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1.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e008420, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785525

RESUMO

Cats are less susceptible to Dirofilaria immitis infection than dogs. Although rare, the feline disease can be fatal even with low parasitic loads. The infection is often asymptomatic or has non-specific symptoms that are mainly associated with the death of immature worms. Microfilaremia is rare and transient. Normally, microfilaremia, when present, lasts for not more than 33 days. This study describes a feline case presenting with non-specific clinical signs and prolonged microfilaremia. Case: a random bred cat infected by feline leukemia virus (FeLV) that was found to be microfilaremic by chance. The infection was detected by the presence of microfilariae in a blood smear and was confirmed by antigen test (SNAP Feline Triple Test, Idexx®) and echocardiogram.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Dirofilaria immitis , Dirofilariose , Infecções por Retroviridae , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , Dirofilariose/sangue , Dirofilariose/complicações , Dirofilariose/diagnóstico , Dirofilariose/parasitologia , Vírus da Leucemia Felina , Infecções por Retroviridae/complicações , Infecções por Retroviridae/veterinária
2.
Top Companion Anim Med ; 37: 100356, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837752

RESUMO

We report an unusual case of leishmaniosis with the involvement of mammary glands in an old cat with what seems to be a concurrent regressive feline leukemia virus infection. Leishmania donovani complex parasites were identified for the first time in inflammatory breast fluid during a clinical recurrence manifested about 4 years after the first diagnosis of feline leishmaniosis. Combined treatment with allopurinol and meglumine antimoniate resulted in clinical cure of mammary lesion and a concurrent uveitis.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/parasitologia , Alopurinol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , Feminino , Leishmania donovani/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus da Leucemia Felina , Leucemia Felina , Antimoniato de Meglumina/uso terapêutico , Portugal , Uveíte/tratamento farmacológico , Uveíte/veterinária
3.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 460, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a serious viral infection in cats. FeLV is found in some tissues, such as spleen, lymph nodes and epithelial tissues. However, there is controversy about the organ in which the virus can be reliably detected in infected cats. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of viral infection in hemolymphatic tissues, including blood, bone marrow and spleen by reverse-transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). RESULTS: A total of 31 cats with clinical signs of FeLV infection associated with at least a single lineage hematologic cytopenia were included in this study. Peripheral blood, bone marrow and spleen samples were obtained from each cat. Complete blood counts, biochemical tests, and a rapid test to detect FeLV p27 antigen in blood samples of cats were performed. Of 31 cats, 9 had anemia alone, 4 had thrombocytopenia alone, 2 had neutropenia alone, 9 had bicytopenia of anemia and thrombocytopenia, 3 had bicytopenia of anemia and neutropenia, and 4 had pancytopenia. FeLV RNA was then detected by RT-qPCR in the whole blood, bone marrow and spleen. Viral RNA copy numbers were detected in all cats by RT-qPCR whereas 24 out of 31 cats were positive for the serum FeLV antigen. We detected a significantly greater number of viral RNA in the spleen compared with the whole blood and bone marrow. CONCLUSION: Spleen is a site where FeLV is most frequently detected in cats with hematologic cytopenias.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/virologia , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/isolamento & purificação , Carga Viral/veterinária , Animais , Antígenos Virais/sangue , Sangue/virologia , Medula Óssea/virologia , Gatos , Feminino , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/genética , Masculino , RNA Viral , Infecções por Retroviridae/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/veterinária , Baço/virologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/veterinária
4.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(4): 790-796, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691733

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Leishmania spp. antibodies, and its association with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV), in domestic cats from an area endemic for canine and human leishmaniasis in Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. Ninety-one cats were subjected to a complete clinical exam, and blood samples were collected. An epidemiological questionnaire was used to investigate the risk factors. IgG anti-Leishmania spp. antibodies were detected by immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), with a cut-off value of 1:40. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to detect genetic material of Leishmania spp. in the blood samples. The presence of antibodies against FIV and antigens of FeLV was evaluated using an immunochromatographic test. Seropositivity for Leishmania spp., FIV, and FeLV was observed in 14/91 (15.38%), 26/91 (28.57%), and 3/91 (3.29%) cats, respectively. All samples gave negative results on PCR analysis. Based on these data, no significant statistical association was observed between seropositivity for Leishmania spp., and sex, age, presence of clinical signs, evaluated risk factors, and positivity for retroviruses. These findings demonstrated for the first time that cats from Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, are being exposed to this zoonosis and might be part of the epidemiological chain of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Cães , Doenças Endêmicas , Técnica Direta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Humanos , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina/imunologia , Leishmaniose/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/imunologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Fatores de Risco
5.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 67: 101348, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527012

RESUMO

Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is an oncogenic retrovirus of cats. While higher viral RNA and proviral DNA loads have been correlated with progressive infections and disease, a similar correlation has been suggested for p27 antigen concentrations. This analytical study compared the results of a quantitative ELISA for p27 antigen with quantitative real-time PCR results for FeLV proviral DNA in patient samples. A significant positive correlation between copies of proviral DNA and the concentration of p27 antigen was identified (r = 0.761, P < 0.0001). Samples with high proviral DNA loads, at least 1 × 106 copies/mL of whole blood, typically had p27 antigen concentrations greater than 30 ng/mL in plasma. Samples with proviral DNA loads below this level all had concentrations of p27 antigen in plasma that were less than 10 ng/mL. Given this correlation, it is hypothesized that the concentration of p27 antigen at a given point in time may help to indicate the likelihood of a progressive or regressive infection similar to what has been demonstrated for proviral DNA loads.


Assuntos
DNA Viral/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/genética , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/imunologia , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Animais , Gatos , DNA Viral/genética , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/imunologia , Provírus/genética , Infecções por Retroviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Retroviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Retroviridae/virologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/diagnóstico , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/veterinária , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/virologia , Carga Viral/métodos
6.
J Comp Pathol ; 170: 10-21, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375152

RESUMO

Leukaemia is a haemopoietic neoplasm originating from myeloid or lymphoid precursors in the bone marrow and may be either acute or chronic. These tumours are rare, but occur more frequently in cats because of an association with the feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). To the best of our knowledge, no studies conducted in Brazil to date have analysed the association between leukaemia and FeLV and FIV infection in cats. The aim of this study was to perform a histopathological analysis of feline leukaemia and evaluate the association between leukaemia and FeLV and FIV infection in cats. The study evaluated 37 cats with leukaemia diagnosed between 2009 and 2017. The animals underwent necropsy examination, histopathology and immunohistochemistry with anti-FeLV gp70 and anti-FIV p24 gag antibodies. Of the evaluated animals, 54% (20/37) were males and 43.2% (16/37) were females. With respect to the life stage of the animals, 24.3% (9/37) were junior, 32.4% (12/37) were prime, 18.9% (7/37) were mature and 10.8% (4/37) were senior, and five animals were of unknown age. Myeloid leukaemia occurred in 56.8% (21/37) of the cases and lymphocytic leukaemia occurred in 43.2% (16/37) of the cases. Acute leukaemia (73%, 27/37) was more common than chronic leukaemia (27%, 10/37). The positivity for FeLV (78.4%, 29/37) and FIV (16.2%, 6/37) indicated a high association between FeLV infection and tumour development in the study region.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/virologia , Leucemia Felina/virologia , Animais , Brasil , Gatos , Feminino , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina , Vírus da Leucemia Felina , Masculino
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(7): e0007594, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306417

RESUMO

Though scantly investigated, Leishmania infantum infection and clinical cases of leishmaniasis in cats have been recently reported in several countries of the Mediterranean basin, with large variability in prevalence data. A major limitation in the comparability of the data available is attributed to the differences in diagnostic techniques employed and cat populations sampled. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of L. infantum infection in owned cats across Italy by serological and molecular tests and the identification of potential risk factors. Blood samples from 2,659 cats from northern (n = 1,543), central (n = 471) and southern (n = 645) Italy were tested for antibodies against L. infantum, by an immunofluorescence antibody test and for the parasites' DNA, by real-time PCR. Samples were additionally screened for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) proviral DNAs. An overall cumulative L. infantum prevalence of 3.9% was recorded by serology (3.3%) and/or qPCR (0.8%), with a higher rate (10.5%) in southern Italy. The risk of L. infantum infection in cats was significantly associated to the geographical areas (South vs North and Centre; p<0.0001), age class (from 19 months to 6 years old vs ≤18 months old, p = 0.0003), neutering status (not neutered vs neutered, p = 0.0028) and FIV infection (p = 0.0051).Though the role of cats in the epidemiology of L. infantum is still debated, our findings indicate that cats are exposed to and/or infected by this protozoan, mainly in endemic regions of Italy. Hence, a standardization of procedures for a prompt diagnosis of L. infantum infection in cats and for screening cat population is crucial for a better understanding of the epidemiology of feline leishmaniasis, and of the potential role of cats in the transmission cycle of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Gatos , Feminino , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina/genética , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina/isolamento & purificação , Itália/epidemiologia , Leishmania infantum/genética , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/genética , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/veterinária , Análise Multivariada , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Res Vet Sci ; 125: 89-93, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176263

RESUMO

Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) and Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) are two prevalent transmittable diseases for domestic cats. This paper reports the frequency of these two diseases compared globally across Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at purchasing power parity per capita (PPP). Information around FeLV and FIV rates of infection in specific locations around the world was analyzed from 47 published articles. Results show that based on the data available, the statistical model indicates that the highest percentage of FeLV or FIV infected cats live in areas of lower PPP (p ≤.001) with a decreasing rate of infection of FeLV and FIV with increasing income. Two theories for this could be that the lower PPP locations in this study were also in areas of greater feral cat and cat colony populations, as well as were areas with less emphasis on animal welfare and animal control programs. Additional research should be conducted to strengthen the study size in South America and Africa before further conclusions can be drawn.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Guanosina Difosfato , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina/fisiologia , Infecções por Lentivirus/veterinária , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/fisiologia , Infecções por Retroviridae/veterinária , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , Incidência , Infecções por Lentivirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Lentivirus/virologia , Prevalência , Infecções por Retroviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Retroviridae/virologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/epidemiologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/virologia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30961813

RESUMO

A cross-sectional study was conducted in 274 cats for determination of FeLV antigenemia and FIV seropositivity and factors associated with those infections in cats presented at the Veterinary Hospital of the Santa Catarina State University - UDESC (Brazil). Apparent prevalence for sick cats at the hospital population was 28.41% (95%CI 21.88-34.94%) for FeLV, 7.65% (95%CI 3.71-11.50%) for FIV and 2.18% (95%CI 0.56-5.47%) for both viruses. For healthy cats, the apparent prevalence was 9.89% (95%CI 3.75-16.02%) for FeLV, 2.20% (95%CI 0.34-7.75%) for FIV by immunoassay (ELISA). Average age for FeLV- and FIV-positive individuals was 38.32 and 64.25 months, respectively. Behavior such as aggressiveness and sex (male) were both associated with increased odds of result positivity test for FeLV and FIV; older animals were also associated with FIV test results. A very small proportion of the animals were vaccinated against FeLV and none against FIV. Most of the animals were adopted from shelters or rescued from streets, living with multiple cats that had access to outdoors. The high prevalence of FeLV suggests a need for better control strategies against this disease.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida Felina/epidemiologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina/imunologia , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/imunologia , Leucemia Felina/epidemiologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/veterinária , Animais , Antígenos Virais/sangue , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida Felina/virologia , Feminino , Leucemia Felina/virologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
10.
Aust Vet J ; 97(3): 47-55, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30809813

RESUMO

With the commercial release in Australia in 2004 of a vaccine against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV; Fel-O-Vax FIV®), the landscape for FIV diagnostics shifted substantially. Point-of-care (PoC) antibody detection kits, which had been the mainstay for diagnosing FIV infection since the early 1990s, were no longer considered accurate to use in FIV-vaccinated cats, because of the production of vaccine-induced antibodies that were considered indistinguishable from those produced in natural FIV infections. Consequently, attention shifted to alternative diagnostic methods such as nucleic acid detection. However, over the past 5 years we have published a series of studies emphasising that FIV PoC test kits vary in their methodology, resulting in differing accuracy in FIV-vaccinated cats. Importantly, we demonstrated that two commercially available FIV antibody test kits (Witness™ and Anigen Rapid™) were able to accurately distinguish between FIV-vaccinated and FIV-infected cats, concluding that testing with either kit offers an alternative to PCR testing. This review summarises pertinent findings from our work published in a variety of peer-reviewed research journals to inform veterinarians (particularly veterinarians in Australia, New Zealand and Japan, where the FIV vaccine is currently commercially available) about how the approach to the diagnosis of FIV infection has shifted. Included in this review is our work investigating the performance of three commercially available FIV PoC test kits in FIV-vaccinated cats and our recommendations for the diagnosis of FIV infection; the effect of primary FIV vaccination (three FIV vaccines, 4 weeks apart) on PoC test kit performance; our recommendations regarding annual testing of FIV-vaccinated cats to detect 'vaccine breakthroughs'; and the potential off-label use of saliva for the diagnosis of FIV infection using some FIV PoC test kits. We also investigated the accuracy of the same three brands of test kits for feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) diagnosis, using both blood and saliva as diagnostic specimens. Based on these results, we discuss our recommendations for confirmatory testing when veterinarians are presented with a positive FeLV PoC test kit result. Finally, we conclude with our results from the largest and most recent FIV and FeLV seroprevalence study conducted in Australia to date.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida Felina/diagnóstico , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/isolamento & purificação , Leucemia Felina/diagnóstico , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Austrália/epidemiologia , Gatos , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida Felina/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida Felina/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina/imunologia , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/imunologia , Leucemia Felina/epidemiologia , Leucemia Felina/prevenção & controle , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Proteínas Oncogênicas de Retroviridae/imunologia , Saliva/virologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
11.
J Comp Pathol ; 166: 20-28, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30691602

RESUMO

Lymphoma is the most important haemopoietic tumour in cats and has been associated with feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) infection. In Brazil, no studies have established a correlation between FeLV infection and lymphoma. The aim of this study was to characterize lymphomas arising in cats in Brazil anatomically and microscopically, and to correlate these data with FeLV infection as determined by immunohistochemistry for the FeLV gp70 antigen. Fifty-three cats with lymphoma were evaluated. The mean age of junior, prime, mature, senior and geriatric cats was 1.65 years, 4.34 years, 8 years, 12.14 years and 15.5 years, respectively. The anatomical types of lymphoma were multicentric (43.4%, 23/53), mediastinal (33.96%, 18/53), renal (11.32%, 6/53), hepatic (5.66%, 3/53), nodal (3.77%, 2/53) and alimentary (1.89 %, 1/53). The histological types were small noncleaved-cell (33.96%, 18/53), mixed diffuse (22.64%, 12/53), immunoblastic (15.11%, 8/53), lymphoblastic (11, 32%, 6/53), small lymphocytic (9.43%, 5/53), small cleaved-cell (3.77%, 2/53) and large cell lymphomas (3.77%, 2/3). Immunopositivity for FeLV was observed in 56.6% (30/53) of the samples. FeLV positivity was equally distributed between the genders, but predominated in junior and prime cats. The degree of association between lymphoma and FeLV infection in Brazil was higher than that found in other countries, demonstrating the need to prevent and control the factors associated with infection.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/virologia , Linfoma/veterinária , Infecções por Retroviridae/veterinária , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/veterinária , Animais , Brasil , Gatos , Feminino , Vírus da Leucemia Felina , Masculino
12.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(1): 92-101, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561312

RESUMO

The endangered Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi) had an outbreak of infection with feline leukemia virus (FeLV) in the early 2000s that resulted in the deaths of 3 animals. A vaccination campaign was instituted during 2003-2007 and no additional cases were recorded until 2010. During 2010-2016, six additional FeLV cases were documented. We characterized FeLV genomes isolated from Florida panthers from both outbreaks and compared them with full-length genomes of FeLVs isolated from contemporary Florida domestic cats. Phylogenetic analyses identified at least 2 circulating FeLV strains in panthers, which represent separate introductions from domestic cats. The original FeLV virus outbreak strain is either still circulating or another domestic cat transmission event has occurred with a closely related variant. We also report a case of a cross-species transmission event of an oncogenic FeLV recombinant (FeLV-B). Evidence of multiple FeLV strains and detection of FeLV-B indicate Florida panthers are at high risk for FeLV infection.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Genoma Viral/genética , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/genética , Puma/virologia , Infecções por Retroviridae/veterinária , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/veterinária , Animais , Gatos , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Florida/epidemiologia , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Infecções por Retroviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Retroviridae/transmissão , Infecções por Retroviridae/virologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/epidemiologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/transmissão , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/virologia
13.
Open Vet J ; 9(3): 246-252, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31998618

RESUMO

Background: Cerebellar cortical degeneration (CCD) is the premature death of cerebellar neurons of heterogeneous etiology that is uncommonly observed as a neurological complication of certain neoplasia. Case Description: Here, we report an 8-month-old male domestic cat with altered consciousness, symmetric ataxia, hypermetric gait, vertical positional nystagmus, mydriasis, strabismus, intention tremor of the head, and increased patellar reflexes. Neuroanatomical diagnosis suggested a multifocal brain dysfunction (cerebellar and cerebral). The cat tested seropositive for feline leukemia virus. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis indicated mononuclear and neutrophilic pleocytosis. Contrast computed tomography imaging revealed multiple hypodense heterogeneous areas in both cerebral hemispheres, mild ventriculomegaly at the level of the caudal fossa, and a circular sharply marginated, homogeneously hyperdense mass occupying the right cerebellar hemisphere. Postmortem study indicated a 1.1 × 1.3 × 1.2 cm mass in the right cerebellar hemisphere close to the vermis. Histopathological analysis showed diffuse and severe Purkinje cell loss with a decrease in granular cell density and moderate gliosis compatible with CCD. Further, numerous neoplastic lymphoid cells were observed in the infiltrated mass, consistent with a diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma. Immunohistochemistry showed CD20 expression, indicative of a B-cell immunophenotype. In humans, CCD is reported as a rare paraneoplastic syndrome in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma. CNS lymphoma and/or Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) infection were both considered as a possible cause of CCD in this case. Conclusion: This is the first described case of possible paraneoplastic cerebellar cortical degeneration associated with CNS lymphoma and/or FeLV infection in a domestic cat.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/virologia , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/fisiologia , Degeneração Paraneoplásica Cerebelar/veterinária , Infecções por Retroviridae/veterinária , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/patologia , Gatos , Cerebelo/patologia , Masculino , Degeneração Paraneoplásica Cerebelar/patologia , Degeneração Paraneoplásica Cerebelar/virologia , Infecções por Retroviridae/patologia , Infecções por Retroviridae/virologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/patologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/virologia
14.
Viruses ; 10(12)2018 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30544924

RESUMO

Feline foamy virus (FFV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) belong to the Retroviridae family. While disease has not been reported for FFV infection, FeLV infection can cause anemia and immunosuppression (progressive infection). Co-infection with FFV/FeLV allows evaluation of the pathogenic potential and epidemiology of FFV infection in cats with FeLV pathology. Blood and buccal swab samples from 81 cats were collected in Rio de Janeiro. Plasma was serologically tested for FeLV. DNA extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and buccal swabs was used to PCR detect FFV and FeLV. A qPCR was developed to detect and measure FFV proviral loads (pVLs) in cats. FeLV qPCR was performed using previous methods. The median log10 pVL of FFV mono-infected individuals was lower than found in FFV/FeLV co-infected cats in buccal swabs (p = 0.003). We found 78% of cats had detectable buccal FFV DNA in FFV mono-infected and FFV co-infected FeLV-progressive cats, while in FeLV-regressive cats (those without signs of disease) 22% of cats had detectable buccal FFV DNA (p = 0.004). Our results suggest that regressive FeLV infection may reduce FFV saliva transmission, the main mode of FV transmission. We did not find evidence of differences in pathogenicity in FFV mono- and -dually infected cats. In summary, we show that FVs may interact with FeLV within the same host. Our study supports the utility of cats naturally co-infected with retroviruses as a model to investigate the impact of FV on immunocompromised mammalian hosts.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/virologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Vírus da Leucemia Felina , Infecções por Retroviridae/veterinária , Spumavirus , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/veterinária , Animais , Brasil , Gatos , Coinfecção/virologia , DNA Viral/sangue , Feminino , Masculino , Provírus , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Infecções por Retroviridae/sangue , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/sangue , Carga Viral/veterinária , Replicação Viral
15.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0207644, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30500849

RESUMO

Feline sporotrichosis due to Sporothrix brasiliensis is frequently severe and often correlated to zoonotic transmission. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) cause immunodeficiency in cats; no association has been identified with critical cases of sporotrichosis. Moreover, the cytokine profile in Sporothrix-infected cats and a potential impact of retrovirus co-infections on their immunity is unknown. This study assessed immunological parameters in cats with sporotrichosis with and without FIV or FeLV co-infection. FeLV infection was detected by antigen ELISA and by provirus PCR. FIV infection was investigated through ELISA and Western blot. Cytokine transcription (IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-α) was quantified using RT-qPCR and lymphocyte subpopulations (CD4, CD8, CD5 and CD21) were assessed by flow cytometry. Thirty cats with sporotrichosis were recruited to the study, including three FIV-positive and five FeLV-positive (progressive infection) cats. One cat with regressive FeLV infection was excluded from statistics. In comparison to retrovirus-negative cats, FIV-positive cats and FeLV-positive cats had higher IL-10 levels, FeLV-positive cats had lower IL-4 levels and FIV-positive cats had lower IL-12 levels and a lower CD4+/CD8+ ratio. Remarkably, all cats with poor general condition were FeLV (progressive infection) or FIV-positive, but the retrovirus status was not associated with the sporotrichosis treatment length or outcome. The immunological changes and the more severe clinical presentation observed in cats with retrovirus co-infections encourage future prospective studies that address the impact of these changes on prognostic determinants of feline sporotrichosis and the development of new therapy strategies that control disease spread.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/imunologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina/imunologia , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/imunologia , Infecções por Retroviridae/imunologia , Sporothrix/imunologia , Esporotricose/imunologia , Animais , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Relação CD4-CD8 , Gatos , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina/fisiologia , Itraconazol/farmacologia , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/fisiologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/microbiologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/virologia , Iodeto de Potássio/farmacologia , Infecções por Retroviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Retroviridae/virologia , Sporothrix/efeitos dos fármacos , Sporothrix/fisiologia , Esporotricose/tratamento farmacológico , Esporotricose/microbiologia
16.
Can Vet J ; 59(8): 860-862, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30104776

RESUMO

A diarrheic young cat died after neurological involvement. Biochemistry pointed to feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). The final diagnosis was severe multifocal meningoencephalitis due to Toxoplasma gondii. The presence of the parasite in the brain was confirmed using immunohistochemical staining. Concomitant feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and FIP were possible contributors to the clinical, fatal outcome.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/virologia , Peritonite Infecciosa Felina/patologia , Leucemia Felina/patologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/patologia , Toxoplasmose Cerebral/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Gato/patologia , Gatos , Coronavirus Felino/isolamento & purificação , Peritonite Infecciosa Felina/virologia , Feminino , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/isolamento & purificação , Leucemia Felina/parasitologia , Leucemia Felina/virologia , Meningoencefalite/parasitologia , Meningoencefalite/patologia , Meningoencefalite/veterinária , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Cerebral/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Cerebral/patologia
17.
J Virol ; 92(18)2018 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29976676

RESUMO

Exogenous feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a feline gammaretrovirus that results in a variety of disease outcomes. Endogenous FeLV (enFeLV) is a replication-defective provirus found in species belonging to the Felis genus, which includes the domestic cat (Felis catus). There have been few studies examining interaction between enFeLV genotype and FeLV progression. We examined point-in-time enFeLV and FeLV viral loads, as well as occurrence of FeLV/enFeLV recombinants (FeLV-B), to determine factors relating to clinical disease in a closed breeding colony of cats during a natural infection of FeLV. Coinfections with feline foamy virus (FFV), feline gammaherpesvirus 1 (FcaGHV-1), and feline coronavirus (FCoV) were also documented and analyzed for impact on cat health and FeLV disease. Correlation analysis and structural equation modeling techniques were used to measure interactions among disease parameters. Progressive FeLV disease and FeLV-B presence were associated with higher FeLV proviral and plasma viral loads. Female cats were more likely to have progressive disease and FeLV-B. Conversely, enFeLV copy number was higher in male cats and negatively associated with progressive FeLV disease. Males were more likely to have abortive FeLV disease. FFV proviral load was found to correlate positively with higher FeLV proviral and plasma viral load, detection of FeLV-B, and FCoV status. Male cats were much more likely to be infected with FcaGHV-1 than female cats. This analysis provides insights into the interplay between endogenous and exogenous FeLV during naturally occurring disease and reveals striking variation in the infection patterns among four chronic viral infections of domestic cats.IMPORTANCE Endogenous retroviruses are harbored by many animals, and their interactions with exogenous retroviral infections have not been widely studied. Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a relevant model system to examine this question, as endogenous and exogenous forms of the virus exist. In this analysis of a large domestic cat breeding colony naturally infected with FeLV, we documented that enFeLV copy number was higher in males and inversely related to FeLV viral load and associated with better FeLV disease outcomes. Females had lower enFeLV copy numbers and were more likely to have progressive FeLV disease and FeLV-B subtypes. FFV viral load was correlated with FeLV progression. FFV, FcaGHV-1, and FeLV displayed markedly different patterns of infection with respect to host demographics. This investigation revealed complex coinfection outcomes and viral ecology of chronic infections in a closed population.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/veterinária , Retrovirus Endógenos/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/fisiologia , Leucemia Felina/virologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/veterinária , Animais , Cruzamento , Gatos , Doença Crônica/veterinária , Coinfecção/virologia , Retrovirus Endógenos/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/genética , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Carga Viral
18.
Viruses ; 10(4)2018 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29642384

RESUMO

An endogenous retrovirus (ERV) is a remnant of an ancient retroviral infection in the host genome. Although most ERVs have lost their viral productivity, a few ERVs retain their replication capacity. In addition, partially inactivated ERVs can present a potential risk to the host via their encoded virulence factors or the generation of novel viruses by viral recombination. ERVs can also eventually acquire a biological function, and this ability has been a driving force of host evolution. Therefore, the presence of an ERV can be harmful or beneficial to the host. Various reports about paleovirology have revealed each event in ERV evolution, but the continuous processes of ERV evolution over millions of years are mainly unknown. A unique ERV family, ERV-DC, is present in the domestic cat (Felis silvestriscatus) genome. ERV-DC proviruses are phylogenetically classified into three genotypes, and the specific characteristics of each genotype have been clarified: their capacity to produce infectious viruses; their recombination with other retroviruses, such as feline leukemia virus or RD-114; and their biological functions as host antiviral factors. In this review, we describe ERV-DC-related phenomena and discuss the continuous changes in the evolution of this ERV in the domestic cat.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/genética , Retrovirus Endógenos/genética , Infecções por Retroviridae/veterinária , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , Retrovirus Endógenos/classificação , Evolução Molecular , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Genoma , Genótipo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/classificação , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , Provírus/genética , Recombinação Genética , Transdução Genética
19.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 131, 2018 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29554969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been increasingly recognized in cats living in areas endemic for the disease. Co-infection with Leishmania infantum and other infectious agents is well established in dogs. However, for cats, data on co-infections with L. infantum and other infectious agents are still sparse. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of vector-borne pathogens, Mycoplasma spp., feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) in cats from an area endemic for VL in southeastern Brazil. RESULTS: Of the 90 cats, eight (8.9%) were infected with Mycoplasma spp., five (5.5%) were FIV- positive and one (1.1%) was FeLV-positive. Co-infection with L. infantum and at least one other infectious agent was found in 9/50 (18.0%; CI: 8.6-31.4%) cats. In Group 1 (cats infected naturally by L. infantum), 4/50 (8.0%) cats were positive for FIV, 4/50 (8%) for Mycoplasma spp. and 1/50 (2.0%) was co-infected with FeLV and Mycoplasma spp. In Group 2 (cats non-infected with L. infantum), 2/40 (5.0%) cats were infected with Mycoplasma spp. and 1/40 (2.5%) was co-infected with FIV and Mycoplasma spp. All cats were negative for Ehrlichia spp., Babesia spp. and Anaplasma platys. CONCLUSION: A low prevalence of co-infection in Leishmania-infected and non-infected cats was found. Co-infections with Leishmania and vector-borne diseases in cats are not common in this area endemic for VL in Brazil.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas/veterinária , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida Felina/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Leucemia Felina/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Anaplasma/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida Felina/virologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/isolamento & purificação , Leucemia Felina/virologia , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Prevalência
20.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 160(2): 95-105, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29386166

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) leads to fatal disease in cats with progressive infection. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of FeLV infection in Switzerland and make a comparison with previous studies. Of 881 blood samples taken from cats living in Switzerland (minimum of 20 samples per Canton), 47 samples were provirus-positive (5.3%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.9-7.0%) and 18 samples were antigen-positive (2%; 95% CI 1.2-3.2%). Together with data previously collected in similar studies, these findings demonstrated a decrease in prevalence between 1997 and 2003 followed by a relative constant low prevalence thereafter. Young cats (=2 years) were more frequently infected than older cats, but FeLV-positive cats were up to 15 (antigen-positive) and 19 (provirus-positive) years old. Sexually intact cats were more frequently viremic than neutered cats; purebred cats were somewhat less frequently FeLV-positive than non-purebred cats. In a second study, in which 300 saliva samples were analyzed, samples from 5 cats were FeLV-RNA positive (1.7%; 95% CI, 0.5-3.8%), although one young feral cat had been falsely assumed to be FeLV-negative based on a point-of-care test. Of the 300 cats, only 50% were FeLV tested or vaccinated, although 90% of the cats were at risk of exposure to FeLV. Testing and vaccination of all cats with exposure risk may help further decrease the prevalence of FeLV infection. Moreover, characteristics of FeLV tests should be considered, such as the risk of false negative results in the early phase of infection when performing antigen testing.


Assuntos
Vírus da Leucemia Felina/isolamento & purificação , Leucemia Felina/epidemiologia , Infecções por Retroviridae/veterinária , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/veterinária , Animais , Gatos , Leucemia Felina/virologia , Infecções por Retroviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Retroviridae/virologia , Suíça/epidemiologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/epidemiologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/virologia
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