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2.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (7): 68-75, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736466

RESUMO

The paper is a narrative review of the literature on the use of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) for the VTE treatment in challenging patients: senile age (≥75 years), impaired renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate ≤50 ml/min), fragility (one of the previous characteristics and/or bodyweight ≤50 kg). The paper discusses the studies of EINSTEIN DVT and PE (rivaroxaban), AMPLIFY (apixaban), HOKUSAI-VTE (edoxaban), RE-COVER I and II (dabigatran) in the focus of the secondary analysis in the pre-specified patient's subgroups, as well as their pooled analyzes and meta-analyzes. Based on the results of this review, it was concluded that in a subgroup of senile age patients, dabigatran increases the risk of major bleeding by 4.8 times and has no advantages over vitamin K antagonists (VKA); rivaroxaban and apixaban retain superiority over VKA on the safety outcomes and reduce the risk of major bleeding by 73% and 77%. In the subgroup of patients with impaired renal function, the use of apixaban and dabigatran is associated with an increase in the risk of major bleeding by 6.5 and 7.3 times, and these DOACs do not have advantages over VKA; rivaroxaban retains its superiority over VKA and reduces the risk of major bleeding by 78%. For fragile patients, a secondary analysis is available only for rivaroxaban, which remains superior to VKA on safety endpoints and reduces the risk of major bleeding by 73%. In the absence of direct comparisons between the available DOACs, the presented data can be used as a rational approach for the choice of appropriate treatment for VTE in challenging patients.


Assuntos
Dabigatrana/efeitos adversos , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Renal/complicações , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Antitrombinas , Dabigatrana/administração & dosagem , Idoso Fragilizado , Humanos , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Tromboembolia Venosa/complicações
4.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1642020 07 02.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779934

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) seems to be an underdiagnosed complication in COVID-19 patients. We present three male patients, aged 67, 29 and 71 years, who were admitted to the hospital with COVID-19. They all showed deterioration in the course of their disease caused by VTE. In our hospital, VTE was diagnosed in 10% of COVID-19 patients admitted to the general ward (non-ICU patients) despite regular thromboprophylaxis. Deterioration in the course of COVID-19 has differential diagnoses such as progression of the infection itself, secondary bacterial pneumonia, left heart failure and in our experience not infrequently VTE. We therefore recommend to consider VTE in COVID-19 patients with a sudden clinical deterioration such as hypotension, tachycardia, unexplained hypoxaemia or insufficient clinical improvement and to perform CT-angiography if indicated. A high dose of thromboprophylaxis in COVID-19 patients may be considered because of increased coagulation activation.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Dispneia/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Progressão da Doença , Dispneia/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia
5.
Adv Biol Regul ; 77: 100742, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773103

RESUMO

The rapid onset and worldwide spread of the COVID-19 epidemic (caused by SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus) has been associated with a profound impact in clinical practice also in the hematologic setting. First of all, given the immunosuppressive effect of many therapies that are normally administered to patients with hematological diseases, with a consequent increased risk of contracting a more severe viral infection, it has been necessary to reconsider in each individual patient the urgency and priority of the treatments foreseen by the normal standards of care. In particular, as regards allogeneic (and to a lesser extent autologous) hematopoietic cell transplantation and CAR T-cell therapy, specific recommendations have been issued by the transplant community on the criteria to be used to decide whether or not to postpone these procedures and on the clinical management of recipients and donors exposed to COVID-19. As to cytotoxic chemotherapy and other antineoplastic therapies, criteria have been proposed to decide, in the various clinical situations, which treatments were not deferrable and which instead could be postponed or replaced by less aggressive therapies. In the outpatient clinics, various organizational solutions for telemedicine have been adopted, resorting to telephone interviews and/or Information Technology, with the aim of reducing the influx of patients while maintaining an adequate control of their clinical condition. The collection of blood by the transfusion centers has been the subject of organizational measures, in order to avoid the transmission of COVID 19 while maintaining a sufficient blood collection for clinical needs. Finally, some hematologic laboratory alterations have been identified, such as thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia and coagulation abnormalities, useful for the prognostic evaluation of infected patients.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Doenças Hematológicas/terapia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Tromboembolia Venosa/terapia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Transfusão de Sangue/ética , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/ética , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Doenças Hematológicas/epidemiologia , Doenças Hematológicas/imunologia , Doenças Hematológicas/virologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/ética , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Telemedicina/métodos , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/imunologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/virologia
6.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e926623, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND COVID-19 was declared a pandemic in March 2020 in the United States. It has been associated with high mortality and morbidity all over the world. COVID-19 can cause a significant inflammatory response leading to coagulopathy and this hypercoagulable state has been associated with worse clinical outcomes in these patients. The published data regarding the presence of lupus anticoagulant in critically ill COVID-19-positive patients is limited and indicates varying conclusions so far. CASE REPORT Here, we present a case of a 31-year-old man who was admitted to the hospital with COVID-19 pneumonia, complicated with superadded bacterial empyema and required video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery with decortication. This patient also had prolonged prothrombin time on preoperative labs, which was not corrected with mixing study. Further workup detected positive lupus anticoagulant and anti-cardiolipin IgM along with alteration in other coagulation factor levels. The patient was treated with fresh frozen plasma and vitamin K before surgical intervention. He had an uneventful surgical course. He received prophylactic-dose low molecular weight heparin for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis and did not experience any thrombotic events while hospitalized. CONCLUSIONS COVID-19 infection creates a prothrombotic state in affected patients. The formation of micro-thrombotic emboli results in significantly increased mortality and morbidity. Routine anticoagulation with low molecular weight heparin can prevent thrombotic events and thus can improve patient outcomes. In patients with elevated prothrombin time, lupus anticoagulant/anti-cardiolipin antibody-positivity should be suspected, and anticoagulation prophylaxis should be continued perioperatively for better outcomes.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Empiema Pleural/virologia , Inibidor de Coagulação do Lúpus/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Adulto , Antifibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Cardiolipinas/imunologia , Tubos Torácicos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Empiema Pleural/diagnóstico por imagem , Empiema Pleural/terapia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Masculino , Pandemias , Tempo de Tromboplastina Parcial , Plasma , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Tempo de Protrombina , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Vitamina K/uso terapêutico
7.
Blood Adv ; 4(16): 4028, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841342

RESUMO

The high incidence of thromboembolic disease, and in particular venous thromboembolism (VTE), has emerged as an important consideration in hospitalized and critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The coagulopathy of COVID-19 is postulated to result from interactions of the inflammatory and immune systems with the coagulation system, manifesting as a cytokine storm associated with hyperinflammation and coagulation and platelet activation. Unique characteristics of VTE in hospitalized and critically ill patients with COVID-19 include the high incidence of VTE (and especially pulmonary embolism) when compared with historical controls; the finding of in situ pulmonary embolism associated with microthrombi, which suggests a thrombotic microangiopathic process in addition to classic macrovessel disease; and, most important from a clinical perspective, the unusually high rate of VTE that has been reported despite standard thromboprophylaxis. This raises the possibility that intermediate or weight-based heparin dosing may be more effective than fixed dosing for thromboprophylaxis in high-risk subsets of patients hospitalized with COVID-19. There have been several guidance statements focusing on the management of VTE in hospitalized and critically ill patients with COVID-19, including the most recent statement by the Scientific and Standardization Committee of the International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, which includes comprehensive guidance on the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of VTE in this patient population. Ongoing randomized trials that address key clinical questions, especially more intense thromboprophylactic strategies and novel antithrombotic approaches, have the potential to reduce the morbidity and mortality from VTE in hospitalized and critically ill patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Gerenciamento Clínico , Heparina/administração & dosagem , Hospitalização , Humanos , Pandemias , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle
11.
BMJ ; 370: m2177, 2020 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759284

RESUMO

Pulmonary embolism is a common and potentially fatal cardiovascular disorder that must be promptly diagnosed and treated. The diagnosis, risk assessment, and management of pulmonary embolism have evolved with a better understanding of efficient use of diagnostic and therapeutic options. The use of either clinical probability adjusted or age adjusted D-dimer interpretation has led to a reduction in diagnostic imaging to exclude pulmonary embolism. Direct oral anticoagulation therapies are safe, effective, and convenient treatments for most patients with acute venous thromboembolism, with a lower risk of bleeding than vitamin K antagonists. These oral therapeutic options have opened up opportunities for safe outpatient management of pulmonary embolism in selected patients. Recent clinical trials exploring the use of systemic thrombolysis in intermediate to high risk pulmonary embolism suggest that this therapy should be reserved for patients with evidence of hemodynamic compromise. The role of low dose systemic or catheter directed thrombolysis in other patient subgroups is uncertain. After a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, all patients should be assessed for risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism to guide duration of anticoagulation. Patients with a venous thromboembolism associated with a strong, transient, provoking risk factor can safely discontinue anticoagulation after three months of treatment. Patients with an ongoing strong risk factor, such as cancer, or unprovoked events are at increased risk of recurrent events and should be considered for extended treatment. The use of a risk prediction score can help to identify patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism who can benefit from extended duration therapy. Despite major advances in the management of pulmonary embolism, up to half of patients report chronic functional limitations. Such patients should be screened for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, but only a small proportion will have this as the explanation of their symptoms. In the remaining patients, future studies are needed to understand the pathophysiology and explore interventions to improve quality of life.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imagem de Perfusão , Gravidez , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Filtros de Veia Cava , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico
12.
Lancet Haematol ; 7(8): e583-e593, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism is associated with increased mortality risk in some populations, but how frequently it is a direct cause of death is unclear. We used data from venous thromboembolism prevention trials to evaluate the causal effect of venous thromboembolism reduction on mortality. METHODS: We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating venous thromboembolism prevention. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, and Web of Science starting from Jan 1, 1993, to March 19, 2018. We included studies of patients who were at elevated risk of venous thromboembolism and were randomly assigned to either anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy versus placebo or no treatment. We excluded studies with an active control agent (which might mitigate the lethality of venous thromboembolism) and those for which mortality data were unavailable. We modelled heterogeneity in a Bayesian framework, taking overall mortality as a primary endpoint, and pulmonary embolism, fatal pulmonary embolism, and major bleeding as secondary endpoints. We focused our analyses on studies reporting statistically significant effects of prevention on venous thromboembolism endpoints. We report treatment effects as median risk ratios (RRs), wherein a null effect equals 1, with 95% credible intervals (CrIs). This meta-analysis was registered with PROSPERO, CRD42018089697. FINDINGS: From 4229 studies screened, we identified 86 eligible RCTs; 52, with data from over 70 000 patients, were positive, with significantly increased venous thromboembolism risk in patients in control groups versus treatment groups (RR 2·74, 95% CrI 2·32-3·31, p<0·0001). The meta-analysis established that the causal effect of venous thromboembolism prevention on mortality was null (control group mortality was 3391 [9·8%] of 34 537 patients; treatment group mortality was 3498 [9·8%] of 35 795 patients [RR 1·01, 95% CrI 0·97-1·06; p=0·58]) with low heterogeneity (τ 0·02, 95% CrI 0·00-0·07, p=0·89). Patients in control groups had more pulmonary embolism (RR 2·22, 95% CrI 1·78-2·89, p<0·0001) and fatal pulmonary embolism (1·58, 1·14-2·19, p=0·01), but less major bleeding (0·60, 0·47-0·75, p<0·0001) than those in treatment groups. A meta-analysis with the additional 34 negative studies yielded similar results for all endpoints except fatal pulmonary embolism, where evidence of an effect was weaker (1·42, 1·05-1·91, p=0·02). INTERPRETATION: The perception that venous thromboembolism is a common cause of mortality should be revised considering the null effect of venous thromboembolism prevention on mortality. Our findings call into question the use of composite endpoints in venous thromboembolism-prevention trials and provide rationale for de-escalation trials. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Tromboembolia Venosa/mortalidade , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Tromboembolia Venosa/terapia
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e20954, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the risk factors for postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients undergoing spinal surgery. METHODS: Literature published in PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science was systematically reviewed to assess risk factors for VTE following spinal surgery. The data analysis was conducted with STATA 12.0. Data were pooled using fixed-effects or random-effects models according to the heterogeneity among the included studies. RESULTS: Twenty-six studies involving 3,216,187 patients were included in this meta-analysis, and the total incidence of VTE after spinal surgery was 0.35% (0.15-29.38%). The pooled analysis suggested that the incidence of VTE after spinal surgery was higher in such aspects as increasing age (weighted mean difference [WMD] 0.55 years, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.33-0.78, P < .001), female sex (odds ratio [OR] 1.12, 95% CI 1.01-1.25; P = .034), diabetes (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.29-1.44; P < .001), chronic kidney disease (OR = 8.31, 95% CI 1.98-34.93; P = .004), nonambulatory preoperative activity status (OR 3.67, 95% CI 2.75-4.83; P < .001), D-dimer level (WMD 1.023, 95% CI 0.162-1.884; P = .02), long duration of operation (WMD 0.73, 95% CI 0.21-1.24; P = .006), spine fusion (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.31-1.82; P < .001), and blood transfusion (OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.73-3.07; P < .001), and the differences were statistically significant. However, there were no significant differences in body mass index, obesity, hypertension, coronary heart disease, spondylolisthesis, intraoperative blood loss, surgical procedures (anterior lumbar interbody fusion vs posterior intervertebral fusion /translaminar lumbar interbody fusion), or surgical site (lumbar vs thoracic) (all P > .05). CONCLUSION: Based on our meta-analysis, we identified several important factors that increased the risk of VTE after spinal surgery. We hope our study provides assistance to spine surgeons so that they can adequately analyze and assess risk factors in patients and then develop preventive measures to reduce the incidence of VTE.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/efeitos adversos , Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Fatores Etários , Transfusão de Sangue , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Humanos , Limitação da Mobilidade , Duração da Cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
14.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 26: 1076029620936350, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649232
16.
S Afr Med J ; 110(3): 235-242, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) complicates a significant proportion of medical admissions. As well as increasing patient morbidity, pulmonary embolism is one of the commonest preventable causes of in-hospital death. An increase in the use of pharmacological preventive measures has been advocated in recent years. South African (SA) and international guidelines have been published in an effort to promote the safe use of VTE prophylaxis. OBJECTIVES: To describe adherence to both local and international recommendations for VTE prophylaxis in an SA hospital with regard to appropriateness of the decision to prescribe or withhold low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), and to observe the practice of dose adjustment in special population groups. METHODS: This was a prospective, observational study, and data were collected from consenting adults admitted to the medical wards. We assessed the patients' VTE risk, bleeding risk and the presence of contraindications at the time of LMWH prescription as well as the dose prescribed, specifically taking into consideration adjustment for renal dysfunction and obesity. RESULTS: Three hundred and fifty-two patients were enrolled, of whom 51.4% were male and 58.5% received LMWH. Primary outcomes. The appropriate overall decision according to both SA and international guidelines was made in 254 cases (72.2%). The inappropriate decision according to both guidelines was made in 79 cases (22.4%) and the appropriate decision according to one guideline only was made in 18 cases (5.1%), while 1 case (0.3%) was not categorised. Contraindications to VTE prophylaxis were present in 35 patients (9.9%), but 9 of these patients nevertheless received LMWH. An incorrect dose was prescribed in 36 cases (17.5%), the most common reason being an inappropriate reduction in the dose in mild renal dysfunction. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: Other medications that may have increased bleeding risk were prescribed in 46 patients who received LMWH (22.3%). Mechanical prophylaxis was indicated in 25 (7.1%) of the total sample; however, none received this. CONCLUSIONS: Overall adherence to published guidelines for VTE prophylaxis has improved compared with other published reviews on the topic, but documentation of patients' VTE risk in files is poor. Overuse in low-risk patients may be an unintended consequence of the widespread advocacy of LMWH use in hospital, highlighting the importance of adequate VTE risk stratification. Incorrect dosing in special population groups is an issue that needs to be addressed, as is non-utilisation of mechanical prophylaxis methods.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 21(8): 575-583, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686781

RESUMO

The new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is causing hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide, is complex and can present with a multi-organ localization. One of its worst complications is an interstitial pneumonia with acute respiratory failure also known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which requires non-invasive or invasive ventilation. A severe coagulopathy with poor prognosis is found in 5-10% of cases. SARS-CoV-2 is manifesting as a multi-dimensional disease and, recently, unique co-existing pathophysiological and clinical aspects are being defined: (i) an increased immune and inflammatory response with the activation of a cytokine storm and consequent coagulopathy, which promote both venous thromboembolic events and in situ thrombosis localized in small arterioles and pulmonary alveolar capillaries; (ii) a high intrapulmonary shunt, which often accounts for the severity of respiratory failure, due to reduced hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction with pulmonary neo-angiogenetic phenomena. Furthermore, the high incidence of venous thromboembolism in COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit and the autoptic findings of in situ micro-thrombosis at the pulmonary vascular level, suggest that in this disease coagulopathy, unlike septic disseminated intravascular coagulation, is driven towards a hyper-thrombogenic state, giving rise to a debate (with ongoing studies) about the preventive use of anticoagulant doses of heparin to reduce mortality. The aim of this position paper from the Italian Association of Hospital Cardiologists (ANMCO) is to highlight the main implications that COVID-19 infection has on the pulmonary circulation from a pathophysiological, clinical and management point of view.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/mortalidade , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Cardiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/etiologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Circulação Pulmonar/fisiologia , Medição de Risco , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/diagnóstico , Sociedades Médicas , Análise de Sobrevida , Tromboembolia Venosa/mortalidade , Tromboembolia Venosa/fisiopatologia
20.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(7_Supple_B): 71-77, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600195

RESUMO

AIMS: We studied the safety and efficacy of multimodal thromboprophylaxis in patients with a history of venous thromboembolism (VTE) who undergo total hip arthroplasty (THA) within the first 120 postoperative days, and the mortality during the first year. Multimodal prophylaxis includes discontinuation of procoagulant medications, VTE risk stratification, regional anaesthesia, an intravenous bolus of unfractionated heparin prior to femoral preparation, rapid mobilization, the use of pneumatic compression devices, and chemoprophylaxis tailored to the patient's risk of VTE. METHODS: Between 2004 to 2018, 257 patients with a proven history of VTE underwent 277 primary elective THA procedures by two surgeons at a single institution. The patients had a history of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) (186, 67%), pulmonary embolism (PE) (43, 15.5%), or both (48, 17.5%). Chemoprophylaxis included aspirin (38 patients), anticoagulation (215 patients), or a combination of aspirin and anticoagulation (24 patients). A total of 50 patients (18%) had a vena cava filter in situ at the time of surgery. Patients were followed for 120 days to record complications, and for one year to record mortality. RESULTS: Postoperative VTE was diagnosed in seven patients (2.5%): DVT in five, and PE with and without DVT in one patient each. After hospitalization, three patients required readmiss-ion for evacuation of a haematoma, one for wound drainage, and one for monitoring of an elevated international normalized ratio (INR). Seven patients died (2.5%). One patient died five months postoperatively of a PE during open thrombectomy. She had discontinued anticoagulation. One patient died of a haemorrhagic stroke while receiving Coumadin. PE or bleeding was not suspected in the remaining five fatalities. CONCLUSION: Multimodal prophylaxis is safe and effective in patients with a history of VTE. Postoperative anticoagulation should be prudent as very few patients developed VTE (2.5%) or died of suspected or confirmed PE. Mortality during the first year was mostly unrelated to either VTE or bleeding. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(7 Supple B):71-77.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anestesia por Condução , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Quimioprevenção , Deambulação Precoce , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Heparina/uso terapêutico , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Dispositivos de Compressão Pneumática Intermitente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
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