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1.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(9): 1095-1099, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879241

RESUMO

The lens of the eye is an avascular and anuclear tissue that serves to focus objects on the retina. Cataract is opacity within the clear lens that changes the transparency and refractive index of the lens causing significant visual impairments. These impairments can severely restrict the ability to carry out daily activities. Cataracts is common among elderly person occurring in more than 80% of patients aged 80 or older. Notably, we have recently identified key compounds that are effective against cataract formation. Presbyopia is also an ocular disease that typically develops in people over the age of 45 while affecting almost 100% of people over the age of 65. Recent research suggests that age-related changes in hydrostatic pressure of the lens controlled by Na/K ATPase contribute to the development of presbyopia. In the lens, Na/K ATPase has been shown to be regulated by transient receptor potential cation channels, vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and 4, thus suggesting the potential role of TRPV1 and TRPV4 in the development of presbyopia. This review article summarizes data obtained from our laboratory with my colleagues highlighting the critical role of aquaporin 0 (AQP0) in maintaining a healthy lens redox environment, key molecules that delay the onset of cataract in vivo, as well as potential mechanisms of lens hydrostatic pressure control that may be associated with presbyopia.


Assuntos
Aquaporinas/fisiologia , Catarata/tratamento farmacológico , Catarata/etiologia , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Proteínas do Olho/fisiologia , Pressão Hidrostática , Cristalino/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Presbiopia/etiologia , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/fisiologia , Canais de Cátion TRPV/fisiologia
2.
Med Lav ; 111(4): 269-284, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The eye is an important sensory organ occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation (IR) in healthcare workers (HCWs) engaged in medical imaging (MI). New evidence highlights the possible induction of cataract at IR exposure levels to be much lower than expected in the past. OBJECTIVE: Conduct an updated review on the current evidence on cataract risk in healthcare workers exposed to IR. METHODS: Published scientific studies on cataract risk in IR exposed healthcare workers were collected through a systematic search of two biomedical databases (MEDLINE and Scopus). Data from included studies was extracted and summarized. Study quality was also assessed. RESULTS: All 21 eligible studies reported an increased prevalence of cataract, especially posterior subcapsular cataract, in IR exposed  HCWs with a higher prevalence in interventional cardiology staff. DISCUSSION: Our review synthesizes the latest evidence to support the hypothesis of a significantly increased risk of occupational cataract in healthcare workers operating MI and exposed to IR, especially in interventional cardiologists. Data also support a dose-response relationship between IR exposure and the prevalence of opacities, especially posterior subcapsular opacities. CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight the need for effective control measures including appropriate training, adherence to protective procedures, and a constant use of shields and eye personal protective equipment in healthcare workers with optical exposure to IR. Periodic health surveillance programs, possibly including lens evaluation, are also important to monitor cataract risk in these MI operators.


Assuntos
Catarata , Cristalino , Exposição Ocupacional , Lesões por Radiação , Radiação Ionizante , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos
3.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 136(4. Vyp. 2): 214-218, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880142

RESUMO

The article presents a clinical case of a functioning hyaloid artery in a 69-year-old patient. The results of OCT-angiography made it possible to detect the presence of blood flow in the projection of the persistent hyaloid artery (PHA) on the cross-section and en-face images. The vascular bed of PHA spreading along the posterior surface of the lens in the form of separate branches was visualized by slit-lamp biomicroscopy. The uniqueness of this clinical case lies in the low probability of such findings in the elderly. The presence of a developing cataract indicates the need for an individual approach in determining treatment strategies. In our opinion, the consistent use of laser coagulation technologies and laser photodestruction of PHA will minimize the risk of hemophthalmos and tractional retinal detachment during the upcoming cataract surgery.


Assuntos
Extração de Catarata , Catarata , Cristalino , Vítreo Primário Hiperplásico Persistente , Descolamento Retiniano , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos
5.
J Cataract Refract Surg ; 46(7): 1063-1064, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773560
7.
Wiad Lek ; 73(4): 792-795, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731719

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To investigate the features of cytokine profile of intraocular fluid in patients undergoing cataract phacoemulsification and the effect of their level on the nature and frequency of early and late postoperative complications from the retina. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The work involved 82 patients (82 eyes) with cataract during traditional phacoemulsification on the basis of Ophthalmology department of Poltava Regional Clinical Hospital. The intraocular fluid for the study, while performing phacoemulsification of the nucleus, was collected with a single insulin syringe through the paracentesis of the cornea in the volume of 0.3-0.4 ml for the examination of TNF-α and bFGF levels. RESULTS: Results: It was found that the level of TNF-α intraocular fluid ranged from 1.11 pg / ml to 140.55 pg / ml; its average was 24.61 ± 5.43 pg / ml. When examining the level of bFGF in intraocular fluid, it ranged from 1.0 pg / ml to 12.54 pg / ml; its average was 3.33 ± 0.44 pg / ml. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Comparing the levels of the effect of TNF-α and bFGF of the intraocular fluid of patients with cataracts and morphological changes of the retina after phacoemulsification revealed a direct dependence of the level of these factors on the development of macular edema.


Assuntos
Catarata , Facoemulsificação , Humor Aquoso , Citocinas , Humanos , Implante de Lente Intraocular , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Retina
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(26): 15137-15147, 2020 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554502

RESUMO

RNA modifications play a fundamental role in cellular function. Pseudouridylation, the most abundant RNA modification, is catalyzed by the H/ACA small ribonucleoprotein (snoRNP) complex that shares four core proteins, dyskerin (DKC1), NOP10, NHP2, and GAR1. Mutations in DKC1, NOP10, or NHP2 cause dyskeratosis congenita (DC), a disorder characterized by telomere attrition. Here, we report a phenotype comprising nephrotic syndrome, cataracts, sensorineural deafness, enterocolitis, and early lethality in two pedigrees: males with DKC1 p.Glu206Lys and two children with homozygous NOP10 p.Thr16Met. Females with heterozygous DKC1 p.Glu206Lys developed cataracts and sensorineural deafness, but nephrotic syndrome in only one case of skewed X-inactivation. We found telomere attrition in both pedigrees, but no mucocutaneous abnormalities suggestive of DC. Both mutations fall at the dyskerin-NOP10 binding interface in a region distinct from those implicated in DC, impair the dyskerin-NOP10 interaction, and disrupt the catalytic pseudouridylation site. Accordingly, we found reduced pseudouridine levels in the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) of the patients. Zebrafish dkc1 mutants recapitulate the human phenotype and show reduced 18S pseudouridylation, ribosomal dysregulation, and a cell-cycle defect in the absence of telomere attrition. We therefore propose that this human disorder is the consequence of defective snoRNP pseudouridylation and ribosomal dysfunction.


Assuntos
Catarata/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Enterocolite/genética , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/genética , Síndrome Nefrótica/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleolares Pequenas/genética , Animais , Criança , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Longevidade , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Mutação , Linhagem , Conformação Proteica , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Peixe-Zebra
9.
Harefuah ; 159(6): 455-457, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583651

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In intestinal diseases there are ophthalmological abnormalities. In celiac disease, for example, the eyes' pathologies are expressed by motoric, neurological, inflammatory, autoimmune, vision sharpness, dryness, redness, conjunctivitis and cataract tendency etc. It appears that intestinal luminal components and processes can irradiate to peripheral organs, including to the eyes, inducing functional abnormalities in this target organ. The present review describes the luminal and mucosal constituents and processes, the sensing mechanisms of those generated signals and the routes to deliver those messages to remote organs, eyes included. The gut-eye axis is very challenging and its exploration might bring future therapeutic strategies to treat ophthalmological disease.


Assuntos
Enteropatias , Catarata , Olho , Oftalmopatias , Humanos
10.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 160(6): 309-315, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599602

RESUMO

Warburg micro syndrome (WARBM) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by microcephaly, cortical dysplasia, intellectual disability, ocular abnormalities, spastic diplegia, and microgenitalia. WARBM has 4 subtypes arising from pathogenic variants in 4 genes (RAB18, RAB3GAP1, RAB3GAP2, and TBC1D20). Here, we report on a patient with a homozygous pathogenic c.665delC (p.Pro222HisfsTer30) variant in the RAB3GAP1 gene identified by whole-exome sequencing (WES) analyses. Only his father was a heterozygous carrier, and homozygosity mapping analysis of the WES data revealed large loss-of-heterozygosity regions in both arms of chromosome 2, interpreted as uniparental isodisomy. This uniparental disomy pattern could be due to paternal meiosis I nondisjunction because of the preserved heterozygosity in the pericentromeric region. This report provides novel insights, including a rare form of UPD, usage of homozygosity mapping analysis for the evaluation of isodisomy, and the first reported case of WARBM1 as a result of uniparental isodisomy.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Catarata/congênito , Cromossomos Humanos Par 2/genética , Córnea/anormalidades , Homozigoto , Hipogonadismo/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Atrofia Óptica/genética , Dissomia Uniparental/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adolescente , Adulto , Catarata/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Perda de Heterozigosidade/genética , Masculino , Pais , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteínas rab3 de Ligação ao GTP/genética
11.
Arq Bras Oftalmol ; 83(3): 209-214, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32490980

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe costs and outcomes of phacoemulsification for cataracts performed by ophthalmology residents. METHODS: We obtained medical records from patients operated on in 2011 by third year residents (R3) using phacoemulsification (n=576). Our expenses estimation included professionals' and hospital costs (fees, materials, medications, and equipment). The study outcomes included spectacle-corrected visual acuities before and six months after the operation, rate of intraoperative complications, and total number of postoperative visits. We compared outcome variables with those from extracapsular cataract extraction procedures (n=274) performed by R3 residents in 1997. RESULTS: The mean total cost for phacoemulsification was US$ 416, while an overall estimation indicated the extracapsular cataract extraction cost at US$ 284 (as of December 30, 2011). The mean preoperative spectacle-corrected visual acuity was worse for eyes scheduled for extracapsular cataract extraction (1.73 ± 0.62), than for eyes scheduled for phacoemulsification (0.74 ± 0.54 logMAR) (p<0.01); the mean postoperative visual acuity was better for phacoemulsification (0.21 ± 0.36 logMAR), than for extracapsular cataract extraction (0.63 ± 0.63 logMAR) (p<0.01). Most patients undergoing phacoemulsification (85%) achieved postoperative spectacle-corrected visual acuities ≥0.30 logMAR, while only 45% of those undergoing extracapsular cataract extractions achieved the same postoperative visual acuity (p<0.01). The rate of intraoperative complications was significantly higher after extracapsular cataract extractions (21%) than it was after phacoemulsifications (7.6%) (p<0.01), and the mean number of postoperative visits was also higher after extracapsular cataract extractions (5.6 ± 2.3) than after phacoemulsifications (4.5 ± 2.4) (p<0.01). CONCLUSION: These data indicate that cataract surgery performed by in-training ophthalmologists using phacoemulsification is expensive, but compared to extracapsular cataract extraction results, teaching phacoemulsification leads to an approximate three-fold lower complication rate, smaller number of postoperative visits and, most importantly, better visual acuities.


Assuntos
Catarata , Facoemulsificação , Humanos , Complicações Intraoperatórias , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Acuidade Visual
12.
Georgian Med News ; (301): 59-62, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535564

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to determine the correlation between implanted IOL material type and posterior capsule opacification. At 12 month, there was no statistically and visually significant changes in all controlled groups. At 18 month, 3 eyes (5.2%) from Group 2 and 1 eye (5.8%) from hydrophobic arm of Group 3 had visually significant PCO and underwent Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy. 8 eyes (10.8%) in group 1 and 3 eyes (17.6%) in hydrophilic arm of Group 3 required Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy. At 3, 6, and 12 month compared to baseline (1 month postoperatively), there was no statistically and clinically significant difference in visual acuity and subjective refraction between the groups. At 12 month, 3 patients (4%) from group 1 and 1 patient (6%) from hydrophilic arm of group 3 complained of glare sensitivity, especially in mesopic conditions. At that point, interestingly, no patient from Group 2 and hydrophobic arm of Group 3 complained about glare sensitivity. In terms of UCDVA, 68 eyes of group 1 (91%) achieved 20/20 or better distance vision, 71 eyes (96%) achieved 20/25 distance vision. In Group 2, 50 eyes (87%) achieved 20/20 or better distance vision, 52 eyes (92%) achieved 20/25 distance vision. In Group 3, 14 eyes (82%) of hydrophilic arm achieved 20/20 or better distance vision and 15 eyes (88%) achieved 20/25 distance vision. In hydrophobic arm of group 3, 16 eyes (94%) achieved 20/20 or better distance vision. UCDVA was examined with ClearChart 2 Digital Acuity System (Reichert Technologies), using Landolt C optotypes. Biometry data was acquired by IOLMaster-500 (Carl Zeiss, Meditec). Contrast sensitivity was evaluated with ClearChart 2 Digital Acuity System (Reichert Technologies), using Pelli-Robson Contrast Sensitivity Chart. At 1, 3, 6, month there was no statistically significant difference between controlled groups in terms of contrast sensitivity. At 12 month, 5 patients (6%) from Group 1 and 3 patients (17%) from Group 3 hydrophilic arm had slightly decreased contrast sensitivity. There was no changes in contrast sensitivity in eyes of Group 2 at 12 month period. The study is still ongoing. The patients will be evaluated at 24 month and 36 month postoperatively.


Assuntos
Opacificação da Cápsula , Catarata , Lentes Intraoculares , Resinas Acrílicas , Humanos , Implante de Lente Intraocular , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(21): e20049, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481272

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Rifabutin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic known to cause deposits on the corneal endothelium and lens. We report a patient in whom cataracts developed and progressive pigment deposits were seen on the corneal endothelium, lens, and iridocorneal angle. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient was a 45-year-old woman who had been received long-term treatment with a combination of various anti-mycobacterial drugs for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis starting in 2004. Rifabutin was started in 2009, and she was referred to our department in 2017 for detailed ophthalmological examination. DIAGNOSES: Both eyes showed pigmented deposits over the entire corneal endothelium, the entire periphery of the iridocorneal angle, and the anterior surface of the lens. Mild cataracts were also diagnosed bilaterally. Pigment deposits on the anterior surface of the lens and the cataracts in both eyes gradually progressed. These lesions were assumed to be associated with long term rifabutin intake. INTERVENTIONS: Rifabutin intake was discontinued after progression of intraocular deposits, cataracts, and ERG deterioration. OUTCOMES: Visual acuity improved, although cataracts, deposits, and ERG deterioration remained. LESSONS: Rifabutin may induce not only corneal endothelial deposits, but also cataracts and iridocorneal angle deposits.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Catarata/induzido quimicamente , Doenças da Córnea/induzido quimicamente , Rifabutina/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rifabutina/administração & dosagem , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico
17.
18.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 136(3): 93-99, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504483

RESUMO

The article describes the factors affecting the target refraction of pseudophakic eyes of children after extraction of congenital cataracts. The factors include features of the echobiometric parameters of the eye, refraction, comorbidity of congenital cataracts and ocular pathologies, margins of error in calculating strength of the intraocular lens, localization and structure of the artificial lens, as well as correction of obscure or refractive amblyopia in pseudophakic eyes. Development of the algorithm for correction of residual refraction of pseudophakic eyes in children both before and after IOL implantation with consideration of each of those factors currently remains a relevant problem.


Assuntos
Extração de Catarata , Catarata , Lentes Intraoculares , Criança , Seguimentos , Humanos , Implante de Lente Intraocular , Pseudofacia , Refração Ocular
19.
Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol ; 27(1): 28-33, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549721

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to asses ocular findings' prevalence in children with primary congenital heart disease (CHD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a prospective cross-sectional study of children with CHD treated at a specialized center in the South of Brazil between 2013 and 2015. They underwent a complete ocular examination, including measurement of visual acuity, refraction test, external motility, anterior and posterior biomicroscopy, and binocular indirect fundoscopy with retinal photographs. Two experienced examiners independently assessed fundus findings: one at the time of examination and image capture, while the other assessed only the captured images. RESULTS: Of a total of 146 children examined, 124 were included in this analysis (16% loss). Seventy children were male (55.5%). The average age was 9.3 years (minimum 1 month and maximum 15 years). Caucasians race were 81.2%, African Descendants race were 11.1%, and others were 7.7%. About 57.1% had already had heart surgery. About 14.8% had visual acuity below 0.6 and 2.8% below 0.1. Strabismus was found in 7.4% and cataracts in 1.7%. Retinal alterations were recognized in 13.5%, of which 4.8% were related to vascular narrowing or dilation and/or abnormal arteriovenous crossing; 7.14% were related to increased vascular tortuosity, while 1.6% were related to active toxoplasmic chorioretinitis lesions. Concomitant abnormalities in ocular motility, biomicroscopy, or ophthalmoscopy were detected in 24% of the cases. CONCLUSION: Children under the age of 15 years old with primary CHD have a high prevalence of ocular alterations, with external ocular and retinal manifestations, with higher occurrence rate among cyanotic cases. This leads us to strongly recommend the performance of a complete ophthalmological examination in such cases.


Assuntos
Catarata/etiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/complicações , Transtornos da Motilidade Ocular/etiologia , Doenças Retinianas/etiologia , Estrabismo/etiologia , Adolescente , Catarata/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fundo de Olho , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Transtornos da Motilidade Ocular/diagnóstico , Oftalmoscopia , Estudos Prospectivos , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Doenças Retinianas/diagnóstico , Estrabismo/diagnóstico , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
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