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1.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 136(4. Vyp. 2): 207-213, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880141

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the functional results of antiangiogenic therapy in patients with exudative form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in real clinical practice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 90 people (90 eyes) with active choroidal neovascularization (CNV) on the background of AMD. All patients were divided into 6 groups depending on the year of treatment - from 2013 to 2018, all patients were divided into 6 groups and overall the retrospective study sited at Research Institute of Eye Diseases (Moscow) lasted 8 years. All patients underwent standard ophthalmological examination including visometry, biomicroscopy and ophthalmoscopy under drug-induced mydriasis, as well as optical coherence tomography, fundus angiography and OCT-angiography. RESULTS: According to the results of the analysis of OCT data obtained from 2013 to 2017, among all patients with exudative AMD, patients with types I and II of CNV and single patients with RAP prevailed, which explains the high visual acuity - about 0.5 - in all groups after the start of the treatment (table 1 and 2). In 2018, 33.3% of patients were diagnosed with RAP (the same number of eyes as with types I and II of CNV), which can be explained by the introduction of OCT-angiography into wide clinical practice. The lack of increase in visual acuity is most likely associated with a small amount of intravitreal injections (IVI) - 4.8 IVI in the first year and 3.3 IVI in the second injection year. In patients who received more than three IVI in the first year of observation, visual acuity increased from 0.49±0.03 to 0.6±0.03 (p=0.04), in the case of less than three IVI in the first year, visual acuity was not changed, amounting to 0.42±0.1 before and 0.44±0.1 (p=0.655) after the treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Patients of all groups exhibited proportional stabilization of visual acuity, a decrease in the thickness of the retina and total macular volume. The lack of improvements of visual acuity is most likely associated with a small amount of IVI.


Assuntos
Neovascularização de Coroide/tratamento farmacológico , Degeneração Macular/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Angiofluoresceinografia , Humanos , Injeções Intravítreas , Moscou , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
2.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 136(4. Vyp. 2): 279-283, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880151

RESUMO

Paracentral acute middle maculopathy (PAMM) is a rare disease affecting middle layers of the central retina that is seen as a focal hyperreflective band-like lesion on optical coherence tomography. Paracentral acute middle maculopathy is associated mainly with vascular diseases. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) findings confirm the ischemic nature of paracentral acute middle maculopathy.


Assuntos
Degeneração Macular , Doenças Retinianas , Angiofluoresceinografia , Humanos , Vasos Retinianos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
3.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 136(4. Vyp. 2): 284-288, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880152

RESUMO

Retinal pigment epithelium detachment (PED) is a pathological condition in which retinal pigment epithelium is separated from the underlying Bruch's membrane due to the formation of a fibrovascular membrane, drusenoid material, accumulation of fluid and/or blood. Six types of RPE detachments have been determined: pseudovitelliform, detachments associated with drainage drusen, serous, vascular and hemorrhagic, as well as PED associated with vascular retinal anomaly. The drusenoid PED is always avascular, the drusenoid material is contained between the RPE and Bruch's membrane. It was first described by Casswell in 1985. Ophthalmoscopy of the fundus shows a yellow-white cellular structure in the subretinal space, sometimes containing a patch of pigment, with an uneven surface, clear boundaries and a wavy edge. Serous PED is larger in area and prominence than drusenoid, characterized by the presence of a hyporeflective area under the detached RPE, over the area of more than 50% of the total area of detachment. Ophthalmoscopy shows a transparent yellow lesion in the subretinal space, sometimes brown-tinted, with clear boundaries and dome-shaped prominence. True serous PED is avascular (combination of choroidal neovascularization and serous PED will be discussed in the article about vascularized PED).


Assuntos
Degeneração Macular , Descolamento Retiniano , Lâmina Basilar da Corioide , Angiofluoresceinografia , Humanos , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
4.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 136(4. Vyp. 2): 333-343, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880159

RESUMO

Stargardt disease is a hereditary retinal dystrophy associated with mutations in the ABCA4 gene. Currently, no etiopathogenetic drugs nor treatment methods for Stargardt disease have completely passed clinical trials. The review summarizes experimental and clinical studies of drugs aimed at reducing the accumulation of vitamin A dimers, lipofuscin, complement inhibition and RPE regeneration by stem cell transplantation, as well as gene therapy studies with intravitreal vector injection of the ABCA4 functional gene.


Assuntos
Degeneração Macular , Distrofias Retinianas , Doença de Stargardt , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP , Animais , Lipofuscina
5.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 136(4. Vyp. 2): 354-358, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880161

RESUMO

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of vision loss both worldwide and in Russia. A distinctive feature of the exudative form of AMD is the presence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) as a result of pathological angiogenesis of the choroid. With the introduction of optical coherence tomography (OCT) - a non-invasive imaging technique - it has become possible to monitor CNV activity. In the development of CNV, OCT can reveal three types of fluid localization: intraretinal fluid (IRF), subretinal fluid, fluid under retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Exudative IRF is characterized by the presence of round and/or oval space. This type of fluid is characterized by good response to anti-VEGF therapy. Degenerative IRF («cystoid degeneration¼) is characterized as a small, clearly defined hyporeflective spaces above the area with altered RPE not responding to anti-VEGF therapy. Thus, early diagnosis of AMD and detection of «new activity¼ after therapy with antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) by comparing distribution of the fluid in SD-OCT are critical to maintaining or restoring the best possible visual acuity in patients with this disease.


Assuntos
Neovascularização de Coroide/diagnóstico , Degeneração Macular , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Angiofluoresceinografia , Humanos , Federação Russa , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular
6.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 136(4): 86-92, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779460

RESUMO

Development and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is associated with insufficiency of protective antioxidant systems of the body. Nutraceutical medications can positively affect the course of the disease and the visual functions of patients with AMD. PURPOSE: To conduct a placebo-controlled clinical monitoring of visual functions in patients with dry AMD while taking a drug Complex that corresponds to the AREDS 2 formula. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 90 people in 3 equivalent parallel groups, two of which were represented by patients with AMD who took the Complex for 3-6 months or Placebo for 3 months. The third group included healthy subjects of the same age. In addition to standard eye examination, participants underwent evaluation of the macular pigment optical density (MPOD), spatial-frequency contrast sensitivity (CS), photostress test, and reading parameters on the Salzburg Reading Desk device. The changes of blood plasma antioxidant activity (AOA) were also evaluated in the main group. RESULTS: By day 90 of the study, patients of the main group showed statistically significant (p<0.001) growth of MPOD from 0.24±0.13 to 0.32±0.1, reduction of photostress recovery time from 68.2±17.8 to 57.3±17.5 seconds, improvement of high-spatial-frequency CS - from 25.0±8.2 to 30.6±6.8 dB, increase of near visual acuity logMAR from 0.22±0.04 to 0.19±0.03 and reading speed, and decrease of reading mistakes. Statistically significant (p<0.05) reduction of in AOA was seen during the observation period from 1.52±0.16 to 1.68±0.16. Patients of the main group who received the Complex for 180 days demonstrated additional improvements of visual functions. CONCLUSION: The drug Complex corresponding to the AREDS 2 formula contributes to a significant increase in MPOD, improvements of visual functions and overall antioxidant status of patients, which confirms the feasibility of its use in patients with dry AMD.


Assuntos
Atrofia Geográfica , Degeneração Macular , Pigmento Macular , Suplementos Nutricionais , Olho , Humanos
7.
Retina ; 40(9): e49-e51, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842091
9.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 136(3): 87-92, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504482

RESUMO

The review presents the characteristics and results of clinical studies on implantation of different types of macular lenses (IOL-VIP system, Lipschitz Macular Implant (LMI), Fresnel Prism Intraocular, IOL AMD) installed in the capsular bag after phacoemulsification in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The literature review shows that up to now, the data on implantation of these lenses was contradictory and generally based only on short-term results. There are quite strict criteria for the selection of patients to evaluate the maximum possible postoperative visual rehabilitation of patients using special programs, the effectiveness of which largely depends on their commitment to postoperative, sometimes long-term treatment. Additional independent clinical studies with longer follow-up periods for patients with AMD are required to determine the efficacy and safety of macular lenses in order to recommend their use in wide clinical practice.


Assuntos
Lentes Intraoculares , Degeneração Macular , Facoemulsificação , Humanos , Implante de Lente Intraocular , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Acuidade Visual
14.
Nat Med ; 26(6): 892-899, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424211

RESUMO

Progression to exudative 'wet' age-related macular degeneration (exAMD) is a major cause of visual deterioration. In patients diagnosed with exAMD in one eye, we introduce an artificial intelligence (AI) system to predict progression to exAMD in the second eye. By combining models based on three-dimensional (3D) optical coherence tomography images and corresponding automatic tissue maps, our system predicts conversion to exAMD within a clinically actionable 6-month time window, achieving a per-volumetric-scan sensitivity of 80% at 55% specificity, and 34% sensitivity at 90% specificity. This level of performance corresponds to true positives in 78% and 41% of individual eyes, and false positives in 56% and 17% of individual eyes at the high sensitivity and high specificity points, respectively. Moreover, we show that automatic tissue segmentation can identify anatomical changes before conversion and high-risk subgroups. This AI system overcomes substantial interobserver variability in expert predictions, performing better than five out of six experts, and demonstrates the potential of using AI to predict disease progression.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Atrofia Geográfica/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Degeneração Macular Exsudativa/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Progressão da Doença , Diagnóstico Precoce , Intervenção Médica Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Degeneração Macular/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Prognóstico , Degeneração Macular Exsudativa/diagnóstico por imagem , Degeneração Macular Exsudativa/terapia
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(23): 13094-13104, 2020 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434914

RESUMO

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. While the histopathology of the different disease stages is well characterized, the cause underlying the progression, from the early drusen stage to the advanced macular degeneration stage that leads to blindness, remains unknown. Here, we show that photoreceptors (PRs) of diseased individuals display increased expression of two key glycolytic genes, suggestive of a glucose shortage during disease. Mimicking aspects of this metabolic profile in PRs of wild-type mice by activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) caused early drusen-like pathologies, as well as advanced AMD-like pathologies. Mice with activated mTORC1 in PRs also displayed other early disease features, such as a delay in photoreceptor outer segment (POS) clearance and accumulation of lipofuscin in the retinal-pigmented epithelium (RPE) and of lipoproteins at the Bruch's membrane (BrM), as well as changes in complement accumulation. Interestingly, formation of drusen-like deposits was dependent on activation of mTORC1 in cones. Both major types of advanced AMD pathologies, including geographic atrophy (GA) and neovascular pathologies, were also seen. Finally, activated mTORC1 in PRs resulted in a threefold reduction in di-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-containing phospholipid species. Feeding mice a DHA-enriched diet alleviated most pathologies. The data recapitulate many aspects of the human disease, suggesting that metabolic adaptations in photoreceptors could contribute to disease progression in AMD. Identifying the changes downstream of mTORC1 that lead to advanced pathologies in mouse might present new opportunities to study the role of PRs in AMD pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Macula Lutea/patologia , Degeneração Macular/patologia , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Cones/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Lâmina Basilar da Corioide/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Lipofuscina/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Macula Lutea/citologia , Masculino , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Cones/metabolismo , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/metabolismo
16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD012208, 2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading causes of permanent blindness worldwide. The current mainstay of treatment for neovascular AMD (nAMD) is intravitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents: aflibercept, ranibizumab, and off-label bevacizumab. Injections can be given monthly, every two or three months ('extended-fixed'), or as needed (pro re nata (PRN)). A variant of PRN is 'treat-and-extend' whereby injections are resumed if recurrence is detected and then delivered with increasing intervals. Currently, injection frequency varies among practitioners, which underscores the need to characterize an optimized approach to nAMD management. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of monthly versus non-monthly intravitreous injection of an anti-VEGF agent in people with newly diagnosed nAMD. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, and three trials registers from 2004 to October 2019; checked references; handsearched conference abstracts; and contacted pharmaceutical companies to identify additional studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared different treatment regimens for anti-VEGF agents in people with newly diagnosed nAMD. We considered standard doses only (ranibizumab 0.5 mg, bevacizumab 1.25 mg, aflibercept 2.0 mg, or a combination of these). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane methods for trial selection, data extraction, and analysis. MAIN RESULTS: We included 15 RCTs. The total number of participants was 7732, ranging from 37 to 2457 in each trial. The trials were conducted worldwide. Of these, six trials exclusively took place in the US, and three included centers from more than one country. Eight trials were at high risk of bias for at least one domain and all trials had at least one domain at unclear risk of bias. Seven trials (3525 participants) compared a PRN regimen with a monthly injection regimen, of which five trials delivered four to eight injections using standard PRN and three delivered nine or 10 injections using a treat-and-extend regimen in the first year. The overall mean change in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at one year was +8.8 letters in the monthly injection group. Compared to the monthly injection, there was moderate-certainty evidence that the mean difference (MD) in BCVA change at one year for the standard PRN subgroup was -1.7 letters (95% confidence interval (CI) -2.8 to -0.6; 4 trials, 2299 participants), favoring monthly injections. There was low-certainty evidence of a similar BCVA change with the treat-and-extend subgroup (0.5 letters, 95% CI -3.1 to 4.2; 3 trials, 1226 participants). Compared to monthly injection, there was low-certainty evidence that fewer participants gained 15 or more lines of vision with standard PRN treatment at one year (risk ratio (RR) 0.87, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.99; 4 trials, 2299 participants) and low-certainty evidence of a similar gain with treat-and-extend versus monthly regimens (RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.36; 3 trials, 1169 participants). The mean change in central retinal thickness was a decrease of -166 µm in the monthly injection group; the MD compared with standard PRN was 21 µm (95% CI 6 to 32; 4 trials, 2215 participants; moderate-certainty evidence) and with treat-and extend was 22 µm (95% CI 37 to -81 µm; 2 trials, 635 participants; low-certainty evidence), in favor of monthly injection. Only one trial (498 participants) measured quality of life and reported no evidence of a difference between regimens, but data could not be extracted (low-certainty evidence). Both PRN regimens (standard and 'treat-and-extend') used fewer injections than monthly regimens (standard PRN: MD -4.6 injections, 95% CI -5.4 to -3.8; 4 trials, 2336 participants; treat-and-extend: -2.4 injections, 95% CI -2.7 to -2.1 injections; moderate-certainty evidence for both comparisons). Two trials provided cost data (1105 participants, trials conducted in the US and the UK). They found that cost differences between regimens were reduced if bevacizumab rather than aflibercept or ranibizumab were used, since bevacizumab was less costly (low-certainty evidence). PRN regimens were associated with a reduced risk of endophthalmitis compared with monthly injections (Peto odds ratio (OR) 0.13, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.46; 6 RCTs, 3175 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Using data from all trials included in this review, we estimated the risk of endophthalmitis with monthly injections to be 8 in every 1000 people per year. The corresponding risk for people receiving PRN regimens was 1 in every 1000 people per year (95% CI 0 to 4). Three trials (1439 participants) compared an extended-fixed regimen (number of injections reported in only one large trial: 7.5 in one year) with monthly injections. There was moderate-certainty evidence that BCVA at one year was similar for extended-fixed and monthly injections (MD in BCVA change compared to extended-fixed group: -1.3 letters, 95% CI -3.9 to 1.3; RR of gaining 15 letters or more: 0.94, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.10). The change in central retinal thickness was a decrease of 137 µm in the monthly group; the MD with the extended-fixed group was 8 µm (95% CI -11 to 27; low-certainty evidence). The frequency of endophthalmitis was lower in the extended-fixed regimen compared to the monthly group, but this estimate was imprecise (RR 0.19, 95% CI 0.03 to 1.11; low-certainty evidence). If we assumed a risk of 8 cases of endophthalmitis in 1000 people receiving monthly injections over one year, then the corresponding risk with extended-fixed regimen was 2 in 1000 people (95% CI 0 to 9). Other evidence comparing different extended-fixed or PRN regimens yielded inconclusive results. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found that, at one year, monthly regimens are probably more effective than PRN regimens using seven or eight injections in the first year, but the difference is small and clinically insignificant. Endophthalmitis is probably more common with monthly injections and differences in costs between regimens are higher if aflibercept or ranibizumab are used compared to bevacizumab. This evidence only applies to settings in which regimens are implemented as described in the trials, whereas undertreatment is likely to be common in real-world settings. There are no data from RCTs on long-term effects of different treatment regimens.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Degeneração Macular/tratamento farmacológico , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Acuidade Visual/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inibidores da Angiogênese/economia , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Bevacizumab/economia , Viés , Esquema de Medicação , Endoftalmite/epidemiologia , Endoftalmite/etiologia , Humanos , Injeções Intravítreas/efeitos adversos , Degeneração Macular/patologia , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ranibizumab/administração & dosagem , Ranibizumab/economia , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/economia , Retina/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Klin Monbl Augenheilkd ; 237(7): 894-902, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multifocal intraocular lenses (MIOLs) may bring independence from glasses. In practice the question often arises as to which patient would be suitable for the implantation of MIOLs. Surgeons are hesitant to implant MIOLs in patients with macular or retinal pathologies, mostly due to a fear that the multifocality of the implanted IOL might increase patients' existing visual handicap. In this study we use virtual implantation to determine how various multifocal intraocular lens designs impact visual performance in the presence of macular pathologies. PATIENTS, MATERIAL AND METHODS: 17 pseudophakic normal eyes (group 1) and 13 pseudophakic eyes with retinal maculopathologies (group 2) and lower visual acuity were included in this study. We analysed best-corrected distance visual acuity (BCDVA), near- and distance-corrected near visual acuity (DCNVA) and contrast sensitivity (CS) while the patients were looking through the VirtIOL optical simulator to virtually experience vision through implanted intraocular lenses (IOL). Three different IOL types: aspheric monofocal, EDOF (extended depth of focus) and diffractive trifocal were tested. Comparisons were made between the different IOL types and between groups 1 and 2. RESULTS: Group 2 had lower visual acuity and also lower CS than group 1. The benefit from the multifocal IOLs was seen as a significantly increased DCNVA over the monofocal IOL. This was demonstrated in both groups: increases of 0.29 logMAR and 0.39 logMAR in DCNVA with EDOF- and trifocal IOL in group 1, respectively, and increases of 0.17 logMAR and 0.25 logMAR in DCNVA in group 2, respectively. However, at lower spatial frequencies of 3 cpd, CS was reduced in both groups compared to monofocal IOL. CONCLUSIONS: For the visual functions tested here, MIOLs are a viable option for patients with maculoretinal pathologies or previous retinal surgery to support their wish for independence from glasses. Although their visual performance is limited, they can still benefit from MIOLs with improved reading performance without near addition.


Assuntos
Lentes Intraoculares , Degeneração Macular , Lentes Intraoculares Multifocais , Facoemulsificação , Sensibilidades de Contraste , Humanos , Desenho de Prótese , Acuidade Visual
20.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232593, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357183

RESUMO

We sought to evaluate the relationship between adult body height and risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) among healthy Koreans using nationwide population-based data. We analyzed data derived from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011. Participants over 40 years of age were included in the sample after excluding individuals with systemic comorbidities or missing relevant data. The presence and severity of AMD were graded using fundus photographs. The relationship between body height and risk of AMD was determined using multiple logistic regression analyses. Among a total of 8,435 participants, 544 (6.45%) had AMD: 502 (5.95%) with early AMD and 42 (0.5%) with late AMD. In multivariate-adjusted analyses, taller body height was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of AMD (odds ratio [OR], 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81-0.99), while body mass index (BMI) was not associated with AMD. An inverse association between body height and risk of AMD was observed most frequently in participants under 65 years of age (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.70-0.94). Furthermore, body height showed an inverse association with risk of AMD among obese participants (BMI ≥25.0 kg/m2) (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.60-0.93). Subgroup analysis by AMD type disclosed a significant inverse association between body height and early AMD (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.79-0.97) but not late AMD. Our results suggest that shorter body height is independently associated with increased risk of AMD, especially early AMD, in a dose-response manner in people who are obese or under 65 years of age.


Assuntos
Degeneração Macular/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estatura , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
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