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1.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 15(12): 2393-2400, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748019

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is closely related to occurrence and development of viral hepatitis. A mutation of 1896nt locus in its pre-C region can promote replication of HBV DNA and improve stability of pre-genome RNA structure, and can even help HBV evade immune clearance. In this study, magnetic beads-probe (MBs@probe) method, combined with single base extension (SBE) technology, was developed for in-situ mutation detection of HBV pre-C region 1896nt locus. Before successfully completing the genotyping of 165 HBV samples, the crucial reaction conditions were first optimized, such as SBE temperature, MBs size and amount, and probe concentration on the surface of MBs. Experimental results showed that these conditions had significant effects on MBs@probe in-situ mutation detection. Comprehensive considerations, such as 58 °C of SBE temperature, high fluorescence intensity and signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were obtained when MBs@probe complex was made by 100 µg of 300 nm-MBs and 3.0 µM of probes in the system. Finally, 1896nt locus mutation in pre-C region of 165 HBV samples was successfully genotyped, among which 71 HBV samples were wild types and the remaining 94 samples were mutant types. Meanwhile, 14 randomly chosen samples were taken to further analyze fluorescence intensity and SNRs respectively, and sequencing results for the first two samples were consistent with results from the MBs@probe in-situ mutation detection method. Compared with two-color fluorescence hybridization (TCFH) genotyping technology, this method generally improves the SNRs to more than 10 (which is more than 2-fold), has higher reliability and is more suitable to detect SNPs for known sites.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B , Herpesvirus Cercopitecino 1 , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , DNA Viral , Genótipo , Hepatite B , Humanos , Mutação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
3.
Rom J Morphol Embryol ; 60(2): 659-665, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658341

RESUMO

Isolated esophageal ulcerations in Crohn's disease pose a great challenge in diagnosing and providing the correct treatment. We present the case of a 23-year-old woman with recurrent episodes of oral aphthosis, dysphagia, odynophagia and heartburn. Upper digestive endoscopy revealed an irregular mucosa with multiple ulcerations with irregular margins within the mid-esophagus. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) for cytomegalovirus and herpes virus were both positive. Four years after, she presented with the same symptoms and the involvement of ileo-colonic lesions, with pathological findings helped establish the Crohn's disease diagnosis. Crohn's disease represents an idiopathic chronic inflammatory gut disease, which can affect any part of the digestive tract. The onset by esophageal disease and no intestinal involvement is rare and challenging for a proper diagnosis.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/complicações , Citomegalovirus/patogenicidade , Doenças do Esôfago/etiologia , Esôfago/patologia , Herpesvirus Cercopitecino 1/patogenicidade , Úlcera/etiologia , Adulto , Doença de Crohn/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(9)2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441751

RESUMO

Macaque-related injuries among primate workers can lead to a potentially fatal B virus encephalomyelitis. We describe a decision tool for evaluating the need for antiviral postexposure prophylaxis and provide a retrospective review of the injuries assessed in our center after its implementation in 2010. Among the injuries studied (n = 251), 40.6% were categorized as high-risk (prophylaxis recommended), 44.2% moderate-risk (consider prophylaxis), and 15.1% low-risk (prophylaxis not recommended). Ten percent of low-risk and 98% of high-risk injuries received prophylaxis (p<0.001). Compared with using universal postexposure prophylaxis, using a decision tool can lead to a standardization of practice and a reduction in prescriptions for antiviral medication.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Mordeduras e Picadas , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Infecções por Herpesviridae/prevenção & controle , Herpesvirus Cercopitecino 1/imunologia , Macaca , Adulto , Animais , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoal de Laboratório , Masculino , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/prevenção & controle , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Quebeque , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 50(3): 306-316, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal anti-viral treatment prevents mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV), but the role of neonatal viremia on subsequent HBV infection is not clear. AIMS: To investigate the effect of maternal anti-viral treatment on neonatal serum HBV DNA and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in infants born to highly viremic mothers and the roles of neonatal markers in predicting chronic HBV infection in children. METHODS: Serum HBV DNA and HBsAg were tested in children. Of the 201 pregnant mothers, 110 received tenofovir during the third trimester. Chronic infection in children was defined by HBsAg seropositivity at 6 or 12 months lasting more than 6 months. RESULTS: The maternal HBV viral loads from baseline to delivery were 8.25 ± 0.48 to 4.29 ± 0.98 log10  IU/mL; and 8.29 ± 0.49 to 8.12 ± 0.68 log10  IU/mL in the tenofovir and control group respectively. Of the 208 children, those in the tenofovir group had a lower rate of neonatal HBV DNA seropositivity at birth (5.22% vs 30.11%, P < 0.0001) and HBsAg seropositivity at 6 months (1.74% vs 11.83%, P = 0.003) and 12 months (1.74% vs 10.75%, P = 0.007). In a first multivariate analysis, maternal HBV DNA level at delivery (odds ratio = 1.70, P = 0.0172) and neonatal HBsAg positivity (odds ratio = 19.37, P < 0.0001) were significantly associated with children's chronic HBV infection. In a second model, neonatal HBV DNA positivity was a strong independent influence variable (odds ratio = 61.89, P = 0.0002). CONCLUSIONS: Maternal tenofovir therapy decreased maternal viral load and neonatal viremia. Positive neonatal HBV DNA was highly correlated with chronic HBV infection in children. Clinical Trial Identifier: NCT01312012.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B Crônica/prevenção & controle , Hepatite B Crônica/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Criança , DNA Viral/sangue , Feminino , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Herpesvirus Cercopitecino 1/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Mães , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Prognóstico , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Viremia/congênito , Viremia/diagnóstico , Viremia/tratamento farmacológico , Viremia/transmissão , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Environ Manage ; 227: 181-188, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30189395

RESUMO

Recent research and practice in environmental management suggest sentiment analysis of social media communication can be a useful tool in stakeholder analysis of environmental policy. This is certainly the case when it comes to the controversial use of biological controls in dealing with invasive species. Current numerical scored approaches of sentiment may not reveal the reasons for support or opposition to environmental policies in this and other areas. In this study, we examine how the use of more in-depth analysis based on what key stakeholders say about this issue in media at a national, city or regional geographic level. The analysis reveals quite different reasons for support and opposition to the biological control of carp in Australia, and that within each stakeholder group it is possible for individuals to hold conflicting views and attitudes on this issue. We find that there are concerns at the national and city level about the impact of the virus and mistrust of government and science and that the carp species may be viewed as a valuable resource. Those responding to regional media expressed hope that the virus may lead to the elimination of the carp problem, however, they were more interested in the possible impact on the local environment. The multi-scaled social media analysis of stakeholder views about the potential biological control of carp in Australia demonstrated how social media comments can be used to explore the nuanced and multidimensional nature of community attitudes and preferences.


Assuntos
Carpas/virologia , Espécies Introduzidas , Mídias Sociais , Animais , Austrália , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Comunicação , Herpesvirus Cercopitecino 1 , Opinião Pública
12.
J Obstet Gynaecol Can ; 40(8): 1054-1056, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30103879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection and its implications have been well defined. Several methods are recommended to mitigate the risk of maternal transmission of HSV to the neonate, including CS, suppressive antiviral therapy for the mother, and prophylaxis for the infant. The utility of CS in women who present with a duration of rupture of membranes greater than 4 hours remains a question. CASE: We present a case of a woman who presented following 10 hours of rupture of membranes with HSV genital lesions, suspected to be the result of untreated recurrent infection. A CS was done. CONCLUSION: Extensive studies for the presence of HSV by PCR of the placenta and infant failed to detect the virus.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais , Herpes Genital/diagnóstico , Herpesvirus Cercopitecino 1/isolamento & purificação , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Herpes Genital/transmissão , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Recidiva , Adulto Jovem
13.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 24(2): 345-351, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29350146

RESUMO

We compiled records on macacine herpesvirus 1 (McHV-1) seroprevalence and, during 2015-2016, collected saliva and fecal samples from the free-ranging rhesus macaques of Silver Springs State Park, a popular public park in central Florida, USA, to determine viral DNA shedding and perform sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of the US5 and US5-US6 intragenic sequence from free-ranging and laboratory McHV-1 variants did not reveal genomic differences. In animals captured during 2000-2012, average annual seroprevalence was 25% ± 9 (mean ± SD). We found 4%-14% (95% CI 2%-29%) of macaques passively sampled during the fall 2015 mating season shed McHV-1 DNA orally. We did not observe viral shedding during the spring or summer or from fecal samples. We conclude that these macaques can shed McHV-1, putting humans at risk for exposure to this potentially fatal pathogen. Management plans should be put in place to limit transmission of McHV-1 from these macaques.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Herpesvirus Cercopitecino 1 , Macaca mulatta , Doenças dos Macacos/virologia , Animais , Florida/epidemiologia , Variação Genética , Infecções por Herpesviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Herpesvirus Cercopitecino 1/genética , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
14.
Vestn Otorinolaringol ; 82(4): 25-28, 2017.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28980591

RESUMO

The high prevalence of chronic inflammatory oropharyngeal pathologies and a large variety of specific pathogenetic features of the persistent viral infections caused by the species of the families Herpesviridae and Papillomaviridae as etiological agents of the disease suggest the necessity of investigations with a view to evaluating the clinical significance of persistent viral infections with Herpesviridae and Papillomaviridae species in the patients presenting with chronic inflammatory oropharyngreal pathology. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the prevalence and clinical significance of viral infections caused by the pathogenic agents belonging to the families Herpesviridae and Papillomaviridae in the patients presenting with chronic inflammatory pathology of the oropharynx. We examined two groups of patients one of which was comprised of 174 subjects suffering from chronic inflammatory oropharyngeal pathologies while the other consisted of 31 healthy people. All the patients in both groups underwent the general clinical examination, real-time PCR diagnostics of the viral infections with Herpes viridae and Papilloma viridae using the scrapings of oropharyngeal mucosa, and the microbiological study of the oropharynx secretion. The study has demonstrated the high frequency of viral infections caused by Herpesviridae and Papillomaviridae species in the patients with chronic inflammatory pathology of the oropharynx in comparison with the control group of healthy subjects (81.03% and 45.16% respectively). It was shown that the certain types of pathological conditions were specifically associated with the concrete forms of viral infections. The results of the cytological study give evidence that all (100%) the patients with chronic inflammatory oropharyngeal pathologies had the specific changes in epithelium in the combination with the non-specific alterations. 63.6% of the patients with chronic inflammatory oropharyngeal pathologies and negative results of viral diagnostics using the real-time PCR technology were found to have non-specific changes in epithelium as opposed to 25.8% of the healthy subjects. The correlation analysis of the results of real-time PCR diagnostics and the bacteriological study showed that 45.1% of the carriers of the Epstein-Barr virus were infected with S. pneumoniae and 23.2% with Kl..pneumoniae whereas the mixed infection was documented in 31.1% of the EBV carriers. Moreover, 10.98% of such patients presented with Candida albicans infection whereas. 54.5% and 27.3% of the patients with HHV-6 were diagnosed as having S. aureus and S. pneumoniae infection respectively; the combined flora was found in 18.2% of such patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Herpesviridae , Herpesvirus Cercopitecino 1/isolamento & purificação , Orofaringe , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Faringite , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por Herpesviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Herpesviridae/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Inflamação/virologia , Masculino , Orofaringe/fisiopatologia , Orofaringe/virologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/fisiopatologia , Faringite/fisiopatologia , Faringite/virologia , Estatística como Assunto
15.
PLoS One ; 12(8): e0182355, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28783746

RESUMO

Our overall aim is to develop epitope-based assays for accurate differential diagnosis of B virus zoonotic infections in humans. Antibodies to cross-reacting epitopes on human-simplexviruses continue to confound the interpretation of current assays where abundant antibodies exist from previous infections with HSV types 1 and 2. To find B virus-specific epitopes we cloned ten monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from the hybridomas we produced. Our unique collection of rare human sera from symptomatic and asymptomatic patients infected with B virus was key to the evaluation and identification of the mAbs as reagents in competition ELISAs (mAb-CE). The analysis of the ten mAbs revealed that the target proteins for six mAbs was glycoprotein B of which two are reactive to simian simplexviruses and not to human simplexviruses. Two mAbs reacted specifically with B virus glycoprotein D, and two other mAbs were specific to VP13/14 and gE-gI complex respectively. The mAbs specific to VP13/14 and gE-gI are strain specific reacting with B virus isolates from rhesus and Japanese macaques and not with isolates from cynomolgus and pigtail macaques. The mAb-CE revealed that a high proportion of naturally B virus infected rhesus macaques and two symptomatic humans possess antibodies to epitopes of VP13/14 protein and on the gE-gI complex. The majority of sera from B virus infected macaques and simplexvirus-infected humans competed with the less specific mAbs. These experiments produced a novel panel of mAbs that enabled B virus strain identification and confirmation of B virus infected macaques by the mAb-CE. For human sera the mAb-CE could be used only for selected cases due to the selective B virus strain-specificity of the mAbs against VP13/14 and gE/gI. To fully accomplish our aim to provide reagents for unequivocal differential diagnosis of zoonotic B virus infections, additional mAbs with a broader range of specificities is critical.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Herpesvirus Cercopitecino 1/imunologia , Herpesvirus Cercopitecino 1/isolamento & purificação , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , Humanos , Macaca fascicularis , Macaca mulatta , Camundongos , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/imunologia
16.
PLoS One ; 12(5): e0178314, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28558072

RESUMO

B virus (Macacine herpesvirus 1), a simplex virus endemic in macaques, causes encephalitis, encephalomyelitis, and death in 80% of untreated zoonotically infected humans with delayed or no treatment. Here we report a significant difference in PI3K/Akt-dependent apoptosis between B virus infected human and macaque dermal fibroblasts. Our data show that B virus infection in either human or macaque fibroblasts results in activation of Akt via PI3K and this activation does not require viral de novo protein synthesis. Inhibition of PI3K with LY294002 results in a significant reduction of viral titers in B virus infected macaque and human fibroblasts with only a modest difference in the reduction of virus titers between the two cell types. We, therefore, tested the hypothesis that B virus results in the phosphorylation of Akt (S473), which prevents apoptosis, enhancing virus replication in B virus infected macaque dermal fibroblasts. We observed markers of intrinsic apoptosis when PI3K activation of Akt was inhibited in B virus infected macaque cells, while, these apoptotic markers were absent in B virus infected human fibroblasts under the same conditions. From these data we suggest that PI3K activates Akt in B virus infected macaque and human fibroblasts, but this enhances virus replication in macaque fibroblast cells by blocking apoptosis.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Herpesvirus Cercopitecino 1/patogenicidade , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Animais , Fibroblastos/virologia , Humanos , Macaca , Fosforilação
17.
J Med Primatol ; 46(5): 256-259, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28439900

RESUMO

Herpes B virus (BV, Macacine alphaherpesvirus 1) infects macaques asymptomatically, with rare exceptions, but can cause fatal encephalitis in humans. Here, we report disseminated BV infection in a cynomolgus macaque that had died within 12 hour after the onset of unspecific symptoms. Multifocal lesions surrounded by viral antigen were detected in liver while other organs remained inconspicuous, indicating that the liver is a major target. Moreover, high copy numbers of viral DNA were found in feces, underlining the excrements are a potential source of transmission.


Assuntos
Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Macaca fascicularis , Doenças dos Macacos/patologia , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , DNA Viral/análise , Evolução Fatal , Fezes/virologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Herpesviridae/patologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Herpesvirus Cercopitecino 1/isolamento & purificação , Herpesvirus Cercopitecino 1/fisiologia , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/virologia , Masculino , Doenças dos Macacos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Macacos/virologia , Replicação Viral
19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 52: 55-58, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27720945

RESUMO

As the characteristics and accuracy of rapid influenza detection tests (RIDTs) vary, the development of a high-performance RIDT has been eagerly anticipated. In this study, the new RIDT GOLD SIGN FLU and the existing RIDT Quick Navi-Flu were evaluated in terms of detecting the antigens of influenza viruses A and B in Japanese adults with influenza-like symptoms. The study was performed from December 2013 to March 2014. Among the 123 patients from whom nasopharyngeal swab specimens were collected, 59 tested positive by viral isolation as the gold standard method (influenza A, n=38; influenza B, n=21). For GOLD SIGN FLU, the sensitivities were 73.7% and 81.0%, and the specificities were 97.6% and 98.0% for influenza A and B, respectively. For Quick Navi-Flu, the sensitivities were 86.8% and 85.7%, and the specificities were 98.8% and 100% for influenza A and B, respectively. The time to the appearance of the line on the test strip was less than 3min for influenza A and less than 2min for influenza B with both RIDTs in more than 90% of cases. GOLD SIGN FLU was useful for diagnosing influenza A, and the result was readily available for influenza B particularly among adult patients. Quick Navi-Flu showed better sensitivities and specificities than GOLD SIGN FLU.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/sangue , Cromatografia de Afinidade/métodos , Influenza Humana/virologia , Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Feminino , Herpesvirus Cercopitecino 1 , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tempo de Protrombina , Estações do Ano , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Virol ; 90(20): 9420-32, 2016 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27512063

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: B virus (Macacine herpesvirus 1) can cause deadly zoonotic disease in humans. Molecular mechanisms of B virus cell entry are poorly understood for both macaques and humans. Here we investigated the abilities of clinical B virus isolates to use entry receptors of herpes simplex viruses (HSV). We showed that resistant B78H1 cells became susceptible to B virus clinical strains upon expression of either human nectin-2 or nectin-1. Antibody against glycoprotein D (gD) protected these nectin-bearing cells from B virus infection, and a gD-negative recombinant B virus failed to enter these cells, indicating that the nectin-mediated B virus entry depends on gD. We observed that the infectivity of B virus isolates with a single amino acid substitution (D122N) in the IgV-core of the gD ectodomain was impaired on nectin-1-bearing cells. Computational homology-based modeling of the B virus gD-nectin-1 complex revealed conformational differences between the structures of the gD-122N and gD-122D variants that affected the gD-nectin-1 protein-protein interface and binding affinity. Unlike HSV, B virus clinical strains were unable to use herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) as a receptor, regardless of conservation of the gD amino acid residues essential for HSV-1 entry via HVEM. Based on the model of the B virus gD-HVEM interface, we predict that residues R7, R11, and G15 are largely responsible for the inability of B virus to utilize HVEM for entry. The ability of B virus to enter cells of a human host by using a combination of receptors distinct from those for HSV-1 or HSV-2 suggests a possible mechanism of enhanced neuropathogenicity associated with zoonotic infections. IMPORTANCE: B virus causes brainstem destruction in infected humans in the absence of timely diagnosis and intervention. Nectins are cell adhesion molecules that are widely expressed in human tissues, including neurons and neuronal synapses. Here we report that human nectin-2 is a target receptor for B virus entry, in addition to the reported receptor human nectin-1. Similar to a B virus lab strain, B virus clinical strains can effectively use both nectin-1 and nectin-2 as cellular receptors for entry into human cells, but unlike HSV-1 and HSV-2, none of the clinical strains uses an HVEM-mediated entry pathway. Ultimately, these differences between B virus and HSV-1 and -2 may provide insight into the neuropathogenicity of B virus during zoonotic infections.


Assuntos
Variação Genética/genética , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Herpesvirus Cercopitecino 1/genética , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética , Substituição de Aminoácidos/genética , Animais , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Herpesviridae/metabolismo , Herpesvirus Cercopitecino 1/metabolismo , Herpesvirus Humano 1/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 1/metabolismo , Herpesvirus Humano 2/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 2/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Nectinas , Membro 14 de Receptores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/genética , Membro 14 de Receptores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Células Vero , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus
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