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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 739: 139752, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846506

RESUMO

The Ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) and variants, particularly the microvariants (µVars), are virulent and economically devastating viruses impacting oysters. Since 2008 OsHV-1 µVars have emerged rapidly having particularly damaging effects on aquaculture industries in Europe, Australia and New Zealand. We conducted field trials in Tomales Bay (TB), California where a non-µVar strain of OsHV-1 is established and demonstrated differential mortality of naturally exposed seed of three stocks of Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, and one stock of Kumamoto oyster, C. sikamea. Oysters exposed in the field experienced differential mortality that ranged from 64 to 99% in Pacific oysters (Tasmania>Midori = Willapa stocks), which was much higher than that of Kumamoto oysters (25%). Injection trials were done using French (FRA) and Australian (AUS) µVars with the same oyster stocks as planted in the field and, in addition, two stocks of the Eastern oyster, C. virginica. No mortality was observed in control oysters. One C. virginica stock suffered ~10% mortality when challenged with both µVars tested. Two Pacific oyster stocks suffered 75 to 90% mortality, while one C. gigas stock had relatively low mortality when challenged with the AUS µVar (~22%) and higher mortality when challenged with the French µVar (~72%). Conversely, C. sikamea suffered lower mortality when challenged with the French µVar (~22%) and higher mortality with the AUS µVar (~44%). All dead oysters had higher viral loads (~1000×) as measured by quantitative PCR relative to those that survived. However, some survivors had high levels of virus, including those from species with lower mortality. Field mortality in TB correlated with laboratory mortality of the FRA µVar (69% correlation) but not with that of the AUS µVar, which also lacked correlation with the FRA µVar. The variation in response to OsHV-1 variant challenges by oyster species and stocks demonstrates the need for empirical assessment of multiple OsHV-1 variants.


Assuntos
Crassostrea , Herpesviridae , Animais , Austrália , Vírus de DNA , Europa (Continente) , Nova Zelândia , Tasmânia
2.
Biomolecules ; 10(8)2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32752270

RESUMO

Posttranslational modifications of cellular proteins by covalent conjugation of ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like polypeptides regulate numerous cellular processes that are captured by viruses to promote infection, replication, and spreading. The importance of these protein modifications for the viral life cycle is underscored by the discovery that many viruses encode deconjugases that reverse their functions. The structural and functional characterization of these viral enzymes and the identification of their viral and cellular substrates is providing valuable insights into the biology of viral infections and the host's antiviral defense. Given the growing body of evidence demonstrating their key contribution to pathogenesis, the viral deconjugases are now recognized as attractive targets for the design of novel antiviral therapeutics.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Enzimas/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Viroses/metabolismo , Adenoviridae/enzimologia , Coronavirus/enzimologia , Enzimas/química , Herpesviridae/enzimologia , Humanos , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteínas Virais/química , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3748, 2020 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719311

RESUMO

Flagellotropic bacteriophages engage flagella to reach the bacterial surface as an effective means to increase the capture radius for predation. Structural details of these viruses are of great interest given the substantial drag forces and torques they face when moving down the spinning flagellum. We show that the main capsid and auxiliary proteins form two nested chainmails that ensure the integrity of the bacteriophage head. Core stabilising structures are conserved in herpesviruses suggesting their ancestral origin. The structure of the tail also reveals a robust yet pliable assembly. Hexameric rings of the tail-tube protein are braced by the N-terminus and a ß-hairpin loop, and interconnected along the tail by the splayed ß-hairpins. By contrast, we show that the ß-hairpin has an inhibitory role in the tail-tube precursor, preventing uncontrolled self-assembly. Dyads of acidic residues inside the tail-tube present regularly-spaced motifs well suited to DNA translocation into bacteria through the tail.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos/fisiologia , Flagelos/fisiologia , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Bacteriófagos/ultraestrutura , Proteínas do Capsídeo/química , Proteínas do Capsídeo/metabolismo , DNA/genética , DNA Viral/genética , Flagelos/ultraestrutura , Herpesviridae/ultraestrutura , Multimerização Proteica , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Vírion/ultraestrutura , Vitrificação
4.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(7): e1008604, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702029

RESUMO

Drug resistance in viruses represents one of the major challenges of healthcare. As part of an effort to provide a treatment that avoids the possibility of drug resistance, we discovered a novel mechanism of action (MOA) and specific compounds to treat all nine human herpesviruses and animal herpesviruses. The novel MOA targets the pressurized genome state in a viral capsid, "turns off" capsid pressure, and blocks viral genome ejection into a cell nucleus, preventing viral replication. This work serves as a proof-of-concept to demonstrate the feasibility of a new antiviral target-suppressing pressure-driven viral genome ejection-that is likely impervious to developing drug resistance. This pivotal finding presents a platform for discovery of a new class of broad-spectrum treatments for herpesviruses and other viral infections with genome-pressure-dependent replication. A biophysical approach to antiviral treatment such as this is also a vital strategy to prevent the spread of emerging viruses where vaccine development is challenged by high mutation rates or other evasion mechanisms.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Capsídeo/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Herpesviridae , Herpesviridae/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Capsídeo/fisiologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , DNA Viral/fisiologia , Herpesviridae/fisiologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Ratos , Células Vero , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Arch Virol ; 165(7): 1569-1576, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358627

RESUMO

In the early spring of 2018, in Lake Balaton (Hungary), a roach (Rutilus rutilus) and an asp (Leuciscus aspius) were found in an fish trap at the outlet of the river Sió showing typical signs of the so-called carp pox disease, such as foci of epidermal hyperplasia on the head and the whole body surface, including the fins. Molecular tests revealed the presence of the DNA of an unknown fish herpesvirus. Three genes encoding the DNA-dependent DNA polymerase, major capsid protein and ATPase subunit of terminase were amplified and sequenced from the alloherpesviral genome. The gene sequences of the viruses obtained from the two different fish species shared 94.4% nucleotide sequence identity (98.1% amino acid sequence identity), suggesting that they belong to the same virus species. Phylogenetic analysis based on the DNA polymerase (and the concatenated sequences of the amplified genes, as well) implied that the detected virus belongs to the genus Cyprinivirus within the family Alloherpesviridae. The sequences of the novel alloherpesvirus diverge from those of the five cyprinivirus species described previously, so it putatively represents the sixth virus species in the genus.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Herpesviridae/isolamento & purificação , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Cyprinidae/virologia , Cipriniformes/virologia , Herpesviridae/classificação , Herpesviridae/genética , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Hungria , Lagos/virologia , Filogenia , Rios/virologia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/genética
7.
Viruses ; 12(4)2020 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-108836

RESUMO

The whole world is currently facing an unseen enemy, called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is causing a global pandemic. This disease is caused by a novel single-stranded enveloped RNA virus, known as the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although huge efforts are being made to produce effective therapies to combat this disease, it continues to be one of the greatest challenges in medicine. There is no doubt that herpesviruses are one of the most important viruses that infect humans and animals, and infections induced by these pathogens have developed into a great threat to public health. According to the currently available evidence, the correlation between herpesviruses and coronaviruses is limited to the induced complications following the infections. For instance, the inflammation that is induced at the sites of infection could tie these viruses to each other in a relationship. Another example, bovine herpesvirus 1, which is an important pathogen of cattle, can cause a severe respiratory infection; the same way in which SARS-CoV-2 affects humans. Considering the current circumstances related to the COVID-19 crisis, this editorial paper, which belongs to the Special Issue "Recent Advances in Herpesviruses Research: What's in the Pipeline?" aims to draw attention to some natural anti-herpesvirus alkaloid compounds, which have recently been proven to have excellent inhibitory efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 replication. Thus, this special focus is an attempt to hunt down various treatment options to combat COVID-19 based on repurposing drugs that are known to have multiple antiviral properties, including against herpesvirus.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Herpesviridae/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Herpesviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Pandemias , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
8.
Viruses ; 12(4)2020 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340120

RESUMO

The whole world is currently facing an unseen enemy, called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is causing a global pandemic. This disease is caused by a novel single-stranded enveloped RNA virus, known as the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although huge efforts are being made to produce effective therapies to combat this disease, it continues to be one of the greatest challenges in medicine. There is no doubt that herpesviruses are one of the most important viruses that infect humans and animals, and infections induced by these pathogens have developed into a great threat to public health. According to the currently available evidence, the correlation between herpesviruses and coronaviruses is limited to the induced complications following the infections. For instance, the inflammation that is induced at the sites of infection could tie these viruses to each other in a relationship. Another example, bovine herpesvirus 1, which is an important pathogen of cattle, can cause a severe respiratory infection; the same way in which SARS-CoV-2 affects humans. Considering the current circumstances related to the COVID-19 crisis, this editorial paper, which belongs to the Special Issue "Recent Advances in Herpesviruses Research: What's in the Pipeline?" aims to draw attention to some natural anti-herpesvirus alkaloid compounds, which have recently been proven to have excellent inhibitory efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 replication. Thus, this special focus is an attempt to hunt down various treatment options to combat COVID-19 based on repurposing drugs that are known to have multiple antiviral properties, including against herpesvirus.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Herpesviridae/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Herpesviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Pandemias , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(15): e19794, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282743

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) is a self-limited multifocal chorioretinopathy that typically affects otherwise healthy young females in the second to fourth decades of life. Current understanding of the pathophysiology of MEWDS is still limited. One of the possible underlying causes is an infectious etiology. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 24-year-old female with recurrent episodes of typical MEWDS ocular manifestation was observed over 2 years. Viral-specific antibody serologic tests showed evidence of exposure to the Herpesviridae family during the acute stage of MEWDS in the first and recurrent episodes. DIAGNOSES: MEWDS was diagnosed by the clinical findings and ancillary testing results of fundus photography, optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography and electroretinogram. The laboratory serology data was positive for varicella-zoster virus (VZV) immunoglobulin M (IgM) in the first episode and exhibited high Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) elevated immunoglobulin G (IgG) titer in the recurrent episode. INTERVENTIONS: Due to the self-limited nature of MEWDS, we observed the clinical course without intervention. OUTCOMES: During acute onset of MEWDS, serologic data for VZV IgM antibody was positive in the first episode. Two years later, the patient had recurrent episodes of MEWDS in the contralateral eye. Serologic study showed highly elevated IgG titer (1:160) of Epstein-Barr virus capsid antigen (EB-VCA) in the acute stage. The follow-up paired serum virus serology test showed that the prior EB-VCA IgG titer decreased fourfold to 1:40 in the recovery stage. LESSONS: Recurrence of MEWDS may be associated with acute systemic infection of the Herpesviridae family or virus-induced autoimmune inflammatory reaction.


Assuntos
Infecções por Herpesviridae/complicações , Herpesviridae/imunologia , Doenças Retinianas/virologia , Síndromes do Ponto Branco/virologia , Angiografia/métodos , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia , Eletrorretinografia/métodos , Feminino , Angiofluoresceinografia/métodos , Fundo de Olho , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 3/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Verde de Indocianina/administração & dosagem , Recidiva , Doenças Retinianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Retinianas/patologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Síndromes do Ponto Branco/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndromes do Ponto Branco/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231795, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302375

RESUMO

During the necropsies of Iberian hares obtained in 2018/2019, along with signs of the nodular form of myxomatosis, other unexpected external lesions were also observed. Histopathology revealed nuclear inclusion bodies in stromal cells suggesting the additional presence of a nuclear replicating virus. Transmission electron microscopy further demonstrated the presence of herpesvirus particles in the tissues of affected hares. We confirmed the presence of herpesvirus in 13 MYXV-positive hares by PCR and sequencing analysis. Herpesvirus-DNA was also detected in seven healthy hares, suggesting its asymptomatic circulation. Phylogenetic analysis based on concatenated partial sequences of DNA polymerase gene and glycoprotein B gene enabled greater resolution than analysing the sequences individually. The hare' virus was classified close to herpesviruses from rodents within the Rhadinovirus genus of the gammaherpesvirus subfamily. We propose to name this new virus Leporid gammaherpesvirus 5 (LeHV-5), according to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses standards. The impact of herpesvirus infection on the reproduction and mortality of the Iberian hare is yet unknown but may aggravate the decline of wild populations caused by the recently emerged natural recombinant myxoma virus.


Assuntos
Lebres/virologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Geografia , Herpesviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Herpesviridae/patologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Masculino , Pênis/patologia , Pênis/virologia , Filogenia , Portugal
11.
Res Vet Sci ; 130: 184-192, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199177

RESUMO

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the etiological agent of koi herpersvirus disease (KHVD), which causes serious economic losses in global common carp and ornamental koi carp production of larvae as well as adult type fish. To control KHVD, vaccines against CyHV-3 utilizing different immunization routes have been developed, among them, oral vaccination is the most desirable method to prevent fish diseases occurring at the early larval stage. Here, we developed an oral subunit vaccine through the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell surface display of CyHV-3 envelope protein pORF65, then, the recombinant yeast fed to Artemia which served as bio-encapsulation vector by subsequently feeding the common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) larvae. The fluorescent observation showed that the Artemia and S. cerevisiae could deliver intact antigen to the hindgut of carp larvae suggesting the possibility of the vector for oral immunization. On this basis, after three immunizations at a week interval, the oral vaccine induced high level of specific anti-pORF65 antibody. Meanwhile, a significant difference of immune-related genes expression occurred including cxca, IL-1ß, IFN-a1, lysozyme, IgM and CD8α between vaccined group and blank control group. In addition, 30% of relative percent survival of carp larvae after immunization was obtained post the animal infection assay, offered an certain immune protection. Our results indicated that the oral pORF65 subunit vaccine bioencapsulated in Artemia induced the activation of immune response and high level of antibodies, which could be served as an oral vaccine candidate for the prevention of CyHV-3 infection.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Herpesviridae/imunologia , Vacinas contra Herpesvirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinação/veterinária , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Animais , Artemia/química , Infecções por Herpesviridae/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/imunologia
12.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 138: 195-205, 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213667

RESUMO

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3, also known as koi herpesvirus (KHV), is a viral pathogen responsible for mass mortalities of carp worldwide. In this study, we compared the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA and quantitative PCR (qPCR) methods for the diagnosis of KHV in experimentally infected koi Cyprinus carpio over an 11 mo period. Koi were exposed to KHV at 18 ± 1°C (permissive temperatures for KHV disease) in laboratory-controlled conditions. At 21 d post challenge, the temperature in the system was decreased to <15°C (non-permissive temperature for KHV disease), and fish were monitored for the following 11 mo. At different time points throughout the study, samples of blood and gills were collected from exposed and control koi and subjected to qPCR and ELISA. Survival proportions of 53.3 and 98.8% in exposed and control treatments, respectively, were recorded at the end of the challenge. Traditional receiver-operating characteristic analysis was used to compare the sensitivity of the ELISA and blood and gill qPCR during permissive and non-permissive temperatures. ELISA was superior to qPCR of gills and whole-blood samples in detecting previous exposure to KHV. Similar results were obtained in a second experiment exposing koi to KHV and inducing persistent infection at >30°C (non-permissive temperature for KHV disease). Finally, KHV ELISA specificity was confirmed using cyprinid herpesvirus 1-exposed koi through a period of 3 mo. This study demonstrates that the combination of ELISA and gill qPCR should be recommended in the diagnosis of KHV exposure of suspected carrier-state fish.


Assuntos
Carpas , Doenças dos Peixes , Infecções por Herpesviridae , Animais , Herpesviridae
13.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 138: 1-15, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132267

RESUMO

Ostreid herpesvirus-1 (OsHV-1) is known to associate with particles in seawater, leading to infection and disease in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The estuarine environment is highly complex and changeable, and this needs to be considered when collecting environmental samples for pathogen detection. The aims of this study were to (1) compare different aspects of collecting natural seawater and plankton samples for detection of OsHV-1 DNA and (2) determine whether detection of OsHV-1 DNA in such environmental samples has merit for disease risk prediction. The results of one experiment suggest that sampling on the outgoing tide may improve the detection of OsHV-1 DNA in seawater and plankton tow samples (odds ratio 2.71). This statistical comparison was not possible in 2 other experiments. The method (plankton tow or beta bottle) and depth of collection (range: 250-1250 mm) had no effect on the likelihood of detection of OsHV-1. OsHV-1 DNA was found at low concentrations in plankton tow and seawater samples, and only when outbreaks of mortality associated with OsHV-1 were observed in nearby experimental or farmed populations of C. gigas. This suggests that single point in time environmental samples of seawater or plankton are not sufficient to rule out the presence of OsHV-1 in an estuary. The association of OsHV-1 with particles in seawater needs to be better understood in order to determine whether more selective and sensitive methods can be devised to detect it, before environmental samples can be reliably used in disease risk prediction.


Assuntos
Herpesviridae , Animais , Crassostrea , DNA Viral , Estuários , Plâncton , Água do Mar
14.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 138: 137-144, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162612

RESUMO

Economically devastating mortality events of farmed and wild shellfish due to infectious disease have been reported globally. Currently, one of the most significant disease threats to Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas culture is the ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1), in particular the emerging OsHV-1 microvariant genotypes. OsHV-1 microvariants (OsHV-1 µvars) are spreading globally, and concern is high among growers in areas unaffected by OsHV-1. No study to date has compared the relative virulence among variants. We provide the first challenge study comparing survival of naïve juvenile Pacific oysters exposed to OsHV-1 µvars from Australia (AUS µvar) and France (FRA µvar). Oysters challenged with OsHV-1 µvars had low survival (2.5% exposed to AUS µvar and 10% to FRA µvar), and high viral copy number as compared to control oysters (100% survival and no virus detected). As our study was conducted in a quarantine facility located ~320 km from the ocean, we also compared the virulence of OsHV-1 µvars using artificial seawater made from either facility tap water (3782 µmol kg-1 seawater total alkalinity) or purchased distilled water (2003 µmol kg-1). Although no differences in survival or viral copy number were detected in oysters exposed to seawater made using tap or distilled water, more OsHV-1 was detected in tanks containing the lower-alkalinity seawater, indicating that water quality may be important for virus transmission, as it may influence the duration of viral viability outside of the host.


Assuntos
Herpesviridae , Animais , Austrália , Crassostrea , DNA Viral , França , Água do Mar
15.
Arch Virol ; 165(4): 973-976, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060793

RESUMO

To separate and concentrate koi herpesvirus (KHV) from large-volume samples, a separation method based on immunomagnetic beads (IMBs) coated with polyclonal antibody directed against KHV was developed. After treatment with IMBs, viral DNA was extracted from samples and used as a template for quantitative PCR (qPCR). The results showed that the concentration of the template DNA extracted from the virus that had been separated using IMBs was 9.65-fold higher than that from virus not treated with IMBs. The detection limit of the IMBs/qPCR method was found to be at least 10 times lower than that of qPCR alone.


Assuntos
Carpas/virologia , Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Herpesviridae/isolamento & purificação , Separação Imunomagnética/métodos , Animais , Anticorpos/análise , Herpesviridae/genética , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Separação Imunomagnética/instrumentação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
16.
J Appl Microbiol ; 129(1): 98-103, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077213

RESUMO

Over the last years, there has been an enormous increase in the knowledge on koi herpesvirus (KHV), koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD), pathogenesis and virus variants. Different KHV lineages have clearly been identified, possible genomic changes during replication in different cell cultures at different temperatures but also in several hosts have been identified, a persistent stage of infection has been specified and it has been shown that infection with KHV is not host specific at all, but KHVD is. Additionally, it has been shown that it is possible to combat KHVD by immunization with inactivated and attenuated live vaccines using different delivery systems but also to benefit from alternative treatments with e.g. exopolysaccharids obtained from Arthrospira platensis.


Assuntos
Carpas/virologia , Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Herpesviridae/fisiologia , Animais , Aquicultura , Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Herpesviridae/classificação , Herpesviridae/genética , Herpesviridae/patogenicidade , Infecções por Herpesviridae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/uso terapêutico , Vacinas Atenuadas/uso terapêutico , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico
17.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(2): 523-528, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31750625

RESUMO

At the end of October 2018, a mass fish mortality occurred in Iraq, involving thousands of tons of cultured and wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio) along Euphrates and Tigris rivers. Fish were found dead or moribund along rivers coasts, showing lethargy, dyspnoea and flared gills. At necropsy, discoloration patches were noticed on the gills. Wet preparations showed rare metacercariae and Dactylogyrus spp. Samples were subjected to bacteriological tests and virological investigation through real-time PCR and nested PCR. Both were positive for koi herpesvirus (KHV) and carp oedema virus. Results obtained were confirmed by the OIE reference laboratory of KHV disease (KHVD) at Cefas (UK) and by sequence analysis. This is the first report on the detection of both viruses in Iraq.


Assuntos
Carpas/virologia , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Herpesviridae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Edema/veterinária , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/mortalidade , Doenças dos Peixes/patologia , Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Brânquias/patologia , Brânquias/virologia , Herpesviridae/genética , Infecções por Herpesviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/patologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Iraque/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária
18.
Arch Virol ; 165(1): 127-135, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741097

RESUMO

In clinical virome research, whole-genome/transcriptome amplification is required when starting material is limited. An improved method, named "template-dependent multiple displacement amplification" (tdMDA), has recently been developed in our lab (Wang et al. in BioTechniques 63:21-25. https://doi.org/10.2144/000114566, 2017). In combination with Illumina sequencing and bioinformatics pipelines, its application in virome sequencing was explored using a serum sample from a patient with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In comparison to an amplification-free procedure, virome sequencing via tdMDA showed a 9.47-fold enrichment for HCV-mapped reads and, accordingly, an increase in HCV genome coverage from 28.5% to 70.1%. Eight serum samples from acute patients liver failure (ALF) with or without known etiology were then used for virome sequencing with an average depth at 94,913x. Both similarity-based (mapping, NCBI BLASTn, BLASTp, and profile hidden Markov model analysis) and similarity-independent methods (machine-learning algorithms) identified viruses from multiple families, including Herpesviridae, Picornaviridae, Myoviridae, and Anelloviridae. However, their commensal nature and cross-detection ruled out an etiological interpretation. Together with a lack of detection of novel viruses in a comprehensive analysis at a resolution of single reads, these data indicate that viral agents might be rare in ALF cases with indeterminate etiology.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Hepatite C Crônica/diagnóstico , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Falência Hepática Aguda/virologia , Soro/virologia , Anelloviridae/isolamento & purificação , Anelloviridae/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite C Crônica/sangue , Herpesviridae/isolamento & purificação , Herpesviridae/fisiologia , Humanos , Falência Hepática Aguda/sangue , Myoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Myoviridae/fisiologia , Picornaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Picornaviridae/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Simbiose , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
19.
Arch Virol ; 165(2): 397-401, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784909

RESUMO

Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) infection is a conservation threat to the endangered Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), causing fatal hemorrhagic disease in juvenile elephants throughout the world, including Thailand. This study revealed a subclinical EEHV1 infection rate of 5.5% in healthy captive Asian elephants in Thailand (n = 362). The virus was detected in all age classes above one year old, in both sexes, and across the country - even in facilities with no history of hemorrhagic disease (EEHV HD). Subclinical EEHV infection in Thailand urgently requires proper health management.


Assuntos
Elefantes/virologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Herpesviridae/patogenicidade , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Tailândia
20.
BJOG ; 127(2): 208-216, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529767

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to use high-throughput sequencing to describe the vaginal eukaryotic DNA virome in patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF) to examine associations between the vaginal virome, antibiotic exposure and IVF outcomes. DESIGN: Prospective exploratory study. SETTING: Single academic fertility centre. POPULATION: Subfertile women age 18-43 years undergoing their first IVF cycle with a fresh embryo transfer. METHODS: The primary exposure was prophylactic azithromycin or no azithromycin before IVF. A mid-vaginal swab was obtained at the time of embryo transfer for virome analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcomes compared between exposure groups were characteristics of vaginal virome and clinical pregnancy rates. Secondary outcomes were virome associations with number of oocytes retrieved, number of blastocysts and implantation rate. RESULTS: Twenty-six women contributed a vaginal swab before embryo transfer. There were no significant differences in IVF outcomes between azithromycin groups. There was no association between viral diversity and clinical pregnancy overall. A higher diversity of herpesviruses and α-papillomaviruses was observed in samples from the azithromycin-treated group compared with the no azithromycin group (P = 0.04). In women that received azithromycin, viral diversity was higher in the group that did not achieve clinical pregnancy compared with those who did (P = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that the vaginal eukaryotic virome in women undergoing IVF is associated with antibiotic exposure. Additionally, we demonstrate an inverse trend between viral diversity and pregnancy, with a higher number of viruses detected associated with failure to achieve clinical pregnancy in the azithromycin group. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Higher viral diversity is associated with prophylactic antibiotic exposure in subfertile women undergoing IVF.


Assuntos
Eucariotos/fisiologia , Fertilização In Vitro , Infertilidade/terapia , Microbiota , Vagina/virologia , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , DNA Viral/fisiologia , Transferência Embrionária , Feminino , Herpesviridae , Humanos , Microbiota/genética , Microbiota/imunologia , Papillomaviridae , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/imunologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vagina/microbiologia
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