study (96.3%; n = 53). Beak and Feather Disease Virus was detected with a prevalence of 69.6% (95% CI 55.2-80.9). Low prevalences of PsHV (1.81%; 95% CI 0.3-9.6), PsAdV (1.81%; 95% CI 0.3-9.6), and C. psittaci (1.81%; 95% CI 0.3-9.6) was detected. Importantly, a novel avian alphaherpesvirus and a novel avian adenovirus were detected in a little corella (Cacatua sanguinea) co-infected with BFDV and C. psittaci. The presence of multiple potential pathogens detected in a single bird presents an example of the ease with which such infectious agents may enter the pet trade and how novel viruses circulating in wild populations have the potential for transmission into captive birds. Genomic identification of previously undescribed avian viruses is important to further our understanding of their epidemiology, facilitating management of biosecurity aspects of the domestic and international bird trade, and conservation efforts of vulnerable species.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Papagaios/virologia , Psitacose/veterinária , Viroses/veterinária , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Alphaherpesvirinae/patogenicidade , Animais , Aviadenovirus/patogenicidade , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Chlamydophila psittaci , Circovirus/patogenicidade , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Coinfecção/virologia , DNA Viral/genética , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Papagaios/microbiologia , Prevalência , Psitacose/epidemiologia , Vitória/epidemiologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Vírus/classificação
13.
MSMR ; 26(7): 2-7, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347370

RESUMO

Chlamydia psittaci infection among humans (psittacosis) and pet birds (avian chlamydiosis), also known as parrot disease, parrot fever, and ornithosis, is a zoonotic bacterial disease. Humans most often become infected by inhaling the organism when urine, respiratory secretions, or dried feces of infected birds are dispersed in the air as very fine droplets or dust particles. C. psittaci infection of humans can cause influenza-like symptoms, such as fever of abrupt onset, pronounced headache, and dry cough, and can lead to severe pneumonia and non-respiratory health problems. Infection can also be asymptomatic. There is no vaccine for this infection. The disease is treatable with a tetracycline antibiotic, usually doxycycline, or a second-line therapy such as erythromycin or azithromycin. With appropriate treatment, the infection is rarely fatal. This report describes a case of severe, community-acquired pneumonia possibly due to C. psittaci in a resident of Colorado and examines significant clinical and epidemiological characteristics of psittacosis that affect confirming the diagnosis and managing the risks of exposure to psittacine (parrot-type) birds.


Assuntos
Psitacose/diagnóstico , Animais , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Cacatuas , Diagnóstico Tardio , Feminino , Humanos , Família Militar , Animais de Estimação , Pneumonia/etiologia , Psitacose/complicações , Adulto Jovem
14.
Avian Dis ; 63(1): 31-37, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251517

RESUMO

Chlamydia psittaci is a zoonotic pathogen with multiple hosts, especially avian, and can be transmitted to humans, causing psittacosis or ornithosis. No effective vaccines have been developed. We therefore isolate and genotype avian C. psittaci strains and investigate the pathogenicity of isolates in the southern Hunan area of China. Among 200 suspicious avian specimens, eight were positive for the C. psittaci outer membrane protein A (ompA) gene (4%), and seven were successfully cultured in human epithelial type 2 and Vero cells (87.5%). Genotyping of the ompA gene of the eight PCR-positive samples revealed that all of the cultured strains, except for the E9 strain, belonged to genotype A. Pathologic changes in the mice infected with C. psittaci via intranasal inoculation showed severe pneumonia and intense infiltration of inflammatory cells in the lung in a dose-dependent manner, and immunohistochemical staining displayed different levels of infiltration of C. psittaci inclusions in the heart, liver, spleen, kidney, and, especially, lung. Our findings demonstrate that genotype A dominates all C. psittaci genotypes in the southern Hunan area and that the C. psittaci avian isolates in this region possess dose-dependent pathogenicity.


Assuntos
Aves , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Psitacose/microbiologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , China , Chlamydophila psittaci/genética , Chlorocebus aethiops , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Animais de Estimação , Especificidade da Espécie , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Células Vero
15.
J Avian Med Surg ; 33(1): 22-28, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124608

RESUMO

We determined the prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci genotypes in asymptomatic and symptomatic birds in northeast Iran. Samples were collected from 11 species of Psittaciformes and 1 species of Columbiformes from 2015 to 2016. Choanal cleft and cloacal swab samples, fresh fecal samples, and/or tissue samples of 70 symptomatic and 130 asymptomatic birds were collected and tested by molecular detection (nested polymerase chain reaction [PCR] testing specific for C psittaci). Results showed C psittaci was detected in 37 (18.5%) of 200 birds (18/37 symptomatic and 19/37 asymptomatic birds) by nested PCR assay. Of the PCR-positive samples, 14 products were positive for oligonucleotide sets CTU/CTL by a second PCR assay and genotyped by outer membrane protein A (ompA) gene sequencing. Of the 10 samples positive for genotype A (cockatiels [Nymphicus hollandicus, n = 5], ring-necked parakeet [Psittacula krameri, n = 2], African gray parrot [Psittacus erithacus, n = 3]), 6 samples were from asymptomatic and 4 from symptomatic birds. Genotype B was observed in 3 samples from symptomatic birds (P krameri [n = 2], pigeon [Columba livia, n = 1]), and provisional genotype I was detected in one symptomatic cockatiel. These findings revealed the importance of monitoring imported asymptomatic birds in developing countries, especially the Middle East, where there is no systematic monitoring. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report regarding the detection of C psittaci provisional genotype I in cockatiels.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Chlamydophila psittaci/classificação , Columbiformes , Genótipo , Psittaciformes , Psitacose/veterinária , Animais , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Sequência de Bases , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Aves , Chlamydophila psittaci/genética , Columbiformes/microbiologia , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Psittaciformes/microbiologia , Psitacose/epidemiologia , Psitacose/microbiologia
16.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(5): 2002-2010, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127977

RESUMO

Chlamydophila psittaci (C. psittaci) is an avian pathogen associated with systemic wasting disease in birds, as well as a public health risk. Although duck-related cases of psittacosis have been reported, the pathogenicity and shedding status of C. psittaci in ducks are unclear. In this study, we reported that C. psittaci (genotype A) is responsible for a disease outbreak characterized by poor laying performance and severe lesions in multiple organs of ducks. Oral administration of antibiotic, doxycycline, was found to effectively control the C. psittaci infection in laying ducks. Collectively, our new findings provide evidence that C. psittaci was the major pathogen responsible for the outbreak of this disease in ducks. In order to reduce economic losses incurred by this disease, effective control measures must be taken to prevent infection in laying duck farms.


Assuntos
Chlamydophila psittaci/fisiologia , Patos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Psitacose/patologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , China , Chlamydophila psittaci/classificação , Chlamydophila psittaci/efeitos dos fármacos , Doxiciclina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/fisiopatologia , Psitacose/tratamento farmacológico , Psitacose/microbiologia , Psitacose/fisiopatologia , Reprodução
17.
Acta Med Port ; 32(2): 161-164, 2019 Feb 28.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896398

RESUMO

Psittacosis is a rare disease caused by Chlamydophila psittaci, an intracellular bacteria transmitted by contaminated birds. The clinical and radiological presentations are nonspecific. We describe a case of a 42-year-old woman, with known exposure to birds, who presented to the emergency department with one-week evolution of myalgia, polyarthritis, and respiratory symptoms. At admission, she had fever, respiratory failure, raised inflammatory markers and bilateral interstitial infiltrates at chest radiography. Considering the clinical findings and epidemiological background, we raised the hypothesis of a Chlamydophila psittaci atypical pneumonia that was serologically confirmed. Tetracyclines are the mainstay of treatment and the macrolides are an effective alternative. We highlight the importance of the epidemiological context in the early diagnosis and treatment of this infection.


Assuntos
Pneumonia por Clamídia/diagnóstico , Psitacose/diagnóstico , Adulto , Agapornis/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia por Clamídia/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia por Clamídia/microbiologia , Chlamydophila psittaci , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Psitacose/tratamento farmacológico , Tetraciclina/uso terapêutico
19.
Rev Argent Microbiol ; 51(2): 130-135, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30017323

RESUMO

In order to determine the presence and genetic diversity of Chlamydia spp. in the north-eastern area of Buenos Aires province, Argentina, conjunctival, oropharyngeal, cloacal swab and tissues were collected from a total of 90 psittacine pet birds of different age and clinical manifestations. Through molecular methods, Chlamydiaceae was detected in 30% (27/90) of the samples, out of which 70.3% (19/27) were positive for Chlamydia psittaci and 14.9% (4/27) for Chlamydia abortus. Nine C. psittaci positive samples were genotyped by ompA gene sequences, 8 clustered within genotype A and 1 within genotype B. A significant association was observed between the presence of Chlamydia spp. and the manifestation of clinical signs compatible with chlamydiosis, as well as with the age of the birds (younger than one year old). This report contributes to the improvement of our understanding of chlamydial agents in our country.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Chlamydia/genética , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Chlamydophila psittaci/genética , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Psittaciformes/microbiologia , Psitacose/veterinária , Animais , Argentina , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Genótipo , Psitacose/microbiologia
20.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(2): 873-881, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30548806

RESUMO

Different bacteria are present in rubbish dumps used as food resources by various bird species. Birds may be good indicators of the presence of zoonotic diseases in these sites since they can be infected with zoonotic pathogens by foraging on organic waste, and can also act as carriers. We studied if foraging in rubbish dumps increases the occurrence of Salmonella spp. and Chlamydia psittaci in American black vultures (Coragyps atratus, hereafter black vultures) from northwest Patagonia. We compared these pathogens isolated from or detected in cloacae and oropharynx swabs in two different groups of black vultures: individuals trapped in (a) the Patagonian wild steppe and (b) in a rubbish dump. We found that black vultures are colonized by Salmonella spp. (particularly Salmonella enterica serotypes Typhi, Paratyphi A, Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae) and Chlamydia psittaci. Interestingly, there were differences in the prevalence of Salmonella spp., especially Salmonella Typhi, between individuals foraging in the rubbish dump and the steppe, but not in the prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci. The pathogens isolated from black vultures may impact their health status but could also have health impacts in other bird species and even humans. In fact, Salmonella Typhi can cause severe disease in humans leading to death. Our results are globally relevant given that bacterial infections from rubbish dumps may affect different species exploiting these sites around the world. There is a need to better control pathogens in rubbish dumps to avoid the risk of infecting wildlife, which could act as potential dispersers and reservoirs of these pathogens.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Falconiformes/microbiologia , Psitacose/veterinária , Eliminação de Resíduos , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Animais , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Cloaca/microbiologia , Orofaringe/microbiologia , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação
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