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1.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(2): 1843-1855, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759610

RESUMO

A systematic review was conducted to elucidate the role of teat-end hyperkeratosis (THK) as a risk factor for clinical mastitis (CM) or subclinical mastitis (SCM). Scientific papers on the subject were identified by means of a database search. All types of peer-reviewed analytical studies, observational or experimental and published in English, could be included in the review, regardless of publication year. Of 152 identified records, 18 articles were selected, of which 8 were prospective cohort studies, 9 were cross-sectional, and 1 was a hybrid case-control study. Internal validity of studies was assessed using a score system ranging from 0 to 6, based on design, risk of bias, and statistical methods. The most frequent study limitation was improper use of statistical methods to avoid confounding of associations between THK and CM or SCM. The 3 studies that used CM as outcome (all with high validity scores) showed positive associations with THK (especially severe), although the magnitude and statistical significance of the estimates differed among them. Most studies that used SCM as the primary outcome (based on microbiological examination of milk) reported that only severe THK was associated with SCM. Two studies with high validity scores reported moderate to strong associations between severe THK and incidence or prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infection. Two studies with high validity scores reported that only severe THK was associated with the risk of somatic cell count (SCC) ≥200,000 cells/mL and increased mean SCC, respectively. Although 4 cross-sectional studies reported positive associations between THK and SCC, these associations were possibly spurious because confounding factors, such as parity, were not considered in the analyses. Results of the reviewed studies suggest that severe THK is a risk factor for both CM and SCM, as defined by microbiological examination of milk, SCC thresholds, or mean SCC. The effect of severe THK on both contagious (especially Staphylococcus aureus) and environmental CM or SCM emphasizes the importance of teat health for mastitis control. Four studies demonstrated that quarters with mild THK had lower prevalence of intramammary infection or lower mean SCC than quarters with no THK, suggesting that development of mild THK, as a physiological response to milking, can have a protective effect. Dairy consultants should focus on monitoring and minimizing occurrence of severe THK to prevent CM and SCM.


Assuntos
Ceratose/veterinária , Mastite Bovina/epidemiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Calosidades/epidemiologia , Calosidades/veterinária , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bovinos , Contagem de Células/veterinária , Estudos Transversais , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Ceratose/epidemiologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/microbiologia , Mastite Bovina/microbiologia , Gravidez , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia
2.
Nature ; 571(7764): 261-264, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243365

RESUMO

Until relatively recently, humans, similar to other animals, were habitually barefoot. Therefore, the soles of our feet were the only direct contact between the body and the ground when walking. There is indirect evidence that footwear such as sandals and moccasins were first invented within the past 40 thousand years1, the oldest recovered footwear dates to eight thousand years ago2 and inexpensive shoes with cushioned heels were not developed until the Industrial Revolution3. Because calluses-thickened and hardened areas of the epidermal layer of the skin-are the evolutionary solution to protecting the foot, we wondered whether they differ from shoes in maintaining tactile sensitivity during walking, especially at initial foot contact, to improve safety on surfaces that can be slippery, abrasive or otherwise injurious or uncomfortable. Here we show that, as expected, people from Kenya and the United States who frequently walk barefoot have thicker and harder calluses than those who typically use footwear. However, in contrast to shoes, callus thickness does not trade-off protection, measured as hardness and stiffness, for the ability to perceive tactile stimuli at frequencies experienced during walking. Additionally, unlike cushioned footwear, callus thickness does not affect how hard the feet strike the ground during walking, as indicated by impact forces. Along with providing protection and comfort at the cost of tactile sensitivity, cushioned footwear also lowers rates of loading at impact but increases force impulses, with unknown effects on the skeleton that merit future study.


Assuntos
Calosidades/fisiopatologia , Pé/patologia , Pé/fisiologia , Dor/fisiopatologia , Tato/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Adulto , Boston , Calosidades/patologia , Feminino , Fricção/fisiologia , Dureza/fisiologia , Humanos , Quênia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estimulação Física , Pressão , Sapatos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Foot Ankle Res ; 12: 13, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30815036

RESUMO

Background: Descriptions of the techniques for condylectomies via minimally invasive surgery (MIS) to treat interdigital helomas of the lesser toes are scarce in the literature. This study aimed to define and describe this surgical technique. Methods: This observational study was performed using the Delphi method. We collected the anonymous opinions of a multidisciplinary international panel of ten experts by answering a 43-items questionnaire via e-mail. Statements with an average score ≥ 3 were included in the next round, as were those in which none of the three statements reached the minimum score of 3 within the same item. Results: Response rate: 90%. Three rounds were needed to reach consensus on proposed items. A new statement that combined two statements was proposed in round 3. Eleven recommendations regarding the incision and instruments used to perform this surgical technique were obtained based on the expert consensus. Conclusions: A longitudinal incision to the distal pulp of the toe or an incision to the centre of the plantar aspect of the head of the proximal phalanx should be performed according to the affectation, and a Beaver 64 scalpel blade, a blunt elevator and a Shannon-Isham burr are the most acceptable tools for this kind of surgery.


Assuntos
Calosidades/cirurgia , Osteotomia/métodos , Dedos do Pé/cirurgia , Anestesia Local/métodos , Técnica Delfos , Humanos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/métodos
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 18(10)2018 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30274209

RESUMO

Excessive pressure and shear stress while walking cause a risk of callus formation, which eventually causes foot ulcers in patients with diabetes mellitus. Callus under the second metatarsal head (MTH) has been associated with increased shear stress/pressure ratios (SPR). Callus under the fifth MTH has been associated with increased peak shear stress (PSS). The purpose of this study is to examine whether the effect of the suitable size and width of shoes prevents diabetic foot ulcers under the second and fifth MTH. We measured the pressure and shear stress by testing three kinds of sizes and two types of width of shoes. Significant difference was not observed in the SPR under the second MTH among different sizes of shoes. However, the pressure and shear stress were significantly lower when putting on shoes of fit size compared with larger sizes. The PSS under the fifth MTH was significantly smaller when putting on shoes of fit width compared with those of narrow width. Wearing shoes of fit size and width has the potential to prevent callus formation by reducing the pressure and shear stress constituting SPR under the second MTH and PSS under the fifth MTH.


Assuntos
Calosidades/prevenção & controle , Pé/anatomia & histologia , Ossos do Metatarso/anatomia & histologia , Sapatos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Pé Diabético/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Pressão , Caminhada
6.
Acta Vet Scand ; 60(1): 2, 2018 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29325588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Having a poor teat-end condition is associated with increased mastitis risk, hence avoiding milking machine settings that have a negative effect on teat-end condition is important for successful dairy production. Milking-time testing (MTT) can be used in the evaluation of vacuum conditions during milking, but the method is less suited for herds using automatic milking systems (AMS) and relationships with teat end condition is poorly described. This study aimed to increase knowledge on interpretation of MTT in AMS and to assess whether milk-flow data obtained routinely by an AMS can be useful for the management of teat-end health. A cross-sectional study, including 251 teats of 79 Norwegian Red cows milked by AMS was performed in the research herd of the Norwegian University of Life Sciences. The following MTT variables were obtained at teat level: Average vacuum level in the short milk tube during main milking (MTVAC), average vacuum in the mouthpiece chamber during main milking and overmilking, teat compression intensity (COMPR) and overmilking time. Average and peak milk flow rates were obtained at quarter level from the AMS software. Teat-end callosity thickness and roughness was registered, and teat dimensions; length, and width at apex and base, were measured. Interrelationships among variables obtained by MTT, quarter milk flow variables, and teat dimensions were described. Associations between these variables and teat-end callosity thickness and roughness, were investigated. RESULTS: Principal component analysis showed clusters of strongly related variables. There was a strong negative relationship between MTVAC and average milk flow rate. The variables MTVAC, COMPR and average and peak milk flow rate were associated with both thickness and roughness of the callosity ring. CONCLUSIONS: Quarter milk flow rate obtained directly from the AMS software was useful in assessing associations between milking machine function and teat-end condition; low average milk flow rates were associated with a higher likelihood of the teat having a thickened or roughened teat-end callosity ring. Since information on milk flow rate is readily available from the herd management system, this information might be used when evaluating causes for impaired teat-end condition in AMS.


Assuntos
Calosidades/prevenção & controle , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Lactação/fisiologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/patologia , Animais , Calosidades/etiologia , Calosidades/patologia , Bovinos , Estudos Transversais , Indústria de Laticínios/instrumentação , Feminino , Análise de Componente Principal , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Ann Plast Surg ; 80(2S Suppl 1): S55-S58, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29369100

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Plantar hyperkeratosis, such as corns and calluses, is common in older people and associated with pain, mobility impairment, and functional limitations. It usually develops on the palms, knees, or soles of feet, especially under the heels or balls. There are several treatment methods for plantar hyperkeratosis, such as salicylic acid plaster and scalpel debridement, and conservative modalities, such as using a shoe insert and properly fitting shoes. METHODS: We present an effective method of reconstructing the wound after corn excision using a split-thickness sole skin graft (STSSG). We harvested the skin graft from the arch of the sole using the dermatome with a skin thickness of 14/1000th inches. RESULTS: Because the split-thickness skin graft, harvested from the sole arch near the distal sole, is much thicker than the split-thickness skin graft from the thigh, it is more resistant to weight and friction. The healed wound with STSSG coverage over the distal sole was intact, and the donor site over the sole arch had healed without complication during the outpatient follow-up, 3 months after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: The recovery time of STSSG for corn excision is shorter than that with traditional treatment. Therefore, STSSG can be a reliable alternative treatment for recurrent palmoplantar hyperkeratosis.


Assuntos
Calosidades/cirurgia , Doenças do Pé/cirurgia , Placa Plantar/cirurgia , Transplante de Pele/métodos , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Idoso , Calosidades/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Desbridamento/métodos , Feminino , Doenças do Pé/diagnóstico , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Placa Plantar/fisiopatologia , Prognóstico , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Coleta de Tecidos e Órgãos/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
J Am Podiatr Med Assoc ; 108(6): 466-471, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:: An essential skill for podiatrists is conservative sharp debridement of foot callus. Poor technique can result in lacerations, infections and possible amputation. This pilot trial explored whether adding simulation training to a traditional podiatry clinical placement improved podiatry student skills and confidence in conservative sharp debridement, compared with traditional clinical placement alone. METHODS:: Twenty-nine podiatry students were allocated randomly to either a control group or an intervention group on day 1 of their clinical placement. On day 4, the intervention group (n = 15) received a 2-hour simulation workshop using a medical foot-care model, and the control group (n = 14) received a 2-hour workshop on compression therapy. Both groups continued to learn debridement skills as opportunities arose while on clinical placement. The participants' debridement skills were rated by an assessor blinded to group allocation on day 1 and day 8 of their clinical placement. Participants also rated their confidence in conservative sharp debridement using a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using logistic regression (skills) and analysis of covariance (confidence), with baseline scores as a covariate. RESULTS:: At day 8, analysis showed that those in the intervention group were 16 times more likely to be assessed as competent (95% confidence interval, 1.6-167.4) in their debridement skills and reported increased confidence in their skills (mean difference, 3.2 units; 95% confidence interval, 0.5-5.9) compared with those in the control group. CONCLUSIONS:: This preliminary evidence suggests that incorporating simulation into traditional podiatry clinical placements may improve student skills and confidence with conservative sharp debridement.


Assuntos
Calosidades/terapia , Competência Clínica , Desbridamento/educação , Doenças do Pé/terapia , Podiatria/educação , Treinamento por Simulação , Intervalos de Confiança , Desbridamento/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Estudantes de Medicina , Adulto Jovem
9.
Orthopedics ; 41(1): 54-58, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29257188

RESUMO

Evaluation of callus maturation and the decision to remove an external fixator depend on radiographic and clinical findings, which are subjective. Callus fracture or recurrent deformity may occur after premature removal of a fixator. The authors applied a technique to measure bioelectrical impedance to assess callus maturation. This study included 27 limbs that underwent deformity correction or callus distraction using a fixator. Mean patient age at the time of surgery was 17.2 years. Overall impedance during callus maturation was measured from after completion of correction or distraction to removal of the fixator. Temporal changes in impedance values were measured, and maximum and final values were compared with initial values. The resistance rates were compared by age (<15 or ≥15 years), correction site (femur or tibia), and treatment method (noncontact or contact). Mean overall impedance increased gradually. Compared with initial values, maximum and final impedance values were 1.21 times and 1.15 times higher, respectively. Resistance rates by age, correction site, and treatment method were significantly higher in patients 15 years and older, in the tibia, and in the contact group, respectively. Overall impedance tended to increase during callus maturation but varied among patients. Therefore, resistance rates were calculated to classify differences for individual patients. Age and treatment method were important predictors of resistance rates. These data by age, correction site, and treatment method, which assume overall impedance from after completion of correction or distraction, can serve as a useful index to determine when a fixator should be removed. [Orthopedics. 2018; 41(1):54-58.].


Assuntos
Calo Ósseo/fisiologia , Fixadores Externos , Fêmur/cirurgia , Fixação de Fratura , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Tíbia/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Calosidades , Criança , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteogênese por Distração , Adulto Jovem
10.
Dis Mon ; 64(3): 64-91, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28826743

RESUMO

Ageing process is associated with changes to the aspect, biomechanics, structure and function of the foot, it may be related with a marked presence of foot conditions, pain, disability and other overall health problems that constitute a major public health concern. Also, the prevalence of epidemiologic research found an incidence of foot problems which is even higher as a consequence of increasing life expectation. Several studies have also suggested that such foot disorders currently affect between 71 and 87% of older patients and are a frequent cause of medical and foot care. Thus, these kind problems are extremely common conditions in the general population, especially in the elderly who are associated with poor quality of life, balance impairment, increase the risk of falls, dificulty on putting shoes, fractures, restrict mobility and performance of activities of daily living that turn can produce serious physical, mental and social consequences in the older people. The role of the physician in the assessment, evaluation, and examination of foot problems is very important, yet it is often an overlooked and undervalued component of geriatric health care. The purpose of this article is to review and to provide an overview of the most common foot deformities precipitating factors, clinical presentation, evidence-based diagnostic evaluation, and treatment recommendations with a view to preventing medical conditions or deformities affecting the feet that may alter foot condition and general health amongst the elderly.


Assuntos
Doenças do Pé/fisiopatologia , Dor/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Calosidades/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Deformidades Adquiridas do Pé/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Pé/complicações , Doenças do Pé/psicologia , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Masculino , Osteoartrite/fisiopatologia , Dor/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
11.
J Foot Ankle Res ; 10: 45, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29046725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The management of plantar corns and callus has a low cost-benefit with reduced prioritisation in healthcare. The distinction between types of keratin lesions that forms corns and callus has attracted limited interest. Observation is imperative to improving diagnostic predictions and a number of studies point to some confusion as to how best to achieve this. The use of photographic observation has been proposed to improve our understanding of intractable keratin lesions. METHODS: Students from a podiatry school reviewed photographs where plantar keratin lesions were divided into four nominal groups; light callus (Grade 1), heavy defined callus (Grade 2), concentric keratin plugs (Grade 3) and callus with deeper density changes under the forefoot (Grade 4). A group of 'experts' assigned from qualified podiatrists validated the observer rated responses by the students. RESULTS: Cohen's weighted statistic (k) was used to measure inter-observer reliability. First year students (unskilled) performed less well when viewing photographs (k = 0.33) compared to third year students (semi-skilled, k = 0.62). The experts performed better than students (k = 0.88) providing consistency with wound care models in other studies. CONCLUSIONS: Improved clinical annotation of clinical features, supported by classification of keratin- based lesions, combined with patient outcome tools, could improve the scientific rationale to prioritise patient care. Problems associated with photographic assessment involves trying to differentiate similar lesions without the benefit of direct palpation. Direct observation of callus with and without debridement requires further investigation alongside the model proposed in this paper.


Assuntos
Calosidades/diagnóstico , Podiatria/normas , Calosidades/classificação , Humanos , Variações Dependentes do Observador
12.
Br J Nurs ; 26(8): 468-470, 2017 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28453323
13.
Braz J Microbiol ; 48(3): 410-418, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28223029

RESUMO

Chaetoglobosin A is an antibacterial compound produced by Chaetomium globosum, with potential application as a biopesticide and cancer treatment drug. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing cornstalks to produce chaetoglobosin A by C. globosum W7 in solid-batch fermentation and to determine an optimal method for purification of the products. The output of chaetoglobosin A from the cornstalks was 0.34mg/g, and its content in the crude extract was 4.80%. Purification conditions were optimized to increase the content of chaetoglobosin A in the crude extract, including the extract solvent, temperature, and pH value. The optimum process conditions were found to be acetone as the extractant, under room temperature, and at a pH value of 13. Under these conditions, a production process of the antifungal chaetoglobosin A was established, and the content reached 19.17%. Through further verification, cornstalks could replace crops for the production of chaetoglobosin A using this new production process. Moreover, the purified products showed great inhibition against Rhizoctonia solani, with chaetoglobosin A confirmed as the main effective constituent (IC50=3.88µg/mL). Collectively, these results demonstrate the feasibility of using cornstalks to synthesize chaetoglobosin A and that the production process established in this study was effective.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Calosidades/microbiologia , Chaetomium/metabolismo , Alcaloides Indólicos/metabolismo , Microbiologia Industrial/métodos , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Calosidades/metabolismo , Alcaloides Indólicos/química , Alcaloides Indólicos/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia Industrial/instrumentação , Estrutura Molecular , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/microbiologia , Resíduos/análise
14.
J Dermatol ; 44(6): 706-709, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28012190

RESUMO

This study compares scalpel debridement versus salicylic acid patches in the treatment of plantar callosities. A randomized clinical trial (ACTRN12614000591651) was performed with 62 patients, divided into two intervention groups. Group A received treatment with salicylic acid patches (Callívoro Marthand® ) and group B underwent scalpel debridement of plantar callosities. Pain was measured on a visual analog scale, and foot pain and disability were evaluated using the Manchester Foot Pain Disability Index (MFPDI) questionnaire (Spanish version). Significant differences were observed in pain measured immediately after treatment (P < 0.001) and at 15 days and 6 weeks after treatment. For some components, the MFPDI questionnaire revealed significantly better outcomes by scalpel debridement at 15 days after treatment. The scalpel debridement of plantar callosities relieves pain more effectively than salicylic acid patches, and patients achieve greater functionality in the initial weeks after debridement.


Assuntos
Calosidades/tratamento farmacológico , Calosidades/cirurgia , Desbridamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Ceratolíticos/administração & dosagem , Ácido Salicílico/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Foot Ankle Surg ; 22(4): 239-243, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27810021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-heeled shoes have been suggested as a main explanation for the female dominance in foot pain and deformities. Aim of study was to test this hypothesis scientifically. METHODS: Women 40-66 years were included in two groups. 95 women who had worn high-heeled shoes at work for at least 5 years were compared to 102 women who had never worn high-heeled shoes at work. The investigations were weight bearing radiographs of foot and ankle, the SEFAS questionnaire and the AOFAS Clinical Rating System. Evaluators were blinded to the group-affiliation. RESULTS: Radiographs showed no statistically significant differences between the two groups concerning deformities or joint disease. Foot function measured by SEFAS and AOFAS total score, were similar in the two groups. The high-heeled group had more pain and more callosities. CONCLUSION: For women aged 40-66 years wearing of high-heeled shoes had not caused foot deformation, but more foot pain and callosities.


Assuntos
Deformidades Adquiridas do Pé/epidemiologia , Deformidades Adquiridas do Pé/etiologia , Dor/etiologia , Sapatos/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Calosidades/etiologia , Calosidades/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Pé/fisiopatologia , Deformidades Adquiridas do Pé/fisiopatologia , Hallux Valgus/etiologia , Hallux Valgus/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Valores de Referência , Medição de Risco , Suporte de Carga
17.
PLoS One ; 11(11): e0167426, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27893856

RESUMO

Brachypodium distachyon L. Beauv. (Brachypodium) is a species that has become an excellent model system for gaining a better understanding of various areas of grass biology and improving plant breeding. Although there are some studies of an in vitro Brachypodium culture including somatic embryogenesis, detailed knowledge of the composition of the main cell wall components in the embryogenic callus in this species is missing. Therefore, using the immunocytochemical approach, we targeted 17 different antigens of which five were against the arabinogalactan proteins (AGP), three were against extensins, six recognised pectic epitopes and two recognised hemicelluloses. These studies were complemented by histological and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. We revealed that the characteristic cell wall components of Brachypodium embryogenic calli are AGP epitopes that are recognised by the JIM16 and LM2 antibodies, an extensin epitope that is recognised by the JIM11 antibody and a pectic epitopes that is recognised by the LM6 antibody. Furthermore, we demonstrated that AGPs and pectins are the components of the extracellular matrix network in Brachypodium embryogenic culture. Additionally, SEM analysis demonstrated the presence of an extracellular matrix on the surface of the calli cells. In conclusion, the chemical compositions of the cell walls and ECMSN of Brachypodium callus show spatial differences that correlate with the embryogenic character of the cells. Thus, the distribution of pectins, AGPs and hemicelluloses can be used as molecular markers of embryogenic cells. The presented data extends the knowledge about the chemical composition of the embryogenic callus cells of Brachypodium.


Assuntos
Brachypodium/metabolismo , Calosidades/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Mucoproteínas/metabolismo , Técnicas de Embriogênese Somática de Plantas , Brachypodium/embriologia , Brachypodium/ultraestrutura , Parede Celular/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Pectinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
19.
Genet Mol Res ; 15(2)2016 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27323058

RESUMO

Popcorn is widely consumed in Brazil, yet there are few breeding programs for this crop. Recurrent selection (RS) is a viable breeding alternative for popcorn; however, the gains achieved must be frequently checked. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of selection for grain type (round and pointed) after four cycles of phenotypic RS on the main agronomic traits of popcorn, to estimate the genetic gain achieved for the trait of expansion volume (EV), and to obtain estimates of phenotypic correlations for the main traits of the crop in the UFLA E and UFLA R populations. The zero, one, two, and three cycles of the UFLA E and UFLA R populations, the fourth cycle, and the controls IAC-112 and IAC-125 were used. The experiments were conducted at the experimental farm of Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA; Environment 1) and at the experimental area of the Genetics and Plant Breeding Sector of the Department of Biology at UFLA (Environment 2) in the 2010/11 crop season. Nine agronomic traits were evaluated, including EV and grain yield (GY). The UFLA R and UFLA E populations showed similar behavior for all evaluated traits. The type of grain did not affect the genetic gain for EV, which was 5 and 3.7% in each cycle carried out in the UFLA E and UFLA R population, respectively. Phenotypic selection carried out during recombination for EV is an effective method for increasing expression of the trait. EV and GY did not show a linear association.


Assuntos
Calosidades/genética , Grão Comestível/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Seleção Genética , Brasil , Cruzamento , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Meio Ambiente , Fenótipo
20.
J Diabetes Sci Technol ; 10(6): 1353-1359, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27162193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to identify whether plantar shear stress in neuropathic patients with diabetes with callus is increased compared with those without callus. METHOD: The differences in foot deformity, limited joint mobility, repetitive stress of walking, and ill-fitting shoes between patients with callus and those without callus were also determined. Subjects were recruited from the Diabetic Foot Outpatient Clinic. A newly developed in-shoe measurement system, which has flexible and thin insoles, enabled measurement of both plantar pressure and shear stress simultaneously when subjects walked as usual on a 10 m walkway. RESULTS: It was found that plantar shear stress adjusted for weight during the push-off phase was increased by 1.32 times in patients with callus compared with those without callus (mean ± SD: 0.0500 ± 0.0160 vs 0.0380 ± 0.0144, P = .031). Moreover, hallux valgus deformity, reduction in dorsiflexion of the ankle joint and increase in plantar flexion were showed in feet with callus. Increased plantar shear stress may be caused by gait change that patients having callus push off with the metatarsal head instead of the toe as a result of foot deformity and limited joint mobility. CONCLUSIONS: It was found that plantar shear stress adjusted for weight during the push-off phase was increased in patients with callus compared with those without callus by using the newly developed measurement system. These results suggest that reduction of plantar shear stress during the push-off phase can prevent callus formation in neuropathic patients with diabetes.


Assuntos
Calosidades/etiologia , Pé Diabético/complicações , Pé/patologia , Pé/fisiopatologia , Marcha , Idoso , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Estudos Transversais , Pé Diabético/patologia , Pé Diabético/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Mecânico
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