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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110953, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800227

RESUMO

Heavy metal acclimated bacteria are profoundly the preferred choice for bioremediation studies. Bacteria get acclimated to toxic concentrations of heavy metals by induction of specific enzymes and genetic selection favoring new metabolic abilities leading to activation of one or several of resistance mechanisms creating bacterial populations with differences in resistance profile and/or level. Therefore, to use in bioremediation processes, it is important to discriminate acclimated bacterial populations and choose a more resistant strain. In this study, we discriminated heavy metal acclimated bacteria by using Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and multivariate analysis methods namely Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA). Two acclimation methods, acute and gradual, were used which cause differences in molecular changes resulting in bacterial populations with different molecular and resistance profiles. Brevundimonas sp., Gordonia sp., and Microbacterium oxydans were exposed to the toxic concentrations of Cd (30 µg/ml) or Pb (90 µg/ml) by using broth medium as a growth media. Our results revealed that PCA and HCA clearly discriminated the acute-acclimated, gradual-acclimated, and control bacteria from each other in protein, carbohydrate, and whole spectral regions. Furthermore, we classified acclimated (acute and gradual) and control bacteria more accurately by using SIMCA with 99.9% confidence. This study demonstrated that heavy metal acclimated and control group bacteria can be discriminated by using chemometric analysis of FTIR spectra in a powerful, cost-effective, and handy way. In addition to the determination of the most appropriate acclimation procedure, this approach can be used in the detection of the most resistant bacterial strains to be used in bioremediation studies.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Actinobacteria/efeitos dos fármacos , Caulobacteraceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Actinobacteria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biodegradação Ambiental , Caulobacteraceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise por Conglomerados , Meios de Cultura , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
2.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1548, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733487

RESUMO

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has been causing varying severities of illness. Some are asymptomatic and some develop severe disease leading to mortality across ages. This contrast triggered us explore the causes, with the background that a vaccine for effective immunization or a drug to tackle COVID-19 is not too close to reality. We have discussed strategies to combat COVID-19 through immune enhancement, using simple measures including nutritional supplements. Discussion: A literature search on mortality-related comorbid conditions was performed. For those conditions, we analyzed the pro-inflammatory cytokines, which could cause the draining of the immune reservoir. We also analyzed the immune markers necessary for the defense mechanism/immune surveillance against COVID-19, especially through simple means including immune enhancing nutritional supplement consumption, and we suggest strategies to combat COVID-19. Major comorbid conditions associated with increased mortality include cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, being immunocompromised by cancer, and severe kidney disease with a senile immune system. Consumption of Aureobasidium pullulans strain (AFO-202) beta 1,3-1,6 glucan supported enhanced IL-8, sFAS macrophage activity, and NK cells' cytotoxicity, which are major defense mechanisms against viral infection. Conclusion: People with co-morbid conditions who are more prone to COVID-19-related deaths due to immune dysregulation are likely to benefit from consuming nutritional supplements that enhance the immune system. We recommend clinical studies to validate AFO-202 beta glucan in COVID-19 patients to prove its efficacy in overcoming a hyper-inflammation status, thus reducing the mortality, until a definite vaccine is made available.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Actinobacteria/química , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/imunologia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/dietoterapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Citocinas/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/imunologia , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Neoplasias/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/dietoterapia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/imunologia , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , beta-Glucanas/uso terapêutico
3.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(8): 4683-4690, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692642

RESUMO

Four novel strains (592T, S592, MF47T and SMF47) were isolated from Tibetan antelopes (Pantholops hodgsonii) and plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae), respectively. The cells were aerobic, non-motile, Gram-stain- and catalase-positive, rod-shaped bacteria. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the four strains showed highest similarities to Aeromicrobium fastidiosum DSM 10552T (98.1, 98.6, 98.7 and 98.7 %, respectively), and the phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene and genomic sequences indicated that strains 592T and MF47T represent two novel species. The four isolates produced acid from l-rhamnose, d-xylose and cellobiose, but were unable to reduce nitrate. The DNA G+C contents of strains 592T and MF47T were 70.3 and 69.8 mol%, respectively. The digital DNA-DNA hybridization value between strains 592T and MF47T was 32.6 %, lower than the threshold of 70 %, indicating they belong to different species. The four strains' genomes displayed less than 24.6 % DNA-DNA relatedness with all available genomes of the genus Aeromicrobium in the NCBI database, including Aeromicrobium fastidiosum NBRC 14897T and Aeromicrobium ginsengisoli JCM 14732T. The major fatty acids of the four strains were C18 : 1 ω9c and C18 : 0 10-methyl, and the main polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol. The predominant respiratory quinones were MK-9(H4) and MK-8(H4). The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained ll-diaminopimelic acid. Based on these genotypic, phenotypic and biochemical analyses, it is proposed that the four unidentified bacteria be classified as two novel species, Aeromicrobium chenweiae sp. nov. and Aeromicrobium yanjiei sp. nov. The type strains are 592T (=CGMCC1.16526T=DSM 106289T) and MF47T (=CGMCC 1.17444T=JCM 33790T), respectively.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/classificação , Antílopes/microbiologia , Lagomorpha/microbiologia , Filogenia , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácido Diaminopimélico/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Peptidoglicano/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tibet , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
4.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(8): 4782-4790, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701429

RESUMO

The filamentous actinomycete that produces the antibiotic GE23077 was isolated by the Lepetit Research Group from a soil sample collected in Thailand, and it was classified as a member of the genus Actinomadura on the basis of its morphology and cell-wall composition. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that this strain formed a distinct monophyletic line within the genus Actinomadura, and it was most closely related to Actinomadura bangladeshensis DSM 45347T (99.31 % similarity) and Actinomadura mexicana DSM 44485T (98.94 %). The GE23077-producing strain formed an extensively branched, non-fragmented vegetative mycelium; no pseudosporangia were formed and the arthrospores were organized in slightly twisted chains. The cell wall contained meso-2,6-diaminopimelic acid and the diagnostic sugar was madurose. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H6), with minor amounts of MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H4). The diagnostic phospholipids were phosphatidylinositol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The major cellular fatty acids were C16 : 0 and tuberculostearic acid (10-methyloctadecanoic acid), followed by minor amounts of C18:1ω9c, C16:1ω7c and 10-methylheptadecanoic acid. The genomic DNA G+C content was 71.77 mol%. Significant differences in the morphological, chemotaxonomic and biochemical data, and the low DNA-DNA relatedness between the GE23077-producing strain and closely related type strains clearly demonstrate that it represents a novel species of the genus Actinomadura, for which the name Actinomadura lepetitiana sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NRRL B-65521T(=LMG 31258T=DSM 109019T).


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/classificação , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácido Diaminopimélico/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tailândia , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(29): 17195-17203, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606248

RESUMO

The vast majority of intracellular protein targets are refractory toward small-molecule therapeutic engagement, and additional therapeutic modalities are needed to overcome this deficiency. Here, the identification and characterization of a natural product, WDB002, reveals a therapeutic modality that dramatically expands the currently accepted limits of druggability. WDB002, in complex with the FK506-binding protein (FKBP12), potently and selectively binds the human centrosomal protein 250 (CEP250), resulting in disruption of CEP250 function in cells. The recognition mode is unprecedented in that the targeted domain of CEP250 is a coiled coil and is topologically featureless, embodying both a structural motif and surface topology previously considered on the extreme limits of "undruggability" for an intracellular target. Structural studies reveal extensive protein-WDB002 and protein-protein contacts, with the latter being distinct from those seen in FKBP12 ternary complexes formed by FK506 and rapamycin. Outward-facing structural changes in a bound small molecule can thus reprogram FKBP12 to engage diverse, otherwise "undruggable" targets. The flat-targeting modality demonstrated here has the potential to expand the druggable target range of small-molecule therapeutics. As CEP250 was recently found to be an interaction partner with the Nsp13 protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19 disease, it is possible that WDB002 or an analog may exert useful antiviral activity through its ability to form high-affinity ternary complexes containing CEP250 and FKBP12.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Proteína 1A de Ligação a Tacrolimo/química , Proteína 1A de Ligação a Tacrolimo/metabolismo , Actinobacteria/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Autoantígenos/genética , Autoantígenos/metabolismo , Calcineurina/genética , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Homologia de Sequência , Sirolimo/química , Sirolimo/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
6.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(7): 4358-4363, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618556

RESUMO

A novel Gram-positive, aerobic and motile endophytic actinomycete, designated TRM 65233T, was isolated from the root of Peganum harmala L. collected from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. The isolate had white aerial mycelium and brown substrate mycelium on Gause's synthetic agar. Growth occurred at 10-40 °C, pH 6-9 with NaCl concentration of 0-6 % (w/v). Strain TRM 65233T contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The whole-cell hydrolysates included glucose and galactose as the major whole-cell sugars. The menaquinones were MK-9 (H4) and MK-7. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. The polar lipid profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phospholipids, phosphatidylinositol and one unidentified lipid. Strain TRM 65233T showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Actinokineospora cianjurensis BTCC B-558T (98.13 %), Actinokineospora auranticolor IFO 16518T (98.06 %), Actinokineospora spheciospongiae EG49T (97.99 %), Actinokineospora baliensis ID03-0561T (97.97 %), Actinokineospora mzabensis PAL84T (97.95 %) and Actinokineospora bangkokensis 44EHWT (97.06 %). The isolate was distinguished from these phylogenetically related strains by digital DNA-DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity analyses and by a range of physiological and biochemical characteristics. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 72.6 mol%. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic data, strain TRM 65233T represents a novel species of the genus Actinokineospora, for which the name Actinokineospora pegani sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TRM 65233T (KCTC 49342=CCTCC AA 2019050).


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/classificação , Peganum/microbiologia , Filogenia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácido Diaminopimélico/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667394

RESUMO

Myiasis represents a group of neglected tropical diseases caused by the infestation of vertebrate tissues by dipterous larvae. We herein report an imported case of foruncular myasis caused by Dermatobia hominis in Mexico City. The species was confirmed by DNA sequencing and phylogenetic reconstruction analysis.


Assuntos
Dípteros/genética , Dípteros/parasitologia , Larva , Miíase/diagnóstico , Dermatopatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Actinobacteria , Adulto , Animais , Humanos , México , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Viagem
9.
J Environ Manage ; 270: 110825, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501236

RESUMO

Nowadays, the production of green transportation fuels is essential for a healthy life and environment. Effective and complete removal of organosulfur recalcitrant compounds from fuel oils is crucial to meet the stringent requirements of sulfur standards. However, the industry's solution (Hydrodesulfurization, HDS) is not effective in the removal of complex sulfur heterocyclic hydrocarbons. Thus, the development of more efficient and ecofriendly/sustainable desulfurization methods is critical, as either an alternative or a complement to HDS, foreseeing the production of ultra-low sulfur fuels (ULSF). Among the desulfurization techniques available, microbial desulfurization of organosulfur hydrocarbons (biodesulfurization, BDS) is attracting great attention. BDS is carried out at mild operation conditions, making it energetically cheaper and more ecofriendly, since it does not require hydrogen and produces far less greenhouse gases emission than HDS. In this context, the behavior of Gordonia alkanivorans strain 1B, a desulfurizing bacterium and hyper-pigment producer, was evaluated in the presence of four sulfur sources common in fuel oils: dibenzothiophene (DBT); 4-mDBT; 4,6-dmDBT and 4,6-deDBT (single/mixed), in terms of both desulfurization rate and overall carotenoid production. Simultaneously, the influence of the carbon source used (fructose vs glucose) on the overall effectiveness of the coupled bioprocesses was also assessed. The results obtained highlight the potential of strain 1B to desulfurize all the tested recalcitrant compounds and simultaneously produce carotenoids. However, the highest BDS values were observed for 4,6-deDBT (5.75 µmol/g (DCW)/h) and for the mix of DBTs (5.20 µmol/g (DCW)/h), when fructose was used as carbon source. Indeed, when the mixture of DBTs ("model oil surrogate") was desulfurized by cells growing in fructose both desulfurization rate and total pigments amount were higher than those observed for glucose growing cells. Moreover, under these conditions, the strain 1B was able to produce high added-value carotenoids, namely astaxanthin, lutein and canthaxanthin. Hence, these results are promising when aiming to achieve a scale-up scenario. In fact, the inclusion of the production of high added-value products within a BDS process targeting ULSF may be a sustainable way to turn its scale-up economically viable.


Assuntos
Gordonia (Bactéria) , Tiofenos , Actinobacteria , Biodegradação Ambiental , Carotenoides
10.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234636, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555720

RESUMO

The bacteriophage population is vast, dynamic, old, and genetically diverse. The genomics of phages that infect bacterial hosts in the phylum Actinobacteria show them to not only be diverse but also pervasively mosaic, and replete with genes of unknown function. To further explore this broad group of bacteriophages, we describe here the isolation and genomic characterization of 116 phages that infect Microbacterium spp. Most of the phages are lytic, and can be grouped into twelve clusters according to their overall relatedness; seven of the phages are singletons with no close relatives. Genome sizes vary from 17.3 kbp to 97.7 kbp, and their G+C% content ranges from 51.4% to 71.4%, compared to ~67% for their Microbacterium hosts. The phages were isolated on five different Microbacterium species, but typically do not efficiently infect strains beyond the one on which they were isolated. These Microbacterium phages contain many novel features, including very large viral genes (13.5 kbp) and unusual fusions of structural proteins, including a fusion of VIP2 toxin and a MuF-like protein into a single gene. These phages and their genetic components such as integration systems, recombineering tools, and phage-mediated delivery systems, will be useful resources for advancing Microbacterium genetics.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/virologia , Bacteriófagos/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral , Bacteriófagos/classificação , Bacteriófagos/isolamento & purificação , Composição de Bases , DNA Viral/genética , Genes Virais , Genômica , Filogenia , Proteínas Virais de Fusão/genética
11.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(6): 3845-3851, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501782

RESUMO

A novel endophytic actinomycete, designated strain p1410T, was isolated from the root of cattail pollen (Typha angustifolia L.) and characterized using a polyphasic approach. The strain had morphological characteristics and chemotaxonomic properties identical to those of members of the genus Nonomuraea. It produced spiral chains of spores on aerial mycelium as well as forming a pseudosporangium. Whole-cell hydrolysates contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, glucose, ribose and madurose. The menaquinones detected were MK-9(H2), MK-9(H4) and MK-9(H0). The major fatty acids were 10-methyl C17 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and C17 : 0. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, hydroxyphosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and an unknown glycolipid. The DNA G+C content of the draft genome sequence, consisting of 11.4 Mbp, was 70.9 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain p1410T belongs to the genus Nonomuraea with the highest sequence similarity to Nonomuraea candida HMC10T (98.6 %), but phylogenetically clustered with Nonomuraea endophytica YIM 65601T (98.4 %) and Nonomuraea longicatena NRRL 15532T (98.3 %). Based on its phenotypic characteristics, DNA-DNA relatedness and average nucleotide identity, the strain is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Nonomuraea, for which the name Nonomuraea typhae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is p1410T (=CCTCC AA 2019044T=JCM 33461T).


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/classificação , Filogenia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Typhaceae/microbiologia , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácido Diaminopimélico/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
12.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(7): 4179-4185, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558636

RESUMO

A novel moderately halophilic, filamentous actinobacterium, designated as XMNu-373T, was isolated from a saline-alkaline soil sample collected from the Mongolia Plateau, Dongwu County, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, PR China. The isolate grew optimally at 28‒37 °C, pH 7.0‒8.0 and with 2-5 % (w/v) NaCl. The substrate mycelia fragmented into rod-like elements, and the white aerial mycelia formed spore chains at maturity. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H4). The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, three unidentified phosphoglycolipids, an unidentified aminophospholipid, two phosphatidylinositol mannosides, four unidentified phospholipids, phosphatidylglycerol and two unidentified lipids. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. The genomic DNA G+C content was 66.2 mol%. It shared high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to Phytoactinopolyspora halotolerans YIM 96448T (96.1 %) and Phytoactinopolyspora endophytica EGI 60009T (96.0 %). Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain XMNu-373T resided in the clade of family Jiangellaceae, and it formed a monophyletic branch distinct from four other recognized type species in the subclade of the genus Phytoactinopolyspora. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic evidence, strain XMNu-373T represents a novel species of the genus Phytoactinopolyspora, for which the name Phytoactinopolyspora mesophila sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is XMNu-373T (=JCM 33740T=CGMCC 4.7654T).


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/classificação , Álcalis , Filogenia , Salinidade , Microbiologia do Solo , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácido Diaminopimélico/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Solo/química , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
13.
J Endod ; 46(8): 1105-1112, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497654

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Because active bacteria present a higher abundance of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) than DNA (rRNA gene), the rRNA/DNA ratio of next-generation sequencing (NGS) data was measured to search for active bacteria in endodontic infections. METHODS: Paired complementary DNA and DNA samples from 5 root canals of teeth with apical periodontitis were subjected to polymerase chain reaction with bar-coded primers amplifying the 16S rRNA gene hypervariable regions V4-V5. High-throughput sequencing was performed using MiSeq (Illumina, San Deigo, CA), and data were analyzed using Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology and Human Oral Microbiome Database. Statistical analysis was performed for relative abundance of bacteria in the DNA- and rRNA-based NGS data using the Mann-Whitney test, whereas differences in the diversity and richness indexes were assessed using a nonparametric 2-sample t test (P < .05). For bacterial taxa detected in both approaches, the rRNA/DNA ratios were calculated by dividing the average abundance of individual species in the respective analysis. RESULTS: Although no significant difference was found in the indexes of bacterial richness and diversity, the relative abundance of bacterial members varied in both analyses. Comparing rRNA with DNA data, there was a significant decrease in the relative abundance of Firmicutes (P < .05). The bacterial taxa Bacteroidales [G-2] bacterium HMT 274, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Tannerella forsythia, Alloprevotella tannerae, Prevotella intermedia, Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus, Olsenella sp. HMT 809, Olsenella sp. HMT 939, Olsenella uli, and Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. animalis were both dominant (DNA ≥ 1%) and active (rRNA/DNA ≥ 1). CONCLUSIONS: The integrated DNA- and rRNA-based NGS strategy was particularly important to disclose the activity of as-yet-uncultivated or difficult-to-culture bacteria in endodontic infections.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Actinobacteria , Bactérias , Clostridiales , DNA Bacteriano , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S
14.
Chimia (Aarau) ; 74(5): 382-390, 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482215

RESUMO

Actinomycetes strains isolated from different habitats in Switzerland were investigated for production of antibacterial and antitumoral compounds. Based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequences, the isolated strains were identified to genus level. Streptomyces as the largest genus of Actinobacteriawas isolated the most frequently. A screening assay using the OmniLog instrument was established to facilitate the detection of active compounds from actinomycetes. Extracts prepared from the cultivated strains able to inhibit Staphylococcus aureusand Escherichia coliwere further analysed by HPLC and MALDI-TOF MS to identify the produced antibiotics. In this study, the bioactive compound echinomycin was identified from two isolated Streptomycesstrains. Natural compounds similar to TPU-0037-C, azalomycin F4a 2-ethylpentyl ester, a derivative of bafilomycin A1, milbemycin-α8 and dihydropicromycin were detected from different isolated Streptomyces strains. Milbemycin-α8 showed cytotoxic activity against HT-29 colon cancer cells. The rare actinomycete,Micromonospora sp. Stup16_C148 produced a compound that matches with the antibiotic bottromycin A2. The draft genome sequence from Actinokineospora strain B136.1 was determined using Illumina and nanopore-based technologies. The isolated strain was not able to produce antibacterial compounds under standard cultivation conditions. The antiSMASH bioinformatics analyses of the genome from strain B136.1 identified biosynthetic gene clusters with identity values between 4% to 90% to known gene clusters encoding antibiotics. The combinations of cultivation conditions, screening assays, analytical methods and genome mining are important tools to characterize strains of actinomycetes for the identification of their potential to produce natural compounds with antimicrobial activity.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Streptomyces , Suíça
15.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(6): 3930-3931, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496182

RESUMO

According to Rule 37a of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes, the name of a taxon must be changed if the nomenclatural type of the taxon is excluded. Recently, in a transfer of actinobacterial species, three species - Friedmanniella endophytica Tuo et al. 2016, Lysinimicrobium sediminis Hamada et al. 2017 and Lechevalieria rhizosphaerae Zhao et al. 2017 - were not transferred with their type species. Therefore, to resolve these nomenclatural issues, Microlunatus kandeliicorticis nom. nov., Demequina sediminis comb. nov. and Lentzea rhizosphaerae comb. nov. are proposed, respectively.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/classificação , Filogenia , Propionibacteriaceae/classificação
16.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(6): 3852-3858, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501198

RESUMO

A novel marine actinobacterium, strain SCSIO 58843T, was isolated from the sediment sample collected from the South China Sea. Strain SCSIO 58843T was Gram-stain-positive, aerobic and rod shaped. The whole-cell hydrolysis of amino acids contained dd-DAP, alanine, glutamic acid, glycine and aspartic acid. The main menaquinone was MK-9(H8). The major fatty acids were C17 : 1 ω8c and C17 : 0. The major phospholipids were diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phospatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylinositolmannoside (PIM). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 72.5 %. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain SCSIO 58843T formed a new lineage in the family Iamiaceae and had the highest similarity of 93.8 % with Iamia majanohamensis DSM 19957T. Strain SCSIO 58843T can be distinguished from these known genera in the family Iamiaceae by polyphasic data analyses, and represents a novel genus and novel species, for which Actinomarinicola tropica gen. nov., sp. nov is proposed with the type strain SCSIO 58843T(=KCTC 49408T=CGMCC 1.17503T).


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/classificação , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Filogenia , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
17.
Water Sci Technol ; 81(5): 949-960, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541113

RESUMO

Foam potential and viscometer ramp tests (VRTs) were conducted for three municipal wastewater treatment plants to determine if these methods can relate to mechanisms of foaming to physical and biological constituents in sludge. At all plants, digester volatile solids (VS) concentration correlated (R2 > 0.41) with increases in plastic viscosity, a VRT parameter corresponding to foaming risk. Plastic viscosity also correlated with foam-causing bacteria Gordonia (R2 = 0.38). Foam potential test values increased with Microthrix parvicella (R2> 0.28). For one plant, suspected foam-causing bacteria Mycobacterium negatively correlated with parameters representing foam risk. Microscopic filament counting correlated (R2 = 0.97) with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for Gordonia, suggesting that the more accessible counting method can reliably quantify foam-causing bacteria. Foam potential tests and VRTs resulted in plant-specific correlations with foam-related constituents. Therefore, these tests may provide useful evidence when investigating causes of digester foam events.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria , Esgotos , Reatores Biológicos , Reologia , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias
18.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(5): 3513-3527, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374252

RESUMO

Three presumptive Modestobacter strains isolated from a high altitude Atacama Desert soil were the subject of a polyphasic study. The isolates, strains 1G4T, 1G51 and 1G52, were found to have chemotaxonomic and morphological properties that were consistent with their assignment to the genus Modestobacter. They formed a well supported clade in Modestobacter 16S rRNA gene trees and were most closely related to the type strain of 'Modestobacter excelsi' (99.8-99.9% similarity). They were also closely related to the type strains of Modestobacter caceresii (99.6 % similarity), Modestobacter italicus (99.7-99.9% similarity), Modestobacter lacusdianchii (98.4-99.2% similarity), Modestobacter marinus (99.4-99.5% similarity) and Modestobacter roseus (99.3-99.5% similarity), but were distinguished from their closest relatives by a combination of phenotypic features. Average nucleotide identity and digital DNA:DNA hybridization similarities drawn from comparisons of draft genome sequences of isolate 1G4T and its closest phylogenetic neighbours mentioned above, were well below the threshold used to assign closely related strains to the same species. The close relationship between isolate 1G4T and the type strain of M. excelsi was showed in a phylogenomic tree containing representative strains of family Geodermatophilaceae. The draft genome sequence of isolate 1G4T (size 5.18 Kb) was shown to be rich in stress related genes providing further evidence that the abundance of Modestobacter propagules in Atacama Desert habitats reflects their adaptation to the harsh environmental conditions prevalent in this biome. In light of all of these data it is proposed that the isolates be assigned to a novel species in the genus Modestobacter. The name proposed for this taxon is Modestobacter altitudinis sp. nov., with isolate 1G4T (=DSM 107534T=PCM 3003T) as the type strain.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/classificação , Clima Desértico , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Chile , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(5): 3226-3233, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375929

RESUMO

A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-C151T, was isolated from soil collected from Mount Song and characterized using a polyphasic approach. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain NEAU-C151T belongs to the genus Streptomyces and exhibited 97.5, 97.4 and 97.4 % similarities to Streptomyces lincolnensis NRRL 2936T, Streptomyces coacervatus AS-0823T, and Streptomyces longisporus ISP 5166T, respectively. The assignment of strain NEAU-C151T to the genus Streptomyces was confirmed by chemotaxonomic data: anteiso-C15 : 0, C16 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, C16 : 1 (ω7c) and anteiso-C17 : 0 as the major cellular fatty acids; whole-cell sugars contained ribose and glucose; phospholipid profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), unidentified phospholipid (PL), unidentified lipids (L) and phosphatidylinositol mannoside (PIM); the menaquinones were MK-9(H4), MK-9(H6), MK-10(H2) and MK-9(H8). However, multilocus sequence analysis based on five other house-keeping genes (atpD, gyrB, recA, rpoB, and trpB), DNA-DNA relatedness and phenotypic data showed that strain NEAU-C151T could be distinguished from its closest relatives. Consequently, strain NEAU-C151T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces montanus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-C151T (=CGMCC 4.7498T=DSM 107808T).


Assuntos
Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo , Streptomyces/classificação , Actinobacteria/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Genes Bacterianos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Streptomyces/isolamento & purificação , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
20.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(5): 3340-3347, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375935

RESUMO

A novel Gram-stain-positive, actinobacterial strain, designated C5-26T, was isolated from soil from a natural cave in Jeju, Republic of Korea, and its taxonomic position was investigated using a polyphasic approach. The organism was aerobic, and cells were non-spore-forming, non-motile cocci that occurred singly, in pairs, in triplets, in tetrads, in short chains or in irregular clusters. Colonies of the cells were circular, convex, entire and white. The peptidoglycan type was A4α with an l-Ser-d-Asp interpeptide bridge. The whole-cell sugars comprised glucose, rhamnose, mannose, arabinose, galactose and ribose. The major menaquinone was MK-8(H4). The polar lipids contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and an unidentified phospholipid. The major fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0 and iso-C16 : 1 h. The size of the draft genome was 5.32 Mbp with depth of coverage of 161×. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 67.1 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the novel isolate belonged to the family Dermacoccaceae and formed a distinct subcluster at the base of the radiation of the genus Luteipulveratus. Highest sequence similarities of the novel isolate were found to the type strains of Luteipulveratus halotolerans (96.2 %), Branchiibius hedensis (95.4 %), Luteipulveratus mongoliensis (95.4 %) and Branchiibius cervicis (95.3 %). The whole genome-based phylogeny supported the novelty of the isolate at the genus level in the family Dermacoccaceae. On the basis of data from this polyphasic study, strain C5-26T (=KCTC 39632T=DSM 108676T) represents a novel species of a new genus in the family Dermacoccaceae, for which the name Leekyejoonella antrihumi gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/classificação , Cavernas/microbiologia , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Parede Celular/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Peptidoglicano/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
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