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1.
Plant Dis ; 104(5): 1407-1414, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150505

RESUMO

Diseases caused by insect-transmitted viruses are the predominant constraint to wheat production worldwide. However, detailed knowledge of virus incidence and dynamics in China in recent years is very limited. Here, major wheat-growing regions of China were surveyed over 10 years for insect-transmitted viruses, and 2,143 samples were collected (in 2007 to 2015) and analyzed by molecular hybridization or multiplex reverse-transcription PCR for barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs: BYDV-GAV, -GPV, and -PAV) and wheat dwarf virus (WDV). In a 4-year survey (2016 to 2019), the incidence of eight insect-transmitted viruses (BYDVs, WDV, wheat yellow striate virus [WYSV], barley yellow striate mosaic virus [BYSMV], northern cereal mosaic virus [NCMV], and rice black-streaked dwarf virus [RBSDV]) was investigated, and BYDVs and WDV were widely distributed across China. BYDV-GAV (29.0% of the tested sample) was the most abundant, followed by BYDV-PAV (23.2%) from 2007 to 2015. From 2016 to 2019, however, BYDV-PAV had become the predominant species (39.5% positive of 952 samples tested), while the incidence of BYDV-GAV (13.4%) had declined. During the entire survey, the incidence of BYDV-GPV was very low in some locations in northwestern and northern China, and all eight viruses caused only local epidemics, not large-scale outbreaks throughout China. Two new cereal-infecting rhabdoviruses, leafhopper-transmitted WYSV and planthopper-transmitted BYSMV, were also found in China in recent years.


Assuntos
Vírus de Insetos , Triticum , Animais , China , Grão Comestível , Incidência , Insetos , Doenças das Plantas
2.
Arch Virol ; 165(4): 989-991, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170393

RESUMO

This work identified a novel rhabdo-like virus in a Chinese black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon), which we tentatively named "Agrotis ipsilon virus" (AIpsV). The complete genome of AIpsV is 15,454 nucleotides in length and contains seven open reading frames, collectively encoding more than 160 amino acids. The AIpsV genome is predicted to encode three structural proteins, nucleoprotein (N), glycoprotein (G), and large polymerase protein (L), and four unknown proteins. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the AIpsV clusters with Wuhan ant virus and Hubei rhabdo-like virus 1 within the rhabdo-like virus clade. The level of expression of AIpsV genes was found to be higher in the pupal and adult stages than in the egg and larval stages.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral , Vírus de Insetos/genética , Mariposas/virologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Vírus de Insetos/classificação , Vírus de Insetos/isolamento & purificação , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/virologia , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , Proteínas Virais/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
3.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227998, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004323

RESUMO

Arboviruses cause diseases of significant global health concerns. Interactions between mosquitoes and their microbiota as well as the important role of this interaction in the mosquito's capacity to harbor and transmit pathogens have emerged as important fields of research. Aedes aegypti is one of the most abundant mosquitoes in many geographic locations, a vector capable of transmitting a number of arboviruses such as dengue and Zika. Currently, there are few studies on the metavirome of this mosquito particularly in the Americas. This study analyzes the metavirome of A. aegypti from Grenada, a Caribbean nation with tropical weather, abundant A. aegypti, and both endemic and arboviral pathogens transmitted by this mosquito. Between January and December 2018, 1152 mosquitoes were collected from six semi-rural locations near houses in St. George Parish, Grenada, by weekly trapping using BG-Sentinel traps. From these, 300 A. aegypti were selected for analysis. The metavirome was analyzed using the Illumina HiSeq 1500 for deep sequencing. The generation sequencing library construction protocol used was NuGEN Universal RNA with an average read length of 125 bp. Reads were mapped to the A. aegypti assembly. Non-mosquito reads were analyzed using the tools FastViromeExplorer. The NCBI total virus, RNA virus, and eukaryotic virus databases were used as references. The metagenomic comparison analysis showed that the most abundant virus-related reads among all databases and assemblies was Phasi Charoen-like virus. The Phasi Charoen-like virus results are in agreement to other studies in America, Asia and Australia. Further studies using wild-caught mosquitoes is needed to assess the impact of this insect-specific virus on the A. aegypti lifecycle and vector capacity.


Assuntos
Aedes/virologia , Arbovirus , Genoma Viral/genética , Vírus de Insetos , Metagenoma , Animais , Arbovirus/classificação , Arbovirus/genética , Granada , Vírus de Insetos/classificação , Vírus de Insetos/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia
4.
Arch Virol ; 165(3): 771-774, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960157

RESUMO

Long-distance migratory insects carry microorganisms that can potentially play a crucial role in the life cycles of their hosts. Here, we used Illumina and Sanger sequencing to determine the complete genome sequence of a novel circular Rep-encoding single-stranded (ss) DNA virus from an important migratory pest, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel). The full genome of this new virus is about 2, 242 nt in length and shares 55-75% genome-wide pairwise sequence identity with members of the family Genomoviridae but 91% nucleotide sequence identity with finch-associated genomovirus 3 isolate S30P_D, which is tentatively abbreviated "FaGmV-3". Viral infection rates in A. ipsilon from Yantai, Langfang and Xinxiang were 4.5% (n = 88), 11.8% (n = 85) and 0% (n = 35), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on the deduced amino acid sequence of Rep indicated that the Agrotis ipsilon-associated virus is closely related to members of the genus Gemykibivirus, and we propose it to be a new member of this genus. Hence, it is tentatively named "Agrotis ipsilon-associated genomovirus" (AiGmV).


Assuntos
Vírus de DNA , Vírus de Insetos/classificação , Vírus de Insetos/genética , Mariposas/virologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , China , Vírus de DNA/classificação , Vírus de DNA/genética , Vírus de DNA/isolamento & purificação , DNA de Cadeia Simples/genética , Vírus de Insetos/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 701: 135044, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726403

RESUMO

Insects play an important role in the spread of viruses from infected plants to healthy hosts through a variety of transmission strategies. Environmental factors continuously influence virus transmission and result in the establishment of infection or disease. Plant virus diseases become epidemic when viruses successfully dominate the surrounding ecosystem. Plant-insect vector-virus interactions influence each other; pushing each other for their benefit and survival. These interactions are modulated through environmental factors, though environmental influences are not readily predictable. This review focuses on exploiting the diverse relationships, embedded in the plant-insect vector-virus triangle by highlighting recent research findings. We examined the interactions between viruses, insect vectors, and host plants, and explored how these interactions affect their behavior.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Insetos Vetores , Vírus de Insetos , Vírus de Plantas , Animais , Ecossistema , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Insetos , Doenças das Plantas , Plantas
6.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0221800, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532764

RESUMO

RNA viruses, once considered specific to honey bees, are suspected of spilling over from managed bees into wild pollinators; however, transmission routes are largely unknown. A widely accepted yet untested hypothesis states that flowers serve as bridges in the transmission of viruses between bees. Here, using a series of controlled experiments with captive bee colonies, we examined the role of flowers in bee virus transmission. We first examined if honey bees deposit viruses on flowers and whether bumble bees become infected after visiting contaminated flowers. We then examined whether plant species differ in their propensity to harbor viruses and if bee visitation rates increase the likelihood of virus deposition on flowers. Our experiment demonstrated, for the first time, that honey bees deposit viruses on flowers. However, the two viruses we examined, black queen cell virus (BQCV) and deformed wing virus (DWV), were not equally distributed across plant species, suggesting that differences in floral traits, virus ecology and/or foraging behavior may mediate the likelihood of deposition. Bumble bees did not become infected after visiting flowers previously visited by honey bees suggesting that transmission via flowers may be a rare occurrence and contingent on multiplicative factors and probabilities such as infectivity of virus strain across bee species, immunocompetence, virus virulence, virus load, and the probability a bumble bee will contact a virus particle on a flower. Our study is among the first to experimentally examine the role of flowers in bee virus transmission and uncovers promising avenues for future research.


Assuntos
Abelhas/fisiologia , Dicistroviridae/fisiologia , Plantas/classificação , Vírus de RNA/fisiologia , Animais , Abelhas/virologia , Flores/classificação , Flores/virologia , Herbivoria , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Vírus de Insetos/fisiologia , Filogenia , Plantas/virologia , Polinização
7.
J Gen Virol ; 100(9): 1271-1272, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389783

RESUMO

Hytrosaviridae is a family of large, rod-shaped, enveloped entomopathogenic viruses with dsDNA genomes of 120-190 kbp. Hytrosaviruses (also known as salivary gland hypertrophy viruses) primarily replicate in the salivary glands of adult dipteran flies. Hytrosaviruses infecting the haematophagous tsetse fly and the filth-feeding housefly are assigned to two genera, Glossinavirus and Muscavirus, respectively. Whereas muscavirus infections are only overt, glossinavirus infections can be either covert or overt. Overt infections are characterized by diagnostic salivary gland hypertrophy and cause either partial or complete infertility. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the family Hytrosaviridae, which is available at ictv.global/report/hytrosaviridae.


Assuntos
Dípteros/virologia , Vírus de Insetos/classificação , Vírus de Insetos/genética , Animais , Genoma Viral , Replicação Viral
8.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1215: 181-199, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317501

RESUMO

Small icosahedral viruses have a compact capsid that apparently lacks holes through which solvents can be exchanged with the external milieu. However, due to the steric hindrance of amino acids, upon folding, capsid proteins form narrow cavities in which water and ions can be trapped. These occluded solvent molecules can form lines of water, called water wires, representing an arrangement with special features for proton conduction. In this chapter, we review the physico-chemical principles that permit proton conduction through protein cavities. We also describe how a combination of these elements found in an insect viral capsid can allow the virus to sense alkaline environments. Through this analysis, we stress the need to combine experimental and theoretical techniques when modeling complex biological systems.


Assuntos
Capsídeo , Vírus de Insetos , Prótons , Capsídeo/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Vírus de Insetos/fisiologia , Solventes , Água
9.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91 Suppl 3: e20190122, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166476

RESUMO

Insects are the most diverse group of animals. They can be infected by an extraordinary diversity of viruses. Among them, arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) can be transmitted to humans. High-throughput sequencing of small RNAs from insects provides insight into their virome, which may help understand the dynamics of vector borne infectious diseases. Furthermore, investigating the mechanisms that restrict viral infections in insects points to genetic innovations that may inspire novel antiviral strategies.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Genoma Viral/genética , Insetos Vetores/virologia , Vírus de Insetos/classificação , Vírus de RNA/classificação , Animais , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Vírus de Insetos/genética , Vírus de RNA/genética
10.
Virology ; 534: 72-79, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207441

RESUMO

An analysis of transcriptomes from the antennae of the three South American stink bugs (Euschistus heros, Chinavia ubica, and Dichelops melacanthus) revealed the presence of picorna-like virus genome-length RNAs with high sequence identity to the genome of Halyomorpha halys virus (HhV), originally discovered in the transcriptome of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys. Features of the genome, phylogenetic relationships to other viruses, and the appearances of virus-like particles isolated from host stink bugs all confirm that these viruses are iflaviruses and isolates of an undescribed species. Iflavirus RNAs were present at high levels (40%-90% of transcriptome reads) in the stink bug antennal transcriptomes. In whole-insect transcriptomes of H. halys, HhV reads were >500-fold more abundant in adults than in nymphs. We identified from field population a subject of species E. heros infected by this iflavirus. The results of the analysis suggest that these iflaviruses are able to produce large quantities of their RNAs without causing any obvious pathology to their hosts.


Assuntos
Heterópteros/virologia , Vírus de Insetos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Genoma Viral , Heterópteros/classificação , Heterópteros/genética , Vírus de Insetos/classificação , Vírus de Insetos/genética , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética
11.
J Insect Physiol ; 117: 103894, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175854

RESUMO

The peritrophic matrix (PM) is an acellular chitin and glycoprotein layer that lines the invertebrate midgut. The PM has long been considered a physical as well as a biochemical barrier, protecting the midgut epithelium from abrasive food particles, digestive enzymes and pathogens infectious per os. This short review will focus on the latter function, as a barrier to pathogens infectious per os. We focus on the evidence confirming the role of the PM as protective barrier against pathogenic microorganisms of insects, mainly bacteria and viruses, as well as the evolution of a variety of mechanisms used by pathogens to overcome the PM barrier.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Vírus de Insetos/fisiologia , Insetos/fisiologia , Animais , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Insetos/microbiologia
12.
Proc Biol Sci ; 286(1894): 20182499, 2019 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963859

RESUMO

Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are a global threat to honeybees, and spillover from managed bees threaten wider insect populations. Deformed wing virus (DWV), a widespread virus that has become emergent in conjunction with the spread of the mite Varroa destructor, is thought to be partly responsible for global colony losses. The arrival of Varroa in honeybee populations causes a dramatic loss of viral genotypic diversity, favouring a few virulent strains. Here, we investigate DWV spillover in an invasive Hawaiian population of the wasp, Vespula pensylvanica, a honeybee predator and honey-raider. We show that Vespula underwent a parallel loss in DWV variant diversity upon the arrival of Varroa, despite the mite being a honeybee specialist. The observed shift in Vespula DWV and the variant-sharing between Vespula and Apis suggest that these wasps can acquire DWV directly or indirectly from honeybees. Apis prey items collected from Vespula foragers were positive for DWV, indicating predation is a possible route of transmission. We also sought cascading effects of DWV shifts in a broader Vespula pathogen community. We identified concurrent changes in a suite of additional pathogens, as well as shifts in the associations between these pathogens in Vespula. These findings reveal how hidden effects of the Varroa mite can, via spillover, transform the composition of pathogens in interacting species, with potential knock-on effects for entire pathogen communities.


Assuntos
Abelhas/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Vírus de Insetos/fisiologia , Vírus de RNA/fisiologia , Varroidae/fisiologia , Vespas/virologia , Animais , Abelhas/fisiologia , Abelhas/virologia , Cadeia Alimentar , Hawaii , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Vírus de Insetos/genética , Comportamento Predatório , Vírus de RNA/genética , Vespas/fisiologia
13.
Viruses ; 11(4)2019 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987230

RESUMO

Bombyx mori bidensovirus (BmBDV) is a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) virus from the genus Bidensovirus of the Bidnaviridae family, which, thus far, solely infects insects. It has a unique genome that contains bipartite DNA molecules (VD1 and VD2). In this study, we explored the detailed transcription mapping of the complete BmBDV genome (VD1 and VD2) by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), and luciferase assays. For the first time, we report the transcription map of VD2. Our mapping of the transcriptional start sites reveals that the NS genes in VD1 have separate transcripts that are derived from overlapping promoters, P5 and P5.5. Thus, our study provides a strategy for alternative promoter usage in the expression of BmBDV genes.


Assuntos
Vírus de Insetos/genética , Transcrição Genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Bombyx/virologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Reporter , Luciferases/genética , Luciferases/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Sítio de Iniciação de Transcrição , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética
14.
Viruses ; 11(1)2019 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30646581

RESUMO

RNA viruses that contain single-stranded RNA genomes of positive sense make up the largest group of pathogens infecting honey bees. Sacbrood virus (SBV) is one of the most widely distributed honey bee viruses and infects the larvae of honey bees, resulting in failure to pupate and death. Among all of the viruses infecting honey bees, SBV has the greatest number of complete genomes isolated from both European honey bees Apis mellifera and Asian honey bees A. cerana worldwide. To enhance our understanding of the evolution and pathogenicity of SBV, in this study, we present the first report of whole genome sequences of two U.S. strains of SBV. The complete genome sequences of the two U.S. SBV strains were deposited in GenBank under accession numbers: MG545286.1 and MG545287.1. Both SBV strains show the typical genomic features of the Iflaviridae family. The phylogenetic analysis of the single polyprotein coding region of the U.S. strains, and other GenBank SBV submissions revealed that SBV strains split into two distinct lineages, possibly reflecting host affiliation. The phylogenetic analysis based on the 5'UTR revealed a monophyletic clade with the deep parts of the tree occupied by SBV strains from both A. cerane and A. mellifera, and the tips of branches of the tree occupied by SBV strains from A. mellifera. The study of the cold stress on the pathogenesis of the SBV infection showed that cold stress could have profound effects on sacbrood disease severity manifested by increased mortality of infected larvae. This result suggests that the high prevalence of sacbrood disease in early spring may be due to the fluctuating temperatures during the season. This study will contribute to a better understanding of the evolution and pathogenesis of SBV infection in honey bees, and have important epidemiological relevance.


Assuntos
Abelhas/virologia , Genoma Viral , Vírus de Insetos/genética , Filogenia , Vírus de RNA/patogenicidade , Animais , Resposta ao Choque Frio , Variação Genética , Vírus de Insetos/patogenicidade , Infecções por Vírus de RNA , Vírus de RNA/genética , Estados Unidos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
15.
J Virol ; 93(6)2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626674

RESUMO

Horizontal transfer of genetic materials between virus and host has been frequently identified. Three rice planthoppers, Laodelphax striatellus, Nilaparvata lugens, and Sogatella furcifera, are agriculturally important insects because they are destructive rice pests and also the vector of a number of phytopathogenic viruses. In this study, we discovered that a small region (∼300 nucleotides [nt]) of the genome of invertebrate iridescent virus 6 (IIV-6; genus Iridovirus, family Iridoviridae), a giant DNA virus that infects invertebrates but is not known to infect planthoppers, is highly homologous to the sequences present in high copy numbers in these three planthopper genomes. These sequences are related to the short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs), a class of non-long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons (retroposons), suggesting a horizontal transfer event of a transposable element from the rice planthopper genome to the IIV-6 genome. In addition, a number of planthopper transcripts mapped to these rice planthopper SINE-like sequences (RPSlSs) were identified and appear to be transcriptionally regulated along the different developmental stages of planthoppers. Small RNAs derived from these RPSlSs are predominantly 26 to 28 nt long, which is a typical characteristic of PIWI-interacting RNAs. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that IIV-6 acquires a SINE-like retrotransposon from S. furcifera after the evolutionary divergence of the three rice planthoppers. This study provides further examples of the horizontal transfer of an insect transposon to virus and suggests the association of rice planthoppers with iridoviruses in the past or present.IMPORTANCE This study provides an example of the horizontal transfer event from a rice planthopper genome to an IIV-6 genome. A small region of the IIV-6 genome (∼300 nt) is highly homologous to the sequences presented in high copy numbers of three rice planthopper genomes that are related to the SINEs, a class of retroposons. The expression of these planthopper SINE-like sequences was confirmed, and corresponding Piwi-interacting RNA-like small RNAs were identified and comprehensively characterized. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the giant invertebrate iridovirus IIV-6 obtains this SINE-related sequence from Sogatella furcifera through a horizontal transfer event in the past. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a horizontal transfer event between a planthopper and a giant DNA virus and also is the first evidence for the eukaryotic origin of genetic material in iridoviruses.


Assuntos
Vírus de DNA/genética , Vírus de Insetos/genética , Insetos/virologia , Oryza/virologia , Retroelementos/genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Hemípteros/virologia , Filogenia , Elementos Nucleotídeos Curtos e Dispersos/genética
16.
Arch Virol ; 164(3): 907-911, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30656464

RESUMO

A novel negevirus, tentatively named Manglie virus (MaV), was isolated from Culex tritaeniorhynchus from the village of Manglie, Yunnan, China, in August 2011. It was identified by high-throughput sequencing of cell culture supernatants, and the complete genome was sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq sequencer. The complete MaV genome comprised 9,218 nt encoding three hypothetical proteins and had a poly(A) tail. BLASTn analysis showed that the genome had the greatest similarity to Ngewotan virus strain Nepal22, with query coverage of 100% and 79% identity. Genomic and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that MaV should be considered a novel negevirus.


Assuntos
Culex/virologia , Genoma Viral , Vírus de Insetos/genética , Vírus de Insetos/isolamento & purificação , Vírus de RNA/genética , Vírus de RNA/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Sequência de Bases , China , Vírus de Insetos/classificação , Filogenia , Vírus de RNA/classificação , Proteínas Virais/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
17.
Virus Genes ; 55(2): 127-137, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30632016

RESUMO

The advancement in high-throughput sequencing technology and bioinformatics tools has spurred a new age of viral discovery. Arthropods is the largest group of animals and has shown to be a major reservoir of different viruses, including a group known as insect-specific viruses (ISVs). The majority of known ISVs have been isolated from mosquitoes and shown to belong to viral families associated with animal arbovirus pathogens, such as Flaviviridae, Togaviridae and Phenuiviridae. These insect-specific viruses have a strict tropism and are unable to replicate in vertebrate cells, these properties are interesting for many reasons. One is that these viruses could potentially be utilised as biocontrol agents using a similar strategy as for Wolbachia. Mosquitoes infected with the viral agent could have inferior vectorial capacity of arboviruses resulting in a decrease of circulating arboviruses of public health importance. Moreover, insect-specific viruses are thought to be ancestral to arboviruses and could be used to study the evolution of the switch from single-host to dual-host. In this review, we discuss new discoveries and hypothesis in the field of arboviruses and insect-specific viruses.


Assuntos
Arbovirus/genética , Vírus de Insetos/genética , Viroses/genética , Replicação Viral/genética , Animais , Arbovirus/patogenicidade , Culicidae/genética , Culicidae/virologia , Flaviviridae/genética , Flaviviridae/patogenicidade , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Insetos Vetores/virologia , Vírus de Insetos/patogenicidade , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Especificidade da Espécie , Togaviridae/genética , Togaviridae/patogenicidade , Viroses/virologia
18.
Arch Virol ; 164(2): 643-647, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30415391

RESUMO

Three novel RNA viruses, named Formica fusca virus 1 (GenBank accession no. MH477287), Lasius neglectus virus 2 (MH477288) and Myrmica scabrinodis virus 2 (MH477289), were discovered in ants collected in Cambridge, UK. The proposed virus names were given based on the hosts in which they were identified. The genome sequences were obtained using de novo transcriptome assembly of high-throughput RNA sequencing reads and confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Formica fusca virus 1 grouped within the family Nyamiviridae, Lasius neglectus virus 2 grouped within the family Rhabdoviridae and Myrmica scabrinodis virus 2 belongs to the family Dicistroviridae. All three viruses are highly divergent from previously sequenced viruses.


Assuntos
Formigas/virologia , Vírus de Insetos/isolamento & purificação , Vírus de RNA/genética , Vírus de RNA/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Genoma Viral , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Vírus de Insetos/classificação , Vírus de Insetos/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , Vírus de RNA/classificação , Transcriptoma , Proteínas Virais/genética
19.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(1): 43-46, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30375175

RESUMO

We report the detection of Moku virus in honey bees (Apis mellifera) collected in 2017 from hives with a history of attacks by invasive Asian hornets (Vespa velutina nigrithorax) in Belgium. End 2016, Moku virus was reported in Asian hornets from the same area. In addition, the Moku virus was already present in historical samples of bees collected in 2013, that is, 2 years after the official first detection of Asian hornets in the same area of Belgium. This study suggests a spread of Moku virus to honey bees with possible consequences.


Assuntos
Abelhas/virologia , Vírus de Insetos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/veterinária , Animais , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Vírus de Insetos/genética , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/virologia , Vírus de RNA/genética , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Vespas/virologia
20.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 160: 1-7, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30448511

RESUMO

We characterize a novel picorna-like virus, named Helicoverpa armigera Nora virus (HaNV), with a genome length of 11,200 nts, the sequence of which was isolated from the lepidopteran host cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera, using RNA-Seq. Phylogenetic analysis, using the putative amino acid sequence of the conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain, indicated that HaNV clustered with Spodoptera exigua Nora virus, Drosophila Nora virus and Nasonia vitripennis virus-3 with a high bootstrap value (100%), which might indicate a new viral family within the order Picornavirales. HaNV was efficiently horizontally transmitted between hosts via contaminated food, and transmission was found to be dose-dependent (up to 100% efficiency with 109 viral copy number/µl). HaNV was also found to be transmitted vertically from parent to offspring, mainly through transovum transmission (virus contamination on the surface of the eggs), but having a lower transmission efficiency (around 43%). Infection distribution within the host was also investigated, with HaNV mainly found in only the gut of both adult moths and larvae (>90%). Moreover, our results showed that HaNV appears not to be an overtly pathogenic virus to its host.


Assuntos
Vírus de Insetos/isolamento & purificação , Mariposas/virologia , Picornaviridae/classificação , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/transmissão , Animais , Bioensaio , Vírus de Insetos/genética , Vírus de Insetos/patogenicidade , Larva/virologia , Filogenia , Picornaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , RNA-Seq
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