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1.
Int J Infect Dis ; 92: 89-96, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926353

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Pasteurella bacteraemia is rare, but has been associated with a high mortality rate. The aim of this study was to estimate the impact of comorbidities on patients with Pasteurella bacteraemia. METHODS: All cases of Pasteurella bacteraemia in adults treated in our centre between January 2008 and December 2017 were included retrospectively and compared with cases identified in a systematic review of the literature via MEDLINE covering the years 1951-2017. The epidemiological, bacteriological, and clinical data were collected, as well as the instances of death after 30 days. RESULTS: Twenty cases of Pasteurella bacteraemia identified in our centre and 99 cases from the literature review were included. A major comorbidity was found in 80/119 (67.2%) patients. The death rate at 30 days was 31.1%. The most common comorbidities were cirrhosis, immunosuppressive therapy, and malignant diseases. Age was not associated with mortality. On multivariate analysis, the only factor associated with mortality was a major comorbidity (odds ratio 2.78, 95% confidence interval 1.01-7.70; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the high mortality rate and highlights the importance of the host background, independent of age, in Pasteurella bacteraemia. Clinicians should be aware of the comorbidities in cases of Pasteurella infection, due to the poor prognosis of bacteraemia.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/complicações , Infecções por Pasteurella/complicações , Pasteurella , Idoso , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Bacteriemia/mortalidade , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Infecções por Pasteurella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Pasteurella/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
2.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 95: 650-658, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706007

RESUMO

Two monovalent vaccines against pasteurellosis were developed and tested for efficacy using a previously established bath challenge model. High levels of specific antibodies were detected following vaccination. While the vaccine efficacy trial indicated that some level of protection was obtained, high mortality was still observed. qPCR analysis of head kidney tissues from surviving fish post challenge showed no difference in bacterial numbers in vaccinated and non-vaccinated fish. Clinical symptoms observed in moribund and diseased fish included white spots on the skin and around the eyes, frayed fins and redness around the mouth and fin bases. Despite production of specific antibodies, the protection against experimental challenge was relatively weak. A reason for this could potentially be that the specific antibodies produced are not alone enough to provide complete protection against pasteurellosis in lumpsuckers. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy of head kidney leucocytes exposed to Pasteurella sp. in vitro gave indications of the interactions between the pathogen and leucocytes. The results indicate that parts of the immune system other than humoral antibodies could be important for protection against pasteurellosis. Our combined results highlight the need for further work on host-pathogen interaction between Pasteurella sp. and lumpsuckers.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Infecções por Pasteurella/veterinária , Perciformes/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Rim Cefálico/imunologia , Rim Cefálico/microbiologia , Pasteurella , Infecções por Pasteurella/prevenção & controle , Perciformes/microbiologia , Vacinação
3.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 364, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ovariectomy is a common procedure in laboratory rodents used to create a post-menopausal state. Complications including post-surgical abscess are rarely reported, but merit consideration for the health and safety of experimental animals. CASE PRESENTATION: A female C57/black6 mouse was ovariectomized as part of a cohort study. At Day 14 post-surgery, she developed a visible swelling on the right side, which 7 days later increased in size over 24 h, leading to euthanasia of the animal. Gross pathology was consistent with abscess. A core of necrotic tissue was present in the uterine horn. Abscess fluid and affected tissue were collected for Gram stain and bacteriological culture. The abscess core and fluid yielded three distinct types of bacterial colonies identified by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing as Streptococcus acidominimus, Pasteurella caecimuris, and a novel species in the genus Gemella. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of polymicrobial abscess in a rodent as a complication of ovariectomy, and the first description of a novel Gemella species for which we have proposed the epithet Gemella muriseptica. This presentation represents a potential complication of ovariectomy in laboratory animals.


Assuntos
Abscesso/veterinária , Gemella/classificação , Ovariectomia/veterinária , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/veterinária , Abscesso/microbiologia , Animais , Feminino , Gemella/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/veterinária , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pasteurella/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Pasteurella , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação
4.
J Plast Surg Hand Surg ; 53(6): 341-346, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287352

RESUMO

Domestic cat bites are common and are often treated by simple wound care with good outcome. However, delayed presentation may lead to significant morbidity or even mortality. Twenty cases of cat bites to the hand and wrist were retrospectively reviewed between 2014 and 2018. Data included patient demographics, anatomical site of injury, microbiology results, method of treatment and surgical outcome. The subjects were 18 females and two males aged 27-86 years (mean age of 58 years). Eleven patients (Group A) were presented within 48 hours of their injury. Nine patients (Group B) presented later than 48 hours. Of these, 78% (n = 7) underwent multiple operations secondary to septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, necrotising fasciitis and deep collection. Mean length of hospital stay was 3.4 days in Group A, and 9.2 days in Group B, (p < .01). Four patients underwent digital or ray amputations. The index finger was the most common site of injury (45%). Almost 40% of cases had flexor tendon sheath infection of the fingers. Pasteurella species was isolated from 35% of infected wounds. Mean duration of antibiotic treatment and length of hospital stay were significantly longer in Group B (p < .05). Delayed presentation of infected cat bites increased the likelihood of more complicated surgeries such as amputation. Diabetic fingers with established peripheral neuropathy were more likely to undergo amputation. We recommend that any symptomatic cat bites to the upper limb, especially hand and wrist, must be treated promptly, essentially within 48 hours of injury, particularly in immunocompromised population.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/terapia , Traumatismos da Mão/epidemiologia , Traumatismos da Mão/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amputação/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Infecciosa/epidemiologia , Artrite Infecciosa/microbiologia , Artrite Infecciosa/terapia , Gatos , Complicações do Diabetes , Fasciite Necrosante/epidemiologia , Fasciite Necrosante/microbiologia , Fasciite Necrosante/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteomielite/epidemiologia , Osteomielite/microbiologia , Osteomielite/terapia , Pasteurella/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Pasteurella/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/terapia , Tempo para o Tratamento , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Infecção dos Ferimentos/epidemiologia , Infecção dos Ferimentos/microbiologia , Infecção dos Ferimentos/terapia
5.
Prev Vet Med ; 169: 104693, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311630

RESUMO

Bayesian networks are used to evaluate the effectiveness of mixed autogenous vaccines in fattening lambs to prevent the ovine respiratory syndrome. An experiment was performed with 460 fattening lambs, which were clustered into four groups according to the kind of vaccine received (Pasteurella spp., Mycoplasma spp., Mixed Mycoplasma-Pasteurella or placebo). After slaughtering, lungs were collected, and macroscopic and microscopic studies were performed. A microbiological study was carried out to evaluate the presence of Mycoplasma spp. and Pasteurellaceae by conventional culture and identification by nested polymerase chain reaction. To the best of the authors' knowledge, Bayesian networks have not been used to evaluate the effect of vaccines on the absence/presence of lung consolidation. Our results revealed that the use of mixed autogenous vaccines can decrease lung consolidation from 15.75% (12.42-19.08) to 9.24% (6.59-11.89). Therefore, the use of these autogenous vaccines in farms could be considered an effective control tool against ovine respiratory syndrome.


Assuntos
Autovacinas/uso terapêutico , Teorema de Bayes , Pneumonia/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Animais , Pulmão/patologia , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Pasteurella/isolamento & purificação , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Pneumonia/prevenção & controle , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Espanha
6.
J Vet Med Sci ; 81(9): 1234-1237, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292334

RESUMO

Actinobacillus species are known to be pathogenic to horses. To clarify etiological agents of actinobacillosis in Japanese adult horses, 27 isolates from Japanese Thoroughbred racehorses putatively identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry as Actinobacillus were further identified by PCR of the A. equuli toxin gene, by CAMP test, and by 16S rRNA sequencing analysis. Actinobacillus equuli subsp. haemolyticus was isolated most frequently (16/27) and was related to respiratory infections. Actinobacillus equuli subsp. equuli (4/27) was isolated from chronic cases or concomitant with other bacterial infections. The remainder were A. pleuropneumoniae, unclassified Actinobacillus species and Pasteurella caballi. Actinobacillus equuli including subsp. haemolyticus and subsp. equuli were the species most frequently isolated from equine actinobacillosis in Japan.


Assuntos
Infecções por Actinobacillus/veterinária , Actinobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Actinobacillus/classificação , Actinobacillus/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Doenças dos Cavalos/etiologia , Cavalos , Japão , Pasteurella/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/veterinária
7.
Microb Pathog ; 132: 117-123, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009656

RESUMO

In this study, we isolated four Weissella confusa strains from the healthy horse feces to test their potential as equine probiotics. The identification and characteristics of these isolates were determined as per standard methods. Resistance and susceptibility of the isolated strains were tested to low pHs, different heat treatments, commonly used antibiotics and against the pathogenic strains of Salmonella, Pasteurella, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. After 3 h cultural in different pH medium, the 4 strains still had a certain amount of survival above pH 3.0. WH2 and WH4 were still viable at pH2.5. All the isolated strains showed proper growth at 60 °C while no strain survived at 80 °C. The inhibition of α-amylase, the scavenging ability of free radical DPPH· and hydroxyl free radical HO·were also investigated. The results showed that WH4 had highest inhibition rate of α-amylase activity and DPPH· free radical scavenging rate, and the inhibition rate of α-amylase activity was 24.09% and the DPPH· free radical scavenging rate was 35.78%. The inhibition rate ofα-amylase activity and DPPH· scavenging rate of free radicals in the other three strains were about 10%. The clearance rate of hydroxyl radical (HO·) in 4 strains was between 12% and 15%. The antibiotic susceptibilities varied for these four Weisella strains but all of them showed resistance against the frequently used equine antibiotics. All the four strains successfully suppressed the growth of standard strains in in vitro bacteriostasis experiment, which included Salmonella enteritidis (NTNC13349), Escherichia coli (C83902) and Staphylococcus aureus (BNCC186335). they also successfully suppressed the growth of state key laboratory isolating pathogens, which are Pasterurella multocida and Salmonella. Our findings suggest that the isolated strains of Weissella confusa can act as potential equine probiotics and should be explored further.


Assuntos
Fezes/microbiologia , Probióticos/isolamento & purificação , Weissella/isolamento & purificação , Weissella/fisiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cavalos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Radical Hidroxila , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Pasteurella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Filogenia , Picratos , Salmonella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Fisiológico , Weissella/efeitos dos fármacos , Weissella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
8.
Vet Microbiol ; 229: 14-19, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642590

RESUMO

Infective endocarditis, an infrequent clinical syndrome in dogs, is typically associated with nondescript clinical signs such as fever, malaise and loss of appetite. Although an uncommonly reported infection in dogs, Pasteurella canis is an emerging pathogen with increasing relevance in the human microbiology literature. The goal of this study is to detail the clinical presentation and microbiological findings associated with a novel causative agent of infective endocarditis in the dog. Diagnostic evaluation as well as conventional, automated and molecular microbiological methods are highlighted. The recent literature regarding P. canis and infective endocarditis in companion animals and humans is reviewed. Although an unusual etiologic agent of infective endocarditis, awareness of P. canis as a diagnostic possibility is crucial to accurate microbial surveillance.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Infecções por Pasteurella/veterinária , Pasteurella/classificação , Animais , Cães , Endocardite Bacteriana/microbiologia , Evolução Fatal , Masculino , Infecções por Pasteurella/microbiologia
10.
J Fish Dis ; 42(1): 35-46, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30311669

RESUMO

The incidence of disease caused by Pasteurella sp. in farmed lumpsuckers in Norway has been steadily increasing in recent years, causing significant economic losses and fish welfare issues. The disease affects all life stages, both in hatcheries and after release into salmon cages. Therefore, it is important to establish robust challenge models, to be used for vaccine development. Exposure experiments via intramuscular and intraperitoneal injection underlined the high virulence of the bacteria, whereas the cohabitation and bath models allowed the chronic symptoms of the disease to be studied more accurately. Skin lesions and haemorrhage at the base of fins were observed in the more acute cases of the disease. Symptoms including white spots over the skin, especially around the eyes, characterized the chronic cases. The latter were most prominent from the bath challenge model. Histopathology indicated a systemic pattern of disease, whereas qPCR analysis from head kidney showed that bacteria may be present in survivor fish at the end of the challenges. In all the challenge models investigated, Pasteurella sp. was re-isolated from the fish, thus fulfilling Koch's postulates. These findings highlight the importance of screening of lumpsuckers prior to transfer to minimize the risks of carrying over asymptomatic carriers.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/patologia , Infecções por Pasteurella/veterinária , Pasteurella/patogenicidade , Perciformes , Virulência , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/mortalidade , Doenças dos Peixes/transmissão , Rim Cefálico/microbiologia , Pasteurella/genética , Pasteurella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pasteurella/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Pasteurella/mortalidade , Infecções por Pasteurella/patologia , Infecções por Pasteurella/transmissão , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise
11.
Adv Perit Dial ; 34(2018): 50-52, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30480538

RESUMO

A 67-year-old white man with a history of end-stage renal disease receiving peritoneal dialysis (PD) presented with acute onset of vomiting, chills, and abdominal pain. He was diagnosed with PD-associated peritonitis secondary to Pasteurella. After failure of 3 weeks of antibiotic treatment, catheter loss occurred. On follow-up, the patient was found to have extensive intra-abdominal adhesions precluding placement of a new PD catheter.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica , Infecções por Pasteurella , Diálise Peritoneal , Peritonite , Idoso , Antibacterianos , Humanos , Masculino , Pasteurella
12.
BMC Res Notes ; 11(1): 485, 2018 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30017000

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A cross-sectional study was employed with the aim to explore the serological status of goats; we evaluated the presence of serum antibodies of the circulating serotypes of the genus Pasteurella. A total of 124 serum samples were collected from randomly selected goats and subsequently serotyped using indirect haemagglutination test. RESULTS: In the current study, the overall prevalence of pasteurellosis in goats was 31.4%. Additionally, a total of eight serotypes of Pasteurella were serotyped. It is evident that 25% out of 124 sampled animals were found infected by four or more circulating serotypes and 6.4% animals were also found positive for all serotypes. Accordingly, the prevalence of Pasteurella multocida serotype A were 16.9%, Mannheimia haemolytica serotype A1 26.6%, M. haemolytica serotype A2 18.5%, M. haemolytica serotype A7 16.1%, Bibersteinia trehalosi serotype T3 20.9%, B. trehalosi serotype T4 21.7%, B. trehalosi serotype T10 27.4%, and B. trehalosi serotype T15 was 25.8%. Therefore, although there has been vaccination campaign with monovalent vaccine P. multocida type A, the diseases still exerts negative impacts through death of goats to smallholder farmers. Therefore, to control the disease the government should provide multivalent vaccine of the above serotypes.


Assuntos
Cabras/microbiologia , Infecções por Pasteurella/veterinária , Pasteurella/isolamento & purificação , Sorogrupo , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Pasteurella/imunologia , Sorotipagem
13.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 68(8): 2692-2696, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29923825

RESUMO

The aim of the investigation was to investigate the phylogeny of the 49 type strains of species of Pasteurellaceae and three genomospecies, which are available with whole genomic sequences. The genomes were downloaded from National Center for Biotechnological Information and for three species of Avibacterium sequenced in the present investigation. From the predicted protein sequences of proteins, which were conserved in all genomes, 31 proteins were randomly selected for the study. The protein sequences were concatenated for each taxon, and a multiple alignment reconstructed for the 52 taxa. Phylogenetic analysis was performed by using the maximum-likelihood and neighbour-joining methods and confirmed the classification of the genera, which have been classified based on phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. The comparison linked [Haemophilus]parainfluezae and [Haemophilus] pittmania with Haemophilus influenzae (type species of genus) although at a much lower level than observed for Haemophilus aegyptius, H. influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus. The comparison documented that three, three and nine species of Actinobacillus, Pasteurella and Haemophilus, respectively, are not properly classified at genus level. Similar conclusions have been drawn by 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons. The highest inter genus pairwise similarity was 88 % based on the comparison of the 31 concatenated protein sequences of the species included in the comparison. The level of intra genus pairwise similarity was also 88 %.


Assuntos
Pasteurellaceae/classificação , Filogenia , Actinobacillus/classificação , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Sequência de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Haemophilus/classificação , Pasteurella/classificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
14.
Sci Adv ; 4(1): eaao2314, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29376120

RESUMO

In 2015, more than 200,000 saiga antelopes died in 3 weeks in central Kazakhstan. The proximate cause of death is confirmed as hemorrhagic septicemia caused by the bacterium Pasteurella multocida type B, based on multiple strands of evidence. Statistical modeling suggests that there was unusually high relative humidity and temperature in the days leading up to the mortality event; temperature and humidity anomalies were also observed in two previous similar events in the same region. The modeled influence of environmental covariates is consistent with known drivers of hemorrhagic septicemia. Given the saiga population's vulnerability to mass mortality and the likely exacerbation of climate-related and environmental stressors in the future, management of risks to population viability such as poaching and viral livestock disease is urgently needed, as well as robust ongoing veterinary surveillance. A multidisciplinary approach is needed to research mass mortality events under rapid environmental change.


Assuntos
Antílopes/fisiologia , Extinção Biológica , Pesquisa Interdisciplinar , Animais , Antílopes/microbiologia , Cazaquistão , Pasteurella , Análise de Componente Principal , Probabilidade
15.
J Trop Pediatr ; 64(1): 82-84, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28444291

RESUMO

'Asymptomatic bacteriuria' (ASB) is isolation of a specified quantitative count of bacteria in an appropriately collected urine specimen obtained from a person without symptoms or signs referable to urinary infection. Catheterized specimens are less likely to be contaminated compared with voided specimens; therefore, positive cultures of catheterized specimens are more likely to reflect true bladder bacteriuria even with low colony counts. The common pathogens for ASB are Escherichia coli, Klebsiella and Streptococcus spp. Pasteurella spp. was not previously reported as an ASB agent. ASB is important for pregnant women, children, individuals with obstructive uropathy, chronic renal failure and neutropenia, before the urologic procedures and after renal transplantation. Treatment of ASB is required for above situations. We report an 11-year-old-girl with neurogenic bladder who made clean intermittent catheterization and had Pasteurella aerogenes as an ASB agent.


Assuntos
Bacteriúria/microbiologia , Infecções por Pasteurella/diagnóstico , Pasteurella/isolamento & purificação , Bexiga Urinaria Neurogênica/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriúria/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Infecções por Pasteurella/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Pasteurella/transmissão , Coelhos , Bexiga Urinaria Neurogênica/terapia , Cateterismo Urinário/efeitos adversos
16.
Microbiome ; 5(1): 152, 2017 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29157308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The microbiota of the bovine upper respiratory tract has been recently characterized, but no data for the lower respiratory tract are available. A major health problem in bovine medicine is infectious bronchopneumonia, the most common respiratory syndrome affecting cattle. With this study, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to characterize and compare the microbial community composition of the upper and lower respiratory tracts in calves. RESULTS: The microbiota of the upper (nasal swab [NS]) and the lower (trans-tracheal aspiration [TTA]) respiratory tracts of 19 post-weaned Piedmontese calves with (8/19) and without (11/19) clinical signs of respiratory disease, coming from six different farms, was characterized by 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding. A total of 29 phyla (29 in NS, 21 in TTA) and 305 genera (289 in NS, 182 in TTA) were identified. Mycoplasma (60.8%) was the most abundant genus identified in both the NS (27.3%) and TTA (76.7%) samples, followed by Moraxella (16.6%) in the NS and Pasteurella (7.3%) in the TTA samples. Pasteurella multocida (7.3% of total operational taxonomic units [OTUs]) was the most abundant species in the TTA and Psychrobacter sanguinis (1.1% of total OTUs) in the NS samples. Statistically significant differences between the NS and the TTA samples were found for both alpha (Shannon index, observed species, Chao1 index, and Simpson index; P = 0.001) and beta (Adonis; P = 0.001) diversity. Comparison of the NS and TTA samples by farm origin and clinical signs revealed no statistical difference (P > 0.05), except for farm origin for the NS samples when compared by the unweighted UniFrac metric (P = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we characterized the microbiota of the upper and lower respiratory tracts of calves, both healthy individuals and those with clinical signs of respiratory disease. Our results suggest that environmental factors may influence the composition of the upper airway microbiota in cattle. While the two microbial communities (upper and lower airways) differed in microbial composition, they shared several OTUs, suggesting that the lung microbiota may be a self-sustaining, more homogeneous ecosystem, influenced by the upper respiratory tract microbiota.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Pulmão/microbiologia , Microbiota , Nariz/microbiologia , Sistema Respiratório/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bovinos , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Feminino , Moraxella/classificação , Moraxella/genética , Moraxella/isolamento & purificação , Mycoplasma/classificação , Mycoplasma/genética , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Pasteurella/classificação , Pasteurella/genética , Pasteurella/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Desmame
17.
Chembiochem ; 18(15): 1544-1550, 2017 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28474804

RESUMO

Sialyltransferases of the GT-80 glycosyltransferase family are considered multifunctional because of the array of activities detected. They exhibit glycosyl transfer, trans-sialylation, and hydrolysis activities. How these enzymes utilize their active-site residues in balancing the different enzymatic activities is not well understood. In this study of Pasteurella dagmatis α2,3sialyltransferase, we show that the conserved His85 controls efficiency and selectivity of the sialyl transfer. A His85→Asn variant was 200 times less efficient than wild-type for sialylation of lactose, and exhibited relaxed site selectivity to form not only the α2,3- but also the α2,6-sialylated product (21 %). The H85N variant was virtually inactive in trans-sialylation but showed almost the same CMP-Neu5Ac hydrolase activity as wild-type. The competition between sialyl transfer and hydrolysis in the conversion of CMP-Neu5Ac was dependent on the lactose concentration; this was characterized by a kinetic partition ratio of 85 m-1 for the H85N variant, compared to 17 000 m-1 for the wild-type enzyme. His85 promotes the productive sialyl transfer to lactose and so prevents hydrolysis of CMP-Neu5Ac in the reaction.


Assuntos
Citidina Monofosfato/análogos & derivados , Histidina/química , Pasteurella/enzimologia , Ácidos Siálicos/química , Sialiltransferases/química , Asparagina/química , Domínio Catalítico , Citidina Monofosfato/química , Glicosilação , Histidina/genética , Hidrólise , Cinética , Lactose/química , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Nitrofenilgalactosídeos/química , Mutação Puntual , Sialiltransferases/genética , Água/química
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28373186

RESUMO

Animal bite wounds affect more than 5 million Americans annually, resulting in 300,000 emergency department visits, 10,000 hospitalizations, and an untold number of physician office visits. Various forms of topical therapy are empirically self-employed by many patients prior to seeking medical attention. Pexiganan, a 22-amino-acid synthetic cationic analogue of the peptide magainin II, acts by selectively damaging bacterial cell membranes. We determined the MICs for pexiganan and other antimicrobial agents often used for treatment of bite wounds. Most isolates were from U.S. patients, and ∼10% were from European and Canadian patients. The comparator antimicrobials studied were penicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, piperacillin-tazobactam, meropenem, clindamycin, doxycycline, moxifloxacin, ceftriaxone, linezolid, and metronidazole. The MIC90s of pexiganan were 32 µg/ml (against Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida), 16 µg/ml (P. multocida subsp. septica, Pasteurella canis, and Pasteurella dagmatis), 8 µg/ml (Pasteurella stomatis), 8 µg/ml (Eikenella corrodens), 2 µg/ml (Neisseria weaveri, Neisseria zoodegmatis, and Moraxella canis-Moraxella lacunata group), 16 µg/ml (Bergeyella zoohelcum), 64 µg/ml (Bacteroides pyogenes), 4 µg/ml (Fusobacterium russii), 32 µg/ml (Fusobacterium canifelinum), and 64 µg/ml (Prevotella heparinolytica). The concentration of pexiganan in the cream used was 8,000 µg/ml, more than 60 to 100 times the highest MIC obtained. Pexiganan exhibited a broad range of antimicrobial activity, showing potential for treating animal bite infections. A clinical trial seems warranted.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Ácido Penicilânico/análogos & derivados , Combinação Amoxicilina e Clavulanato de Potássio/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias Anaeróbias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Anaeróbias/metabolismo , Mordeduras e Picadas/microbiologia , Clindamicina/farmacologia , Doxiciclina/farmacologia , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacologia , Linezolida/farmacologia , Meropeném , Metronidazol/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Moxifloxacina , Pasteurella/efeitos dos fármacos , Pasteurella/patogenicidade , Ácido Penicilânico/farmacologia , Penicilinas/farmacologia , Piperacilina/farmacologia , Combinação Piperacilina e Tazobactam , Tienamicinas/farmacologia
19.
Epidemiol Infect ; 145(7): 1326-1338, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28112054

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalent Bibersteinia, Mannheimia and Pasteurella serotypes, risk factors and degree of serotype co-infections in sheep and goats in the Tigray region of Ethiopia. Serum was collected from 384 sheep and goats from the Tanqua-Abergelle district of Tigray region using cross-sectional random sampling. An indirect haemagglutination test was used for serotyping. Risk factors for infections were evaluated by logistic regression. Potential clustering of multiple serotypes within individual animals due to common risk factors was evaluated by redundancy analysis. Eight serotypes were identified: all studied animals were serologically positive for at least one serotype. Overall, 355 (92·45%) of the animals were infected by four or more serotypes. Of the five risk factors studied, peasant association (PA), animal species, age (serotype A1), and bodyweight (serotype T15) were significantly associated with infection, but sex was not significant. Only PA explained a significant proportion of the variation (adjusted R 2 = 0·16) in the serological responses. After the effect of PA was accounted for, T3 and T4; A7 and Pasteurella multocida A; and A7 and T10 were positively correlated for co-infection, while T4 and T10 were less likely to be found within the same animal. Diverse serotypes were circulating in the Tigray region and could be a challenge in selecting serotypes for vaccine.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Mannheimia/genética , Infecções por Pasteurella/veterinária , Pasteurella/genética , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/microbiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Cabras , Mannheimia/imunologia , Pasteurella/imunologia , Infecções por Pasteurella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Pasteurella/microbiologia , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/microbiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sorogrupo , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia
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