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1.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 112(4): 561-588, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30392177

RESUMO

The "Spiroplasma cluster" is a taxonomically heterogeneous assemblage within the phylum Tenericutes encompassing different Entomoplasmatales species as well as the genus Mycoplasma, type genus of the order Mycoplasmatales. Within this cluster, the family Entomoplasmataceae contains two non-cohesive genera Entomoplasma and Mesoplasma with their members exhibiting extensive polyphyletic branching; additionally, the genus Mycoplasma is also embedded within this family. Genome sequences are now available for all 19 Entomoplasmataceae species with validly published names, as well as 6 of the 7 species from the genus Mycoplasma. With the aim of developing a reliable phylogenetic and taxonomic framework for the family Entomoplasmataceae, exhaustive phylogenetic and comparative genomic studies were carried out on these genome sequences. Phylogenetic trees were constructed based on concatenated sequences of 121 core proteins for this cluster, 67 conserved proteins shared with the phylum Firmicutes, 40 ribosomal proteins, three major subunits of RNA polymerase (RpoA, B and C) by different means and also for the 16S rRNA gene sequences. The interspecies relationships as well as different species groups observed in these trees were identical and robustly resolved. In all of these trees, members of the genera Mesoplasma and Entomoplasma formed three and two distinct clades, respectively, which were interspersed among the members of the other genus. The observed species groupings in the phylogenetic trees are independently strongly supported by our identification of 103 novel molecular markers or synapomorphies in the forms of conserved signature indels and conserved signature proteins, which are uniquely shared by the members of different observed species clades. To account for the different observed species clades, we are proposing a division of the genus Mesoplasma into an emended genus Mesoplasma and two new genera Tullyiplasma gen. nov. and Edwardiiplasma gen. nov. Likewise, to recognize the distinct species groupings of Entomoplasma, we are proposing its division into an emended genus Entomoplasma and a new genus Williamsoniiplasma gen. nov. Lastly, to rectify the long-existing taxonomic anomaly caused by the presence of genus Mycoplasma (order Mycoplasmatales) within the Entomoplasmatales, we are proposing an emendation of the family Mycoplasmataceae to include both Entomoplasmataceae plus Mycoplasma species and an emendation of the order Mycoplasmatales, which now comprises of the emended family Mycoplasmataceae and the family Spiroplasmataceae. The taxonomic reclassifications proposed here accurately reflect the species relationships within this group of Tenericutes and they should lead to a better understanding of their biological and pathogenic characteristics.


Assuntos
Entomoplasmatales/classificação , Mycoplasmataceae/classificação , Mycoplasmatales/classificação , Filogenia , Spiroplasmataceae/classificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Entomoplasmatales/genética , Entomoplasmatales/isolamento & purificação , Mycoplasmataceae/genética , Mycoplasmataceae/isolamento & purificação , Mycoplasmatales/genética , Mycoplasmatales/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Spiroplasmataceae/genética , Spiroplasmataceae/isolamento & purificação
2.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 138(1): 117-122, 2018.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29311457

RESUMO

Migratory birds are considered as vectors of infectious diseases, owing to their potential for transmitting pathogens over large distances. The populations of barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) migrate from Southeast Asia to the Japanese mainland during spring and migrate back to Southeast Asia during autumn. This migratory population is estimated to comprise approximately hundreds to thousands of individuals per year. However, to date, not much is known about the gastrointestinal microbiota of the barn swallow. In this study, we characterized the fecal bacterial community in barn swallow. Using 16S rRNA gene metagenomic sequencing analysis, we examined the presence and composition of potentially pathogenic bacteria in the fecal samples, which were collected during spring season from Osaka. The number (±S.D.) of total bacteria was approximately 2.1(±3.4)×108 per gram of feces. In most samples, the bacterial community composition was dominated by families, such as Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Mycoplasmataceae, Enterococcaceae, Streptococcaceae, and Alcaligenaceae. However, no relationship was found between the bacterial community composition and geographical area in the fecal samples. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were detected at the rate of >0.1%, which included Pseudomonas spp., Escherichia/Shigella spp., Enterobacter spp., Yersinia spp., Mycoplasma spp., Enterococcus spp., Achromobacter spp., and Serratia spp. Our results suggested that barn swallow is instrumental in the transmission of these genera over large distances.


Assuntos
Migração Animal/fisiologia , Vetores de Doenças , Intestinos/microbiologia , Microbiota , Andorinhas/microbiologia , Alcaligenaceae/isolamento & purificação , Alcaligenaceae/patogenicidade , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Enterobacteriaceae/patogenicidade , Enterococcaceae/isolamento & purificação , Enterococcaceae/patogenicidade , Fezes/microbiologia , Japão , Mycoplasmataceae/isolamento & purificação , Mycoplasmataceae/patogenicidade , Pseudomonadaceae/isolamento & purificação , Pseudomonadaceae/patogenicidade , Streptococcaceae/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcaceae/patogenicidade
3.
J Vet Med Sci ; 79(5): 864-870, 2017 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28381682

RESUMO

Hemoplasmas belong to Mycoplasmataceae (Mollicutes: Mycoplasmatales) and are able to infect a broad range of mammalian species. We investigated prevalence of hemotropic mycoplasma species in pig farms in the region of Zhejiang by a PCR scheme using universal primers targeting 16S rRNA and RNase P RNA gene (rnpB). Representative positive samples from different farms were selected for sequencing of 16S rRNA and the 219bp rnpB gene fragments for phylogenetic analysis. Sequencing analysis of PCR products from first samples identified a novel hemoplasma species present in several pig farms in the region with highest nucleotide identity of 92% to Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis. A duplex PCR assay was then designed for differential detection of the novel hemoplasma from Mycoplasma parvum/M. suis in field samples. Of 324 blood samples from clinically healthy pigs, 26.5% was positive for this novel hemoplasma species and 50% positive for M. suis/M. parvum, indicating that the novel hemotropic mycoplasma species were of considerably high prevalence in Zhejiang province, China.


Assuntos
Mycoplasmataceae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Mycoplasmatales/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Animais , China , Mycoplasmataceae/classificação , Infecções por Mycoplasmatales/microbiologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Suínos
4.
Biol Direct ; 11(1): 2, 2016 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26747447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The length of a protein sequence is largely determined by its function. In certain species, it may be also affected by additional factors, such as growth temperature or acidity. In 2002, it was shown that in the bacterium Escherichia coli and in the archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus, protein sequences with no homologs were, on average, shorter than those with homologs (BMC Evol Biol 2:20, 2002). It is now generally accepted that in bacterial and archaeal genomes the distributions of protein length are different between sequences with and without homologs. In this study, we examine this postulate by conducting a comprehensive analysis of all annotated prokaryotic genomes and by focusing on certain exceptions. RESULTS: We compared the distribution of lengths of "having homologs proteins" (HHPs) and "non-having homologs proteins" (orphans or ORFans) in all currently completely sequenced and COG-annotated prokaryotic genomes. As expected, the HHPs and ORFans have strikingly different length distributions in almost all genomes. As previously established, the HHPs, indeed are, on average, longer than the ORFans, and the length distributions for the ORFans have a relatively narrow peak, in contrast to the HHPs, whose lengths spread over a wider range of values. However, about thirty genomes do not obey these rules. Practically all genomes of Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma have atypical ORFans distributions, with the mean lengths of ORFan larger than the mean lengths of HHPs. These genera constitute over 80 % of atypical genomes. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed on a ubiquitous set of genomes that the previous observation of HHPs and ORFans have different gene length distributions. We also showed that Mycoplasmataceae genomes have very distinctive distributions of ORFans lengths. We offer several possible biological explanations of this phenomenon, such as an adaptation to Mycoplasmataceae's ecological niche, specifically its "quiet" co-existence with host organisms, resulting in long ABC transporters.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Mycoplasmataceae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Mycoplasmataceae/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética
5.
J Infect Chemother ; 21(7): 516-9, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25892209

RESUMO

We developed a PCR-based assay involving Invader® technology for detection of the genital mycoplasmas of Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Ureaplasma parvum. We compared its performance with that of a PCR-microtiter plate hybridization assay, which we developed previously, in detecting genital mycoplasmas in first-voided urine (FVU) specimens from men with non-gonococcal urethritis. The tests targeting each of the genital mycoplasmas were specific for the respective species and could detect as few as 10 copies of the plasmids containing the target genes of each of the genital mycoplasmas per reaction. The assay using the InvaderPlus® method (InvaderPlus® assay) showed very similar performance to that of the PCR-microtiter plate hybridization assay for detecting the genital mycoplasmas in the FVU specimens. In addition, the PCR and endonuclease reaction in the InvaderPlus® assay were carried out simultaneously in one procedure, thus simplifying the assay, leading to time- and labor-savings and a decrease in the risk of specimen contamination. The InvaderPlus® assay could be useful in diagnosing genitourinary tract infections caused by the genital mycoplasmas.


Assuntos
Doenças Urogenitais Masculinas/microbiologia , Tipagem Molecular/métodos , Mycoplasmataceae/genética , Infecções por Mycoplasmatales/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/análise , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Urogenitais Masculinas/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycoplasmatales/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos
6.
Genome Biol Evol ; 6(2): 407-15, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24482531

RESUMO

Bacterial gut communities of arthropods are highly diverse and tightly related to host feeding habits. However, our understanding of the origin and role of the symbionts is often hindered by the lack of genetic information. "Candidatus Hepatoplasma crinochetorum" is a Mollicutes symbiont found in the midgut glands of terrestrial isopods. The only available nucleotide sequence for this symbiont is a partial 16S rRNA gene sequence. Here, we present the 657,101 bp assembled genome of Candidatus Hepatoplasma crinochetorum isolated from the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare. While previous 16S rRNA gene-based analyses have provided inconclusive results regarding the phylogenetic position of Candidatus Hepatoplasma crinochetorum within Mollicutes, we performed a phylogenomic analysis of 127 Mollicutes orthologous genes which confidently branches the species as a sister group to the Hominis group of Mycoplasma. Several genome properties of Candidatus Hepatoplasma crinochetorum are also highlighted compared with other Mollicutes genomes, including adjacent tryptophan tRNA genes, which further our understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of these genes in Mollicutes, and the presence of a probably inactivated CRISPR/Cas system, which constitutes a testimony of past interactions between Candidatus Hepatoplasma crinochetorum and mobile genetic elements, despite their current lack in this streamlined genome. Overall, the availability of the complete genome sequence of Candidatus Hepatoplasma crinochetorum paves the way for further investigation of its ecology and evolution.


Assuntos
Genoma Bacteriano , Isópodes/microbiologia , Mycoplasmataceae/classificação , Mycoplasmataceae/genética , Filogenia , Animais , Evolução Molecular , Isópodes/fisiologia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mycoplasmataceae/isolamento & purificação , Mycoplasmataceae/fisiologia , Simbiose
7.
Int J STD AIDS ; 23(8): e7-10, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22930310

RESUMO

This study employed culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to examine the prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma fermentans, Mycoplasma penetrans and Mycoplasma pirum in 210 HIV/AIDS patients, 455 sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic attendees and 245 healthy volunteers from first-void urine specimens for men and endocervical swabs for women. U. urealyticum and M. hominis were detected in 107 (51.0%) and 69 (32.9%) patients in the HIV/AIDS group. At least one of the other four organisms was detected in 34 (16.2%) HIV/AIDS patients, 29 (6.4%) STI clinic attendees and six (2.5%) healthy volunteers. This study showed that U. urealyticum, M. hominis and M. fermentans were significantly more prevalent in HIV/AIDS patients, as were other mycoplasmas. Our results suggest a possible role for co-infection.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Mycoplasmataceae , Infecções por Mycoplasmatales/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycoplasma , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Mycoplasma fermentans , Mycoplasma genitalium , Mycoplasma hominis , Mycoplasma penetrans , Infecções por Mycoplasmatales/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Infecções por Ureaplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Ureaplasma/microbiologia , Ureaplasma urealyticum , Adulto Jovem
8.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 153(2): 283-8, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês, Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22816103

RESUMO

Intracellular reorganization of secretory epitheliocytes in the main, intermediate, and periurethral prostatic glands was studied in chronic prostatitis under conditions of sexually-transmitted infections. The destructive and autophagic processes in the secretory epitheliocytes were stimulated by persistence of microorganisms, Mycoplasmataceae (mainly mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas) and Chlamydia trachomatis, in the prostatic terminal compartments, epithelial layer, and epitheliocytes. Significant intracellular reorganization of smooth-muscle cells was found: focal destruction of ultrastructures (mainly in the perinuclear zone) and lythic changes in the myofilaments (focal and diffuse).


Assuntos
Próstata/patologia , Prostatite/patologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/patologia , Adulto , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/patologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/patologia , Mycoplasmataceae/isolamento & purificação , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/microbiologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/ultraestrutura , Próstata/microbiologia , Prostatite/microbiologia
9.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 16(3): 273-8, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22729196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of mycoplasmas on the development and sequelae of pelvic inflammatory disease remains controversial. The objective of the present study is to correlate directly the presence of Mycoplasmateceae through polimerase chain reaction (PCR) determinations in cervix and Fallopian tubes of infertile patients with tubo-peritoneal factor diagnosed through laparoscopy. METHODS: Thirty patients with tubo-peritoneal infertility and 30 normal fertile patients were included in the study; cervical samples and tubal flushings were obtained during laparoscopy. PCR determinations for the detection of genetic material of Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealiticum, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis in cervix and tubal flushings were performed. RESULTS: No Mycoplasmataceae species as "only" microorganisms were found in tubal flushings of tubo-peritoneal infertility patients, whereas three (10%) fertile patients with normal tubes were positive for mycoplasma presence. This difference was not significant (p = 0.237). Among the 30 patients suffering from tubal infertility diagnosed through laparoscopy, Mycoplasmatecae species were not detected in the Fallopian tubes by PCR determinations, while in normal tubes from fertile patients these and other microorganisms could be found without distorting tubal anatomy. CONCLUSION: Mycoplasmateceae species were not detected in Fallopian tubes of women with tubo-peritoneal infertility.


Assuntos
Doenças das Tubas Uterinas/microbiologia , Infertilidade Feminina/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Mycoplasmataceae/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Infecções por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Mycoplasma genitalium/isolamento & purificação , Mycoplasma hominis/isolamento & purificação , Mycoplasmataceae/classificação , Estudos Prospectivos , Ureaplasma/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Infect Chemother ; 18(4): 494-500, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22252268

RESUMO

Traditionally, the diagnosis of bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) has been dependent on the isolation of the causative pathogens by culturing endocervical or urethral swab specimens on selective media. While such procedures typically provide excellent diagnostic accuracy, they are often time-consuming and expensive. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, based on a semi-automated detection system, was evaluated for the detection of six STI causative organisms. The Seeplex(®) STD6 ACE (auto-capillary electrophoresis) Detection assay employed six pairs of dual priming oligonucleotide (DPO™) primers specifically targeted to unique genes of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis, and Trichomonas vaginalis. A total of 739 specimens (304 cervical swabs and 435 urine samples) collected for 4 months were tested, and results were compared to those obtained with a combined monoplex PCR. The concordance between the multiplex PCR and monoplex PCR assay was 100% for both sensitivity and specificity. We also tested for the presence of two pathogenic bacteria (C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae) and compared the results obtained with the multiplex PCR and BD ProbeTec duplex strand displacement amplification (SDA). The results of the multiplex PCR and duplex SDA were 99.7% concordant for C. trachomatis and 100% concordant for N. gonorrhoeae. The multiplex PCR assay using the Seeplex(®) STD6 ACE Detection kit proved to be a novel cost-effective and fast diagnostic tool with high sensitivity and specificity for the simultaneous detection of six STI pathogens.


Assuntos
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Adulto , Colo do Útero/microbiologia , Colo do Útero/parasitologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Primers do DNA/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycoplasmataceae/genética , Mycoplasmataceae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Mycoplasmatales/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycoplasmatales/microbiologia , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/parasitologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/urina , Vaginite por Trichomonas/diagnóstico , Vaginite por Trichomonas/parasitologia , Trichomonas vaginalis/genética , Trichomonas vaginalis/isolamento & purificação , Urina/microbiologia , Urina/parasitologia
11.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 62(1): 515-28, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22115576

RESUMO

Conventional classification of the species in the family Mycoplasmataceae is mainly based on phenotypic criteria, which are complicated, can be difficult to measure, and have the potential to be hampered by phenotypic deviations among the isolates. The number of biochemical reactions suitable for phenotypic characterization of the Mycoplasmataceae is also very limited and therefore the strategy for the final identification of the Mycoplasmataceae species is based on comparative serological results. However, serological testing of the Mycoplasmataceae species requires a performance panel of hyperimmune sera which contains anti-serum to each known species of the family, a high level of technical expertise, and can only be properly performed by mycoplasma-reference laboratories. In addition, the existence of uncultivated and fastidious Mycoplasmataceae species/isolates in clinical materials significantly complicates, or even makes impossible, the application of conventional bacteriological tests. The analysis of available genetic markers is an additional approach for the primary identification and phylogenetic classification of cultivable species and uncultivable or fastidious organisms in standard microbiological laboratories. The partial nucleotide sequences of the RNA polymerase ß-subunit gene (rpoB) and the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) were determined for all known type strains and the available non-type strains of the Mycoplasmataceae species. In addition to the available 16S rRNA gene data, the ITS and rpoB sequences were used to infer phylogenetic relationships among these species and to enable identification of the Mycoplasmataceae isolates to the species level. The comparison of the ITS and rpoB phylogenetic trees with the 16S rRNA reference phylogenetic tree revealed a similar clustering patterns for the Mycoplasmataceae species, with minor discrepancies for a few species that demonstrated higher divergence of their ITS and rpoB in comparison to their neighbor species. Overall, our results demonstrated that the ITS and rpoB gene could be useful complementary phylogenetic markers to infer phylogenetic relationships among the Mycoplasmataceae species and provide useful background information for the choice of appropriate metabolic and serological tests for the final classification of isolates. In summary, three-target sequence analysis, which includes the ITS, rpoB, and 16S rRNA genes, was demonstrated to be a reliable and useful taxonomic tool for the species differentiation within the family Mycoplasmataceae based on their phylogenetic relatedness and pairwise sequence similarities. We believe that this approach might also become a valuable tool for routine analysis and primary identification of new isolates in medical and veterinary microbiological laboratories.


Assuntos
DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/genética , Mycoplasmataceae/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Sequência de Bases , Teorema de Bayes , Evolução Molecular , Genes Bacterianos , Marcadores Genéticos , Funções Verossimilhança , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mycoplasmataceae/classificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico
12.
J Obstet Gynaecol ; 29(8): 698-701, 2009 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19821660

RESUMO

The study was designed to determine the prevalence of genital mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas and Chlamydia on women attending their first prenatal visit, in conjunction with pre-term labour or HIV status. For pre-term labour (2003), 199 women were monitored for pre-term delivery (<37 weeks); for colonisation and HIV (2005), 219 women were screened. Microbial detection was performed on DNA extracted from endocervical swabs employing PCR techniques. Colonisation was seen to be highest in the 14-20 year age group from 2003. In women aged > or = 21 years, co-colonisation was 13%, although there was a shift from co-colonisation with Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in 2003, to other dual/triple combinations in 2005. Overall, major trends from both collection periods were that the prevalence of U. urealyticum tended to be higher in women > or = 26 years, while the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and M. hominis lower. No association was evident between colonisation with M. hominis, U. urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum and labour outcome. HIV status had no effect on the prevalence/co-colonisation of M. hominis, U. urealyticum or C. trachomatis. The importance of genital mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas and C. trachomatis in long-term aetiologies requires further investigations, certainly in relation to syndromic management regimens that fail to reduce colonisation rates.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Mycoplasmataceae/isolamento & purificação , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Infecções por Ureaplasma/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Infecções por Chlamydia/complicações , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/complicações , Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/microbiologia , Idade Gestacional , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Infecções por Mycoplasma/complicações , Infecções por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Mycoplasma hominis/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/microbiologia , Prevalência , Infecções por Ureaplasma/complicações , Infecções por Ureaplasma/diagnóstico , Ureaplasma urealyticum/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int J Urol ; 16(2): 215-6, 2009 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19228227

RESUMO

Some patients with nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) are negative for Chlamydia trachomatis, mycoplasmas, and ureaplasmas. The optimal antimicrobial chemotherapy for such NGU has not fully been clarified. We assessed the efficacy of azithromycin for treatment of nonmycoplasmal, nonureaplasmal, nonchlamydial NGU (NMNUNCNGU). Thirty-eight men whose first-pass urine was negative for Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum, and Ureaplasma urealyticum were treated with a single dose of 1 g azithromycin. Urethritis symptoms and polymorphonuclear leukocytes in urethral smears or in first-pass urine were assessed before and after treatment with azithromycin. Thirty-two (84.2%) of the 38 men with NMNUNCNGU showed no signs of urethral inflammation after treatment. The efficacy of this azithromycin regimen was comparable to that of the 7-day regimen of levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, minocycline, or clarithromycin reported previously. A single dose of 1 g azithromycin, which is effective not only for NGU due to specific pathogens but also for NMNUNCNGU, is an appropriate treatment for NGU.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Azitromicina/administração & dosagem , Uretrite/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Leucócitos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycoplasmataceae/isolamento & purificação , Uretrite/microbiologia , Uretrite/patologia , Urina/citologia
14.
Environ Microbiol ; 10(10): 2497-504, 2008 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18833647

RESUMO

Mycoplasms are known as pathogens of economic and medical interest in plants, animals and man. Here, we show a positive correlation between the presence of Mycoplasma-like symbionts in their isopod hosts and survivorship on low-quality food. Most isopods that survived feeding on a cellulose-based low-quality diet for 90 days harboured 'Candidatus Hepatoplasma' in their midgut glands, while those that died within 90 days mostly either harboured no or other bacterial symbionts. We detected 'Candidatus Hepatoplasma' in all but one of the examined species of terrestrial isopods from different habitats and locations, suggesting an evolutionarily ancient association between terrestrial isopods and their Mycoplasma-like symbionts. Phylogenetic analyses clustered symbionts from different populations of the same isopod species together, and clearly distinguished between symbionts of different isopod species, indicating host-specificity of 'Candidatus Hepatoplasma', although a previous study provided evidence for environmental symbiont transmission. Nonetheless, horizontal exchange of symbionts between species may have been possible in evolutionary earlier stages, as suggested by only limited congruency of phylogenetic trees of hosts and symbionts. Another symbiont, 'Candidatus Hepatincola porcellionum', was only detected in midgut glands of the most terrestrial tribe of isopods (Crinocheta), suggesting an evolutionarily younger host-symbiont association. This symbiont proved to be negatively correlated with host longevity, even on high-quality food.


Assuntos
Alphaproteobacteria/classificação , Alphaproteobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Isópodes/microbiologia , Mycoplasmataceae/classificação , Mycoplasmataceae/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Alphaproteobacteria/genética , Animais , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mycoplasmataceae/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
15.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1081: 492-7, 2006 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17135557

RESUMO

Several organisms from a number of prokaryotic and eukaryotic groups have presented problems for systematists for a long time. Both phenotypic and genotypic methods for sorting out these relationships have been employed. There are limitations with each method when taken alone. Since the purpose of systematics is to determine the correct genealogical relationships among biological organisms, it is necessary to use all available means to arrive at consensus associations, and polyphasic taxonomy, which takes into consideration both methods, is a rational approach. In this short article, we provide a number of examples where polyphasic taxonomy is serving as the means of arriving at the desired consensus.


Assuntos
Ehrlichia/classificação , Ixodidae/classificação , Mycoplasmataceae/classificação , Filogenia , Piroplasmida/classificação , Animais , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 70(10): 6166-72, 2004 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15466563

RESUMO

Uncultivated bacteria that densely colonize the midgut glands (hepatopancreas) of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda) were identified by cloning and sequencing of their 16S rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these symbionts represent a novel lineage of the Mollicutes and are only distantly related (<82% sequence identity) to members of the Mycoplasmatales and Entomoplasmatales. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with a specific oligonucleotide probe confirmed that the amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences indeed originated from a homogeneous population of symbionts intimately associated with the epithelial surface of the hepatopancreas. The same probe also detected morphotypically identical symbionts in other crinochete isopods. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed uniform spherical bacterial cells without a cell wall, sometimes interacting with the microvilli of the brush border by means of stalk-like cytoplasmic appendages, which also appeared to be involved in cell division through budding. Based on the isolated phylogenetic position and unique cytological properties, the provisional name "Candidatus Hepatoplasma crinochetorum" is proposed for this new taxon of Mollicutes colonizing the hepatopancreas of P. scaber.


Assuntos
Isópodes/microbiologia , Mycoplasmataceae/classificação , Mycoplasmataceae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Clonagem Molecular , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Sistema Digestório/microbiologia , Evolução Molecular , Genes Bacterianos , Microscopia Eletrônica , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mycoplasmataceae/genética , Mycoplasmataceae/ultraestrutura , Filogenia , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Simbiose
18.
Proc Biol Sci ; 271 Suppl 4: S127-30, 2004 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15252962

RESUMO

The amino acid compositions of 11 Gram-positive and 12 Gram-negative eubacteria were determined from their complete genomes. They were classified into two groups, 'S-type' represented by Staphylococcus aureus and 'E-type' represented by Escherichia coli, based on their patterns of amino acid compositions determined from the complete genome. These two groups were characterized by their concentrations of Arg, Ala and Lys. Mycoplasmas, which lack a cell wall, belonged to the 'S-type', while Gram-positive mycobacteria belonged to the 'E-type'. Rickettsia prowazekii, Borrelia burgdorferi, Campylobacter jejuni and Helicobacter pylori, which are Gram-negative, belong to the 'S-type'. The classification into two groups based on their amino acid compositions determined from the complete genome was independent of Gram staining. In addition, the amino acid composition based on the plasmid resembled that based on the parent complete genome.


Assuntos
Genoma Bacteriano , Mycoplasmataceae/classificação , Mycoplasmataceae/genética , Plasmídeos/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Aminoácidos/genética , Violeta Genciana , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Fenazinas , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
J Clin Microbiol ; 42(4): 1528-33, 2004 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15070999

RESUMO

Ureaplasma, spp. Mycoplasma genitalium, and Mycoplasma hominis are associated with infection of the genitourinary tract, reproductive failure, and neonatal morbidity and mortality. We have developed a multiplex PCR for the detection of these Mycoplasmatales in a single amplification reaction. The analytical sensitivities of this assay were 10.8, 10.8, and 8.8 CFU for each organism, respectively. This multiplex PCR was compared to culture on 26 cervical swabs, 2 vaginal swabs, 4 female urine specimens, 49 semen samples, 2 male urine specimens, and 1 nonspecified sample. A total of 21 specimens were culture positive (25%); 17 of these were PCR positive. An additional 11 specimens were PCR positive but culture negative. Of the 21 culture-positive specimens, 17 (81%) grew Ureaplasma spp. and 4 (19%) grew Mycoplasma spp. Of the 28 PCR-positive specimens, Ureaplasma spp. was detected in 23 (82%), M. hominis was detected in 3 (11%), and both were detected in 2 (7%). In a confirmatory analysis, all samples were tested by amplification of a second target of the ureaplasma genome. True-positive cases were defined as a positive result by culture or by both amplification assays. The multiplex PCR detected organisms in 26 of the 30 true-positive specimens, as well as in 2 other specimens. Based on a 36% prevalence of infection, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of multiplex PCR analyses were 87, 96, 94, and 93%, respectively. Multiplex PCR offers a rapid, sensitive, and easy method to detect genital mycoplasmas.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/microbiologia , Mycoplasmataceae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Mycoplasmatales/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Meios de Cultura , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mycoplasmataceae/classificação , Mycoplasmataceae/genética , Mycoplasmataceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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